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sweet tale of the son!if thou didft, then behold that compound.
2 Didst thou never see Titan kiss a dish of butter? pitiful-hearted Titan! that melted at the sweet tale of the son!] The usual reading has hitherto been the sweet tale of the fun. The present change will be accounted for in the course of the following annotations. Steevens.
All that wants restoring is a parenthesis, into which (pitifulbearted Titan!) should be put. Pitiful-hearted means only amorous, which was Titan's character: the pronoun that refers to butter. The heat of the sun is figuratively represented as a love-tale, the poet having before called him pitiful-hearted, or amorous.
WARBURTON. The same thought, as Dr. Farmer observed to me, is found among Turberville's Epitaphs, p. 142:
“ It melts as butter doth against the funne." The reader, who inclines to Dr. Warburton's opinion, will please to furnish himself with some proof that pitiful-bearted was ever used to signify amorous, before he pronounces this learned critick's emendation to be just. In the oldest copy, the contested part of the passage appears thus:
- at the sweet tale of the sonnes. Our author might have written-pitiful-hearted Titan, who melted at the fweet tale of his son, i. e. of Phaëton, who, by a plausible story, won on the easy nature of his father so far, as to obtain from him the guidance of his own chariot for a day.
As gross a mythological corruption, as the foregoing occurs in Locrine, 1595 :
“ The arm-strong offspring of the doubted knight,
“ Stout Hercules” &c. Thus all the copies, ancient and modern. But I should not hesirate to read doubled night, i. e. the night lengthened to twice its ofual proportion, while Jupiter poffefled himself of Alcmena; a circumstance with which every school-boy is acquainted.
STEEVENS. I have followed the reading of the original copy in 1598, rejecting only the double genitive, for it reads of the son's. Sun, which is the reading of the folio, derives no authority from its being found in that copy; for the change was made arbitrarily in the quarto 1604, and adopted of course in that of 1608 and 1613, from the latter of which the folio was printed; in consequence of which the accumulated errors of the five preceding editions were incorporated in the folio copy of this play.
Fal. You rogue, here's lime in this fack too:
Mr. Theobald reads--pitiful-hearted butter, that melted at the Sweet tale of the sun;—which is not so absurd asapitiful-hearted Titan, that melted at the sweet tale of the sun,—but yet very exceptionable ; for what is the meaning of butter melting at a tale? or what idea does the tale of the fun here convey? Dr. Warburton, who, with Mr. Theobald, reads-lun, has extracted fome sense from the passage by placing the words“ pitiful-hearted Titan" in a parenthesis, and referring the word that to butter; but then, besides that his interpretation pitiful-hearted, which he says means amorous, is unauthorized and inadmissible, the same objection will lie to the sentence when thus regulated, that has already been made to the reading introduced by Mr. Theobald.
The Prince undoubtedly, as Mr. Theobald observes, by the words “ Didst thou never see Titan kiss a dish of butter?" alludes to Falstaff's entering in a great heat, “ his fat dripping with the violence of his motion, as butter does with the heat of the sun." Our author here, as in many other places, having started an idea, leaves it, and goes to another that has but a very slight connection with the former. Thus the idea of butter melted by Titan, or the Sun, suggests to him the idea of Titan's being melted or softened by the tale of his son, Phaëton: a tale, which undoubtedly Shakspeare had read in the third book of Golding's Translation of Ovid, having, in his description of Winter, in The Midsummer Night's Dream, imitated a passage that is found in the fame page in which the hiitory of Phaëton is related. I should add that the explanation now given was suggested by the foregoing note. I would, however, wish to read thy fon. In the old copies, the, thee, and thy are frequently confounded.
I am now [This conclusion of Mr. Malone's note is taken from his Appendix.) persuaded that the original reading for's, however ungrammatical, is right; for such was the phraseology of our poet's age. So again in this play:
“ This absence of your father's draws a curtain." not-of your father.
So, in The Winter's Tale: “ the letters of Hermione's" Again, in K. John:
“ With them a bastard of the king's deceasid." Again, in Antony and Cleopatra:
Nay, but this dotage of our general's" Again, in Cymbeline :
or could this carl, “ A very drudge of nature's," How little attention the reading of the folio, ("' — of the Jun's)” is entitled to, may appear from hence. In the quarto copy
There is nothing but roguery to be found in villainous man:Yet a coward is worse than a cup
of 1613 we find" Why then 'tis like, if there comes a hot fun,”-instead of a hot June. There, as in the instance before us, the error is implicitly copied in the folio.-In that copy also, in Timon of Athens, Aa IV. sc. ult. we find “ — 'twixt natural funne and fire," instead of “ 'twixt natural forn and fire.” MALONE.
Till the deviation from established grammar, which Mr. Malone has styled “ the phraseology of our poet's age,” be supported by other examples than such as are drawn from the most incorrect and vitiated of all publications, I must continue to exclude the double genitive, as one of the numerous vulgarisms by which the early printers of Shakspeare have disgraced his compositions.
It must frequently happen, that while we suppose ourselves struggling with the defects and obscurities of our author, we are in reality bufied by omiffions, interpolations, and corruptions chargeable only on the ignorance and carelessness of his original transcribers and editors. Steevens.
3 - here's lime in this fack too: There is nothing but roguery to be found in villainous man:] Sir Richard Hawkins, one of Queen Elizabeth's fea-captains, in his Voyages, P. 379, says: " Since the Spanish sacks have been common in our taverns, which for confervation are mingled with lime in the making, our nation complains of calentures, of the stone, the dropsy, and infinite other distempers, not heard of before this wine came into frequent use. Besides, there is no year that it wasteth not two millions of crowns of our substance, by conveyance into foreign countries." I think Lord Clarendon, in his Apology, tells us, “ That sweet wines before the Restoration were so much to the English taste, that we engrossed the whole product of the Canaries ; and that not a pipe of it was expended in any other country in Europe." But the banished cavaliers brought home with them the goust for French wines, which has continued ever since. WARBURTON.
Dr. Warburton does not consider that fack, in Shakspeare, is most probably thought to mean what we now call fberry, which, when it is drank, is still drank with sugar. JOHNSON.
Rhenish is drank with sugar, but never fberry.
The difference between the true fack and berry, is diftinctly marked by the following passage in Fortune by Land and Sea, by Heywood and Rowley, 1655:
“ Rayns. Some fack boy &c.
of fack with lime in it; a villainous coward.-Go thy ways, old Jack; die when thou wilt, if manhood, good manhood, be not forgot upon the face of the earth, then am I a shotten herring. There live not three good men unhang'd in England; and one of them is fat, and grows old: God help the while! a bad world, I say! I would I were a weaver; I could
I could fing psalms or any thing:* A plague of all cowards, i say stills
Eliot, in his Orthoepia, 1593, speaking of fack and rhenih, says: “ The vintners of London put in lime, and thence proceed infinite maladies, specially the gouttes." FARMER.
From the following passage in Greene's Ghoft haunting Coniecatchers, 1604, it seems as though lime was mixed with the fack for the purpose of giving strength to the liquor: “a christian exhortation to Mother Bunch would not have done amiffe, that she should not mixe lime with her ale to make it mightie.” Reed.
Sack, the favourite beverage of Sir John Falstaff, was, according to the information of a very old gentleman, a liquor compounded of fberry, cyder, and sugar. Sometimes it should seem to have been brewed with eggs, i. e. mulled. And that the vintners played tricks with it, appears from Falstaff's charge in the text. It does not seem to be at present known; the sweet wine so called, being apparently of a quite different nature. Ritson.
That the sweet wine at present called fack, is different from Falstaff's favourite liquor, I am by no means convinced. On the contrary, from the fondness of the English nation for sugar at this period, I am rather inclined to Dr. Warburton's opinion on this subject. If the English drank only rough wine with sugar, there appears nothing extraordinary, or worthy of particular notice; and that their partiality for sugar was very great, will appear from the parlage in Hentzner already quoted, p. 381, as well as the passage from Moryfon’s Itinerary, which being adopted by Mr. Malone in his note, ibid. need not to be here repeated. The addition of Jugar even to fack, might, perhaps, to a taste habituated to sweets, operate only in a manner to improve the flavour of the wine.
REED. I would I were a weaver; I could fing psalms &c.] In the first edition (the quarto 1598,] the passage is read thus: I could fing psalms or any thing. In the firft folio thus: I could fing
P. Hen. How now, wool-fack? what mutter you?
FAL, A king's son! If I do not beat thee out of thy kingdom with a dagger of lath,' and drive all
all manner of fongs. Many expressions bordering on indecency or profaneness are found in the first editions, which are afterwards corrected. The reading of the three last editions, I could fing, psalms and all manner of fongs, is made without authority out of different copies. Johnson.
The editors of the folio, 1623, to avoid the penalty of the statute, 3 Jac. I. c. xxi. changed the text here, as they did in many other places from the same motive. MALONE.
In the persecutions of the Protestants in Flanders under Philip II. those who came over into England on that occasion, brought with them the woollen manufactory. These were Calvinists, who were always diftinguished for their love of psalmody.
WARBURTON. I believe nothing more is here meant than to allude to the practice of weavers, who, having their hands more employed than their minds, amuse themselves frequently with songs at the loom. The knight, being full of vexation, wishes he could fing to divert his thoughts.
Weavers are mentioned as lovers of musick in The Merchant of Venice. (Twelfth Night, Vol. IV. p. 56, n. 3.) Perhaps " to sing like a weaver” might be proverbial. JOHNSON.
Dr. Warburton's observation may be confirmed by the following passage: Ben Jonson, in The Silent Woman, makes Cutberd tell Morose, that “ the parson caught his cold by fitting up late, and singing catches with cloth-workers.” Steevens.
So, in The Winter's Tale: “ - but one puritan among them, and he fings psalms to hornpipes.” Malone.
The Protestants who Aed from the persecution of the Duke d'Alva were mostly weavers and woollen manufacturers: they settled in Glocestershire, Somersetshire, and other counties, and (as Dr. Warburton observes,) being Calvinifts, were diftinguished for their love of psalmody. For many years the inhabitants of these counties have excelled the rest of the kingdom in the skill of vocal har. mony. SIR J. HAWKINS.
$-a dagger of lath,] i. e. fuch a dagger as the Vice in the old moralities was arm'd with. So, in Twelfth Night: