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To scarlet indignation, and bedew
Her pastures' grass with faithful English blood.
North. The King of heaven forbid, our lord the

king
Should so with civil and uncivil arms
Be rush'd upon! Thy thrice-noble cousin,
Harry Bolingbroke, doth humbly kiss thy hand,
And by the honourable tomb he swears,
That stands upon thy royal grandfire's bones ;
And by the royalties of both your bloods,
Currents that spring from one most gracious head;
And by the buried hand of warlike Gaunt;}

be Naughtered in this quarrel, or have bloody crowns. The flower of England's face, to design her choicest youth, is a fine and noble expreffion. Pericles, by a fimilar thought, faid “ that the destruction of the Athenian youth was a fatality like cutting off the spring from the year.” WARBURTON.

Dr. Warburton reads-light in peace, but live in peace is more fuitable to Richard's intention, which is to tell him, that though he should get the crown by rebellion, it will be long before it will live in peace, be so settled as to be firm. The flower of England's face, is very happily explained. Johnson.

The flower of England's face, I believe, means England's flowery face, the flowery surface of England's foil. The same kind of expression is used in Sidney's Arcadia, p. 2: “

opening the cherry of her lips," i. e. her cherry lips. Again, p. 240, edit. 1633: the sweet and beautiful flower of her face." Again, Drayton, in Mortimer's Epiftle to Queen Isabell:

And in the field advance our plumy creft,
“ And march upon fair England's flow'ry breaft."

STEEVENS. ? Her pastures' grass---] Old copiespastors. Corrected by Mr. Theobald. Malone.

3 And by the buried hand of warlike Gaunt;] Dr. Warburton would read

And by the warlike hand of buried Gaunt; and this, no doubt, was Shakspeare's meaning, though he has affectedly misplaced the epithets. Thus, in King John, we have

• There is no malice in this burning coal," in tead of

“ There is no malice burning in this coal."

And by the worth and honour of himself,
Comprising all that may be sworn or said, -
His coming hither hath no further scope,
Than for his lineal royalties, and to beg
Enfranchisement immediate on his knees :
Which on thy royal party granted once,
His glittering arms he will commend * to rust,
His barbed steeds to stables, and his heart
To faithful service of your majesty.
This swears he, as he is a prince, is just;
And, as I am a gentleman, I credit ħim.
K. Rich. Northumberland, say,--thus the king

returns ;
His noble cousin is right welcome hither;
And all the number of his fair demands
Shall be accomplish'd without contradiction :
With all the gracious utterance thou hast,
Speak to his gentle hearing kind commends.-

Again, in A Midjummer Night's Dream:

“ But earthlier happy," instead of “ earthly happier." Again, in King Henry . P. II:

“ Thele hands are free from guiltless bloodshedding," instead of

“ These guiltless hands are free from bloodshedding." Again, ibid. in P. III:

Until my misshap'd trunk that bears this head," instead of

“ Until my head that this misshap'd trunk bears." Again, in Antony and Cleopatra :

We cannot call her winds and waters, Sighs and tears," instead of

“ We cannot call her fighs and tears, winds and waters." and in the same play we have proof of harness, for harness of proof; as elsewhere, miserable most, for most miferable; desperately mortal, for mortally desperate; action of precept, for precept of action ; &c.

Ritson. -commend-] i. e, commit. See Minsheu's Dict. in v.

MALONE. Vol. VIII.

U

We do debase ourself, cousin, do we not,

[TO AUMERLE. To look so poorly, and to speak fo fair? Shall we call back Northumberland, and fend Defiance to the traitor, and so die? Aum. No, my good lord; let's fight with gentle

words, Till time lend friends, and friends their helpful

swords. K. Rich. O God! o God! that e'er this tongue

of mine, That laid the sentence of dread banishment On yon proud man, should take it off again With words of footh!O, that I were as great As is my grief, or lesser than my name! Or that I could forget what I have been! Or not remember what I must be now! Swell'st thou, proud heart? I'll give thee scope to

beat, Since foes have scope to beat both thee and me. Aum. Northumberland comes back from Bo

lingbroke. K. Rich. What must the king do now? Must he

fubmit?
The king shall do it. Must he be depos’d?
The king shall be contented : Must he lose
The name of king? o'God's name, let it go :
I'll give my jewels, for a set of beads;
My gorgeous palace, for a hermitage;
My gay apparel, for an alms-man's gown;

s With words of footh !] Sooth is sweet as well as true. In this place footh means sweetness or softness, a fignification yet retained in the verb to footh. JOHNSON.

6 My gay apparel, &c.] Dr. Grey observes, “ that King Richard's expence in regard to dress, was very extraordinary.

i

My figur'd goblets, for a dish of wood;
My scepter, for a palmer's walking-staff;
My subjects, for a pair of carved saints;
And my large kingdom for a little grave,
A little little grave, an obscure grave:
Or I'll be buried in the king's highway,
Some way of common trade, where subjects' feet
May hourly trample on their sovereign's head ::
For on my heart they tread, now whilft I live;
And, buried once, why not upon my head ?
Aumerle, thou weep'st; My tender-hearted cou-

sin!
We'll make foul weather with despised tears;
Our sighs, and they, shall lodge the summer corn,
And make a dearth in this revolting land.

Holinshed has the same remark; and adds, that he had “one cote which he caused to be made for him of gold and stone, valued at 30,000 marks." STEEVENS.

Stowe, in his Survey, says, “ to the value of three thousand markes.” So also, in Vita Ricardi Secundi, published by T. Hearne, P. 156. MALONE. 7 Or I'll be buried in the king's highway,

Some way of common trade,] So, in Lord Surrey's Translation of the fecond book of Virgil's Æneid:

“ A poftern with a blind wicket there was,
A common trade, to pass through Priam's house."
« Limen erat, cæcæque fores, et pervius ufus,

« Tectorum inter fe Priami.”
The phrase is still used by common people. When they speak
of a road much frequented, they say, it is a road of much
traffic.” Shakspeare uses the word in the fame sense in King
Henry VIII:
“ Stand in the gap and trade of more preferments."

STEEVENS. on their fovereign's head :) Shakspeare is very apt to deviate from the pathetic to the ridiculous. Had the speech of Richard ended at this line, it had exhibited the natural language of fubmissive misery, conforming its intention to the present fortune, and calmly ending its purposes in death. JOHNSON.

Or shall we play the wantons with our woes,
And make some pretty match with shedding tears?
As thus ;—To drop them still upon one place,
Till they have fretted us a pair of graves
Within the earth; and, therein laid,—There lies
Two kinsmen, digg'd their graves with weeping eyes?
Would not this ill do well-Well, well, I see
I talk but idly, and you mock at me.
Most mighty prince, my lord Northumberland,
What says king Bolingbroke? will his majesty
Give Richard leave to live till Richard die?
You make a leg, and Bolingbroke says—ay.'
North. My lord, in the base court he doth at.

tend To speak with you ; may't please you to come down? K. Rich. Down, down, I come; like gliftering

Phaeton,
Wanting the manage of unruly jades.

[North. retires to Boling.
In the base court? Base court, where kings grow base,
To come at traitors' calls, and do them grace.
In the base court? Come down? Down, court!

down king! For night-owls shriek, where mounting larks should sing.

[Exeunt, from above.

9 — Bolingbroke faysay] Here is another instance of injury done to the poet's metre by changing his orthography. I, which was Shakspeare's word, rhymed very well with die; but ay has quite a different found. See a note on The Merry Wives of Windsor, Act V. Vol. III. p. 485, n. 8. Tyrwhitt.

In some counties ay is at this day pronounced with a sound very little differing from that of I. MALONE.

base court-] Bas cour, Fr. So, in Hinde's Eliofa Libidinoso, 1606: “ - they were, for a public observation, brought into the base court of the palace." Again, in Greene's Farewell to Follie, 1617: began, at the entrance into the base court, to use these words.” STEEVENS.

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