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Wales. Before Flint Castle.' Enter with drum and colours, BOLINGBROKE and

Forces; YORK, NORTHUMBERLAND, and Others.

Boling. So that by this intelligence we learn, The Welshmen are dispers’d; and Salisbury Is gone to meet the king, who lately landed, With some few private friends, upon this coast.

North. The news is very fair and good, my lord; Richard, not far from hence, hath hid his head.

York. It would beseem the lord Northumberland, To say-king Richard :-Alack the heavy day, When such a sacred king should hide his head!

North. Your grace mistakes me;' only to be brief, Left I his title out. York.

The time hath been, Would you have been so brief with him, he would Have been so brief with you, to shorten you, For taking so the head," your whole head's length. Boling. Mistake not, uncle, further than you

should.

s Flint Caftle.] In our former edition I had called this scene the same with the preceding. That was at Barkloughly castle, on the coast where Richard landed; but Bolingbroke never marched further in Wales than to Flint. The interview between him and Richard was at the castle of Flint, where this scene should be faid to lie, or rather in the camp of Bolingbroke before that castle.“ Go to Flint castle." See above. STEEVENS.

6 Your grace mistakes me ;] The word me, which is wanting in the old copies, was fupplied by Sir T. Hanmer. STEEVENS.

7 For taking so the head,] To take the bead is, to act without restraint; to take undue liberties. We now say, we give the horse bis bead, when we relax the reins. JOHNSON.

York. Take not, good cousin, further than you

should, Lest you mis-take: The heavens are o'er your

head. Boling. I know it, uncle; and oppose not Myself against their will*But who comes here?

Enter PERCY.

Cieke will

Soe vesy

Well, Harry; what, will not this castle yield?'

Percr. The castle royally is mann'd, my lord,
Against thy entrance.

Boling. Royally!
Why, it contains no king?
Percr.

Yes, my good lord,
It doth contain a king; king Richard lies
Within the limits of yon lime and stone:
And with him are lord Aumerle, lord Salisbury,
Sir Stephen Scroop; besides a clergyman
Of holy reverence, who, I cannot learn.

North. Belike, it is the bishop of Carlisle.

6. I know it, uncle; and oppose not

Myself against their will.But who comes here.] These lines should be regulated thus:

I know it, uncle; and oppose not myself

Against their will. But who comes here?
Such is the regulation of the old copies. MALONE.

I regard the word myself, as an interpolation, and conceive
Shakspeare to have written

and oppose not

Against their will.
To oppose may be here a verb neuter. So, in K. Lear:

-a fervant, thrillid with remorse,

Oppos'd against the act.” Steevens. 7 Well, Harry; what, will not this castle yield?] The old copy destroys the metre by reading--Welcome, Harry; The emendation is Sir T. Hanmer's. STEEVENS.

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Boling. Noble lord,

[To North.
Go to the rude ribs of that ancient castle;
Through brazen trumpet send the breath of parle
Into his ruin'd ears, and thus deliver.
Harry Bolingbroke
On both his knees, doth kiss king Richard's hand;
And sends allegiance, and true faith of heart,
To his most royal person: hither come
Even at his feet to lay my arms and power;
Provided that, my banishment repeald,
And lands restor'd again, be freely granted :
If not, I'll use the advantage of my power,
And lay the summer's duft with showers of blood,
Rain'd from the wounds of slaughter'd Englishmen:
The which, how far off from the mind of Boling-

broke
It is, such crimson tempeft should bedrench
The fresh green lap of fair king Richard's land,
My stooping duty tenderly shall show,
Go, signify as much; while here we march
Upon the graffy carpet of this plain.-
[NORTHUMBERLAND advances to the Castle, with

a Trumpet.
Let's march without the noise of threat’ning drum,
That from the castle's totter'd battlements
Our fair appointments may be well perus’d.
Methinks, king Richard and myself should meet
With no less terror than the elements

& Noble lord,

Go to the rude ribs, &c.] It is observable that our author in his addresses to persons, often begins with an hemistich. So, in Troilus and Cressida, Act II. sc. ii:

Agam. Princes,

“ What grief hath set the jaundice on your cheeks?”. This observation may be of use in other places, where in the old copies, by the mistake of the transcriber, the metre is destroyed by this regulation not being observed. MALONE.

Of fire and water, when their thund'ring shock
At meeting tears the cloudy cheeks of heaven.
Be he the fire, l'll be the yielding water:
The rage be his, while on the earth 1 rain
My waters; on the earth, and not on him.
March on, and mark king Richard how he looks.

A parle founded, and answered by another trumpet

within. Flourish. Enter on the walls King RiCHARD, the Bishop of Carlisle," AUMERLE, SCROOP, and SALISBURY.

York. See, see, king Richard doth himself ap

pear, As doth the blushing discontented fun From out the fiery portal of the east; When he perceives the envious clouds are bent To dim his glory, and to stain the track Of his bright passage to the occident. Yet looks he like a king; behold, his eye, As bright as is the eagle's, lightens forth Controlling majesty; Alack, alack, for woe, That any harm should stain so fair a show! K. Rich. We are amaz’d; and thus long have

we stood To watch the fearful bending of thy knee,

[T. NORTHUMBERLAND. Because we thought ourself thy lawful king: And if we be, how dare thy joints forget

the Bishop of Carlisle,) was Thomas Merkes. WAL POLE. 2 See, see, king Richard doth himself appear,] The following fix lines are absurdly given to Bolingbroke, who is made to condemn his own conduct and disculp the king's. It is plain these fix and the four following all belong to York. WAR BURTON.

It should be observed that the four last of these lines are in all the copies given to York. STEEVENS,

рау

Το their awful duty to our presence ?
If we be not, show us the hand of God
That hath dismiss'd us from our stewardship;
For well we know, no hand of blood and bone
Can gripe the sacred handle of our scepter,
Unless ħe do profane, steal, or usurp.
And though you think, that all, as you have done,
Have torn their souls, by turning them from us,
And we are barren, and bereft of friends ;-
Yet know,—my master, God omnipotent,
Is must'ring in his clouds, on our behalf,
Armies of pestilence; and they shall strike
Your children yet unborn, and unbegot,
That lift your vassal hands against my head,
And threat the glory of my precious crown.
Tell Bolingbroke, (for yond', methinks, he is,)
That every stride he makes upon my land,
Is dangerous treason: He is come to ope
The purple testament of bleeding war ;)
But ere the crown he looks for live in peace,
Ten thousand bloody crowns of mothers' sons
Shall ill become the flower of England's face; *
Change the complexion of her maid-pale peace

3 The purple teftament of bleeding war;) I once thought that Shakspeare might have had the facred book (which is frequently covered with purple leather) in his thoughts; but the following note renders such a fuppofition extremely doubtful. Malone.

I believe our author uses the word teftament in its legal sense. Bolingbroke is come to open the testament of war, that he may perufe what is decreed there in his favour. Purple is an epithet referring to the future effusion of blood. Steevens.

Mr. Steevens is certainly right in his interpretation of this passage. See Julius Casar:

Now, while your purpled hands do reek and smoke,

“ Fulfil your pleasure." MALONE. + But ere the crown he looks for live in peace,

Ten thousand bloody crowns of mothers' fons

Shall ill become the Aswer of England's face;] By the flower of England's face is meant the choicest youths of England, who shall

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