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By M.

FOREIGN. Ideer über unsre Erasmische aus- neither of us understands. Sound can: sprache des Altgriechischen :--A view not be corrupted, for it is not composed

of parts; and therefore the separating of our pronunciation of the ancient

or vitiating principle cannot act upon Greek, called Erasmian.

it. A corrupt sound can, therefore,

mean nothing more than a disagreeable Neidlinger. Vienna.

sound, or a sound void of harmony. The subject of the present work is How absurd is it then, to accuse the a proof, that the Germans of the pre- inhabitants of Zante with using inhar sent day are more eager of grasping monious sounds, for if they appear har, at what is curious, than of aiming at monious to them, they must be so,

how what is useful. The rage in Germany ever harsh and grating they may be to seems to be for subjects inexplicable in us. Perhaps, if their ears were more their nature, and which, if resolved, exquisitely attuned to musical expreswould leave us no wiser than we were sion, they would find our pronunciation before. It matters little how the Greeks of Greek more musical than their own; pronounced their vowels and dipthongs, but while they want this nice discrimiprovided we agree in pronouncing them nation, our sounds may offend them, in the most harmonious manner, or at and consequently possess no harmony least in that manner which seems most so far as regards them. Whatever agreeable to our ear; for as there can pleases the ear of any individual is be no abstract harmony,

all sounds are harmony to him, however grating it harmonious that seem to be so. If, then, may be to the ear of another. If we we be satisfied with our own mode of could prove the existence of an harmo. pronouncing Greek, and if we were nious sound without recurring to the not we should not have adopted it, ear at all, we might then indeed deterwhat avails it to know how it was pro- mine whose pronunciation is the most nounced by the original framers of it? harmonious, but surely if we can form Sounds, indeed, excité agreeable or no idea of an harmonious sound but by disagreeable sensations, and therefore our ear, and if we can assign no reason we should prefer the former in the for- why it produces the agreeable effect, mation of languages; but between two no man can pretend to make his own agreeable sounds, it matters not which ear a standard for that of another. Perwe take, because neither of them con- haps the most musical sound in nature, veys any meaning to the mind, antece. is discord compared to the music of dent to convention, and therefore one less materialized beings than man. A will suit our purpose as well as the French critic, treating of the work beother. There can be no room for choice fore us, makes the following judicious where the harmony of sound is equal. reflections. When, therefore, we admire a certain 6 The pronunciation of the Greek passage in Homer, according to our has excited no inconsiderable dispute manner of reading it and when the among the learned; but after all that natives of Corfu or Zante admire it has been advanced concerning the vaequally, though they pronounce and lue of letters, we now remain where read it differently,--and when we ac- we set out, and are as wise as if the cuse them, and they accuse us of in- question had never been agitated; and troducing into the language of Homer, the most elegant of languages no longer barbarous and corrupt sounds, we speaks but to our eyes, and offers to the bring charges against each other which ear but contested sounds. M. Neidlinger

All foreign publications may be procured through Messrs. Treuttel and Wurtz, Soho Square, or other foreign booksellers in London. Eur. Mag. Vol. 82.


has thrown one opinion more into dustry than the Germans, in elucidating the balance: it is, no doubt, judi- historic facts, and fixing the chronology cious and reasonable; but it is still of doubtful events, particularly those of only an opinion, and will ever remain the middle ages. That this is the na80; and though he finds both parties tional spirit, and not confined to the in error, he has not helped in the least curiosity of a few antiquaries, appears to determine the controversy. The ob- evident from the interest, which the servations of learned men are always public authorities take in promoting of little value when opposed to the this species of knowledge. How far grammar of a people. M. Neidlinger this zeal, however, may tend to proacknowledges that we may have adopt- mote the ends of science, appears to us ed an erroneous pronunciation of the of a questionable nature. The kuowdiphtongs. He shews that since the ledge of events is of little importance, second century, či and oi had lost their unless it make us wiser or better; but quality as dipthongs, and became sim- neither wisdom nor virtue is promoted ple vowel sounds; in support of this by knowing when events took place. opinion, he cites a passage from Slobée; If history had merely informed us, that but why has he pot cited a passage still the Romans were defeated at the battle more ancient, I mean that of the oracle, of Cannæ, and that the engagement took related by Thucydides, in his second place on a certain day, in a certain year, book, chap. 54, the entire ambiguity of what advantage could we derive from which rests on the prounciation of the this abstract information ? To tell us dipthong oi. The Athenians, afflicted that a battle was fought, and the weaker by a pestilence, recollected a prediction party overcome, is only to tell us, that which their fathers had reported former- power prevails over weakness. The ly:-"HEEL Awpiakos toleuos kai lopòs information, therefore, can serve only är' auto. As in the pronunciation Roquos, those, if any such there be, who are pestilence, does not differ from lijos, ignorant of the fact. But to tell us the scourge which threatened them was that it was fought on a certain day, not anticipated, till its effects were pre- adds still less to our experience, and viously felt. It is certain, that, among can only gratify an idle curiosity, The the apcient Greeks, oi was pronouncedi. case, however, is different when we are But I will readily say with one of our told, that upwards of forty thousand most learned Hellenists, thanks to eta ! men were lost by the rashness of one this letter, n, which is the principal general, who would have been all saved, point of difficulty in Greek pronun- had they been guided by the wisdom of ciation, has been disputed with such another. It is not, then, the event which acrimony, that there has been Etacists takes place, much less the time in which and Itacists; as there have been Jan- it takes place, that interests us, or at sepists and Molinists. What seems to least that should interest us, but the give the victory to the partisans of the causes by which it is brought about. It Erasmian pronunciation is, a passage is this knowledge which the wise man from Plato, and another from Terence: seeks after : the fool is satisfied if he the former proves that this letter eta, , can tell the date of the event. , has been intended to strengthen epsilon, as oméga has been to prolong omi- Nisi utile est quod facias, stulta est gloria . cron, The second proves that the sound

M. Wedekind, however, though he of both was preserved in the new


attaches more importance to dates than ter. The passages are these :--Plato

we do, and has, consequently, exerted says, Ου γαρ η εχρωμεθα αλλα ε το

more diligence in ascertaining them, Talaiov; and Terence, Literam namque E videmus esse ad nta proximam, directed his attention to more useful

than we think them worthy of, bas still sicut o et w videntur esse vicinæ sibi.

purposes. He has corrected many geoTemporum momenta distant, non sopi nativitas.

graphical errors, and pointed out, with great precision, many places which

have been hitherto very imperfectly Noten zu einigen Geschichtschrei- known. The author throws considerabern des deutschen Mittelalters :- ble light on the genealogy of the house Notes on some of the German His

of Saxe, and on its alliance with Charle

magne. The diligence which he has torians of the Middle Ages. By exercised in elucidating the obscure, A.C. Wedekind. 8vo. Hamburgh, and exploding the fabulous, has neces

sarily enabled him to correct many 1821.

popular errors, and even to trace them Few nations have, for a considerable to their source. He consigns, for intime past, eviñced more zeal and in- stance, Joada, a princess of Hungary, to the regions of romance, and shews, Saggio sulle Azioni, &c. - An that she owed her imaginary existeuce to a false Latin genetive case. –On the Essay on the Life and Writings of whole, it may be said, that if his work Francesco Guicciardini, by Professor be not one of those which expands the Giovanni Rosini. 8vo. Pisa. mind by the lights of useful science, at least it is well calculated to gratify

The object of Rosini in this work is, curiosity, and to unbend the mind from the toil of active pursuits, and severer

to make us acquainted with the life, studies,

studies, and writings of this celebrated author; and we cannot refuse him the

eredit of evincing judgment and imparPindarus Werke :-a Metrical tiality in the execution of it. Guicci

ardini flourished in Italy when it' was Translation of the Works of Pindar, the scene of important political 'occur. with the original Texts and Notes. rences, and the parent of eminent lite

rary productions. His Italian history By T. Thiersch. 2 vols. royal 8vo.

of the principal events of his own time Leipsick.

is a master-piece in its kind, but he

has been accused, nor does Rosini deny This is the first time the works of the the charge, of entertaining sentiments most difficult of the Greek poets, with

unfavourable to liberty. He admits the fragments, have been completely that he was infected with a portion of translated into German verse of the the spirit that characterized his age, same metre with the original. M. and how few writers have triumphed Thiersch has completed this bold un- over its influence! He adopted that dertaking in a inanner that does him dangerous maxim of Machiavel, that great credit. The translation is faith whatever is useful and happily executed ful; and although the original is ren- is always just and reasonable; and this dered verse for verse, yet nothing maxim had no inconsiderable ascendseems forced, and the Greek text is ancy over his life and writings. Ro. conformable to the best editions. The sini, however, maintains, that he was introduction treats of Greek music, and an enemy to despotism, though no adof the author of Pindar's verse; and vocate for popular administration, and explains the subject and occasion upon that in all his vicissitudes, he distinwbich each ode was written. The guished himself by his firmness and author treats generally of the origin of consistency of character, He likewise dramatic poetry at Athens, and con- takes considerable pains in shewing cludes with a chronological table of the merits of his history, and vindicat

ing him from some unfounded charges which had been brought against his

character and his impartiality as a Delle Rivoluzioni d'Italia, &c. :

writer. It is mournful to reflect, that

a writer who had been equally caressOf the Revolutions of Italy. Byed by the court of Rome and the house C. Denina, with the unpublished of Medicis, should be finally abandoned additions and corrections of the Au- by both, and suffered to conclude' his

days in privation and miseryand if thor. 3 vols. 8vo. Milan.

we may believe Legni, whose fidelity The continuation of the Revolutions

as an historian has been seldom quesof Italy, from 1713 to 1792, under the tioned, he died at length by poison. title of “ Modern Italy," appeared full of errors. The author undertook to correct them by a copy of the edition,

L'Italia avanti il Dominio dei Ro. published at Venice in 1793. He accordingly retouched the entire of his mani :-Italy before the domination * Revolutions.” After his death, this of the Romans. By Joseph Micali. corrected and improved copy fell into the hands of Giuseppe Micali, known

Second edition, 4 vols. 8yo. by his “ History of Italy before the Dominion of the Romans.” The typo- The present work is the history of a graphic society of Italian classics hap- people that had no historians of their pily succeeded in gaining possession of own; and though it procured for the this valuable compilation, and have author one of the decennial prizes inpublished it with great accuracy and stituted by the French government in correctpess.

Italy, it is obvious that neither talent

Pindar's poems.

nor industry can ensure success in his. Coleccion, &c. :--A Selection of toric researches, or shed over the scenes of other days that informing light which Fragments in the Castilian Lancan alope give them interest and im- guage, collected from the best Wriportance, without an access to original

ters. Madrid, 1821, documents, and where no such docu. ments exist, where the public events This collection contains fragments of and transactions of a country, are left the poems of Cervantes, Mariana, Solis, unrecorded, and suffered to slumber in Quevedo, Mendoza, Guevara, Granada, oblivion, the historian who seeks to

Leon, and Jovelanos, who are the most explore them after a lapse of two thoy. classical writers. of Spain, and, there sand years must frequently wander fore, the best models for youth, through the romantic abodes of fancied events and imaginary heroes, without a guide to direct him to the retreats of certainty. Battles will be won that

Noticia de los Principales Succesos never were fought, and warriors will occuridos en el Gobierno de Espana, &c. be slain that never existed. The au

-Also in French, under the title ofthor indeed collects with indefatigable industry whatever could be gleaned D’Appercu des Revolutions survenues from the Greek and Roman historians; dans le Gonvernement d'Espagne, &c. but this afforded but scanty materials, An Account of the Revolutions of the as these historians never spoke of them but incidentally, and were but little Spanish Government, from the comacquainted with their local history. M. mencement of the Insurrection of Micali himself frequently convicts them of erroneous relations, and proves the

1808, to the Dissolution of the Ordifabulous character of mapy of their nary Cortes in 1814. 8vo. "Paris. accounts; but after exploding these poetic dreams, he is unable to unveil to This history of the late Revolutions us the truth which ought to replace

which have taken place in the Spanish them. He leads us to doubt, or to in- Government, the production of a Spacredulity, relative to the greater part niard resident at Paris, has been thought of the traditions which others have im- worthy of a translation into the French plicitly received; but he has substitu- language. The events that led to this ted nothing for them but a void which Revolution are unknown to few.' Buono human industry, or intellectual pow- naparte, in virtue of an Act of Session, ers will ever be able to supply. In signed by the Spanish Monarch, claimed, making these observations, we are far in virtue of this Act, the right of Sove from depreciating the talents of the reignty over the kingdom of on the contrary, we cannot The invader prescribed laws to it, and sufficiently admire the vigour and ap- gave it a King from his own family. It plication of mind that reign throughout. is obvious, that this Act of Session conWherever he has authority to rest upon, veyed no virtual right. Buonaparte wherever he has such data as enable might, indeed, issue his manifestoes him to speak as a critic, and without and decrees, but they could give him which criticism always dwindles into no constitutional authority over the conjecture, he gives soul and animation country, and the nation was at liberty to his subject, and proves himself to to choose the best means of redress be what he is, a writer of the first or- which her situation placed within her der. Hence it is, that his account of reach. She did, indeed, all that could the progress of the Pythagorean schools, be done, and more, perhaps, than she and of the revolutions of Greece are could reasonably anticipate, considerread, and will continue to be read with ing the extraordinary circumstances in encreasing interest. His reflections on which she was placed. Deprived of politics and political economy are a central Government, the Provinces equally profound; and notwithstanding rose separately in arms, and formed the insurmountable difficulties under themselves under the direction of Junwhich the author laboured, we have no

tos. These partial insurrections leagued hesitation to say, that there is no work with each other by degrees; the juntos more deserving a place in a general were brought to act in unison with each library, or more necessary to fill up, if other, and the federal system united not entirely, at least partially, a void once more the various countries which which has been long experienced with

the dethronement of the Monarch had regard to the history of the native Ita- at first separated. In this critical situa. lians.

tion, the juntos formed the virtual

Government. Created by the will of celebrated under the name of the Conthe people, they were guided in all stitution of the Cortes of Cadiz. their acts by that spirit which became All the Sovereigns of Europe, who the Spanish nation at the moment, and were not obliged to yield to the in. were the sole organ by which this fluence of Buonaparte, immediatety spirit was directed in its career. recognized the Constitution of the

This natural spirit, by which they Cortes. Of this number were, the were actuated, made them instinctively Infant of Portugal, and the Kings of perceive the necessity of forming a England, Prussia, and Sweden The centre of action or of government, Emperor of Russia expressly declared, instead of that which had been sub. in the third article of the treaty of verted by usurpation; but in order Weliki-Louki, that he recognized the that this centre of action might pre- legitimacy of the Cortes, general and serve the real spirit of its institution, extraordinary, as well as the Constituthey resolved, that it should be com- tion, decreed and sanctioned by that posed of deputies from the juntos of assembly. the different provinces, who, by a Established and sanctioned by the generous sacrifice, divested themselves legitimate representatives of the Spanish of their power the moment they had nation, accepted by the people and reestablished a national Government.- cognized as a constitutional act by foThe new Government, however, was reign powers, the constitution of 1812 merely provisional, and bound to pre- was obligatory throughout all Spain. pare the Convocation of the Cortes, who The King returned to Spain with an in. alone could establish a fixed order of tention, as it appeared, of accepting things.

the present constitution; but being imThe central junto composed of thirty- posed upon by intrigue, he engaged in six deputies of the provincial juntos, promoting the purposes of a party. This re united in 1803, at Aranjuez, in the anti-national intrigue caused Spain to midst of the invasion. Faithful to the groan for six years under the despotism discharge of its duties, though driven of a faction. The King could not posfrom town to town, it directed all its sibly emancipate himself from the eirattention to the Convocation of the cle which this servile faction had drawn Cortes; but as imperious circumstances around him at Valencia. Whoever he required the utmost promptitude in all consulted informed him that Spain measures connected with the public sighed after the establishment of the safety, it substituted a Regency, com- ancient government. The faction, how. posed of five members, who were better ever, laboured under some disquietude qualified for assuming the sole direc- from the disposition of the army, until tion of things in such a critical emer- General Elio was gained over to their gency.. The Regency did not yield in designs. From this moment they openly patriotism to its founders, and when avowed their audacity; troops were driven to the very extremity of the sent to the capital to disperse the Cortes kingdom, into the Isle of Leon, they and arrest the liberals. The deeree, convened, in 1810, the Cortes, general ordering the subversion of the constiand extraordinary. The provinces which tution, was signed and promulgated; still remained free hasteped to send and all the servile deputies hurried to their deputies to Leon ; those which sign a protestation against the Cortes, were under the lash of the invader, the moment they ascertained that this unanimously appointed the representa- act of baseness would procure them tives, the moment they were freed from pensions, places and honorary distincthe yoke.

tion. The measures of despotism thenceIn 1811, the Cortes held their gene- forth advanced with such rapidity, that ral sessions at Cadiz, with the sole ob- the liberals, far from being able to opject of establishing a new Government pose the violence of its career, only for Spain. This constituent assembly thought of saving their own lives ; but presented, indeed, an august spectacle, the greater part of them were, notdeliberating with the wisdom and un- withstanding, seized and thrown into disturbed calmness of an ancient senate, prison. All these circumstances are on all the articles of the new Constitu- related with great fidelity in matters of tion, while the bombs of the enemy fact, and impartiality in matters of opiwere flying over their heads. Deeply nion, by the author of this work ; and impressed with the obligation imposed he successfully combats and disproves upon them, of consulting not only for the objection generally urged against the public welfare of their contempu- the constitutional validity of the acts raries, but also for that of posteritý, of the Cortes, namely:--that they acted they formed that constitutional code, under the influence of English counsels.

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