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Government is, in general, favour- ber and mutation; and this last has able to emulation. The roads are boen nearly all redeemed. badly kept up, and the country wants With such few resources, the Gooutlets, which might be easily pro vernment could not defray the most cured.

indispensable expenses, not even The Government, with incredible those for which the taxes are levied, indifference, has tolerated and even without the aid of the revenues, arisfavoured the emigration of many ing from the public demesnes, which families, which deprives the country are entirely under the management of many of its most useful inhabit of a Committee of Finance, estaants. The Canton of Friburgh blished in the State Council; which alone furnished nearly half the num has the care of this national prober of the Swiss, who emigrated perty, and appoints the collectors from Switzerland, and established of the public money, and defrays all themselves in Brazil, and yet the State expenses, rendering an account want of population is, in no part of to the Great Council. the Helvetic Confederation, more Independently of these resources, sensibly felt than in Friburgh. the city of Friburgh has common

According to our author, this property of its own; and its Municiagricultural and commercial langour pal Council expends the revenue at arises from the want of a more ex their discretion, after having obtended public credit. The want of tained the consent of the Council of à Mortgage Bank deprives capital. State, and the approbation of the ists of all security in their specula- citizens, to whom, also, all the actions, and their funds either remain counts are submitted. unemployed, or increase the pros The author here observes, that in perity of other Cantons, instead of all Switzerland there is not a city, enriching their own. This establish- town, or petty hamlet, that has not ment has been several times proposed some common property, which is in the Council, and rejected by a used for the general benefit. From timid majority.

this circumstance arises that spirit It would, however, be unjust, says of union and independence which the author, not to acknowledge, that constitutes the prosperity of the Helthe Administration has, in some re vetic Republics. The common prospects, improved the state of this perty of the city of Friburgh is very Canton, and shewn a little more great: that of Nenfchatel may be public spirit. The Opposition,

which said to be immense ; and these reshows itself in the Little Council venues are always employed for the and among the citizens, may become public good. The building of the useful to the Republic, in contribut- Primary School at Friburgh, and ing to the creation of establishments, all the expenses, of the establishthe very hope of which proves their ment, have been defrayed out of the importance. An example of this it common property, without any aid' has recently afforded, in the founda- from the Great or Little Council, tion of a ry School, May it except their consent. still continue to procure for its coun The city of Friburgh has no other. try new resources and knowledge, as guard than one troop, of about a the author judiciously observes; and hundred men, taken from amongst may petty animosities be silenced by the inhabitants, and paid by the the voice of public gratitude ! State: about the same number of

The resources of the State of Fri- soldiers are stationed on the frontiers burgh are very few, and direct taxes of the Republic; this is the only are unknown. Every peasant enjoys military force of a State which prothe entire produce of the fields he has duces, perhaps, more soldiers than sown, and the vines he has planted. several of the Swiss Cantons united.

The resources of the Government The mountains of Gruyéres, so reconsist in a few indirect and very nowned for cheese, are not less celesmall taxes, and these consist in brated for the fine and vigorous race duties on foreign productions, en of men which inhabits them; nearly couraged by an unshackled trade; a third of the Swiss living in France in hunting-grants; in duties on tim are natives of these mountains.

Eur. Mag. Vol. 83.

2 Q

nearly half

The bỏundary, 'that divides the and the museum of natural history Cantons of Friburgh and Berne, is is rich in Swiss productions ; almost

way between the two ca all the Alpine quadrupeds, as well as pitals. "Berne" is a delightful city; minerals, are collected there ; the aunot so much in itself, as for its situ- thor, nevertheless, thinks that the Paation and the beautiful country which risian museum possesses a still larger surrounds it. The city consists of quantity of these Helvetic wonders. one street of extreme length and The botanical garden, laid out some proportionate width, with smaller years ago by M. Wittenbach, will streets crossing it at right angles. still less bear a comparison with the On both sides are rows of houses royal garden at Paris. Berne posbuilt on the same plan, raised upon sesses an academy, which was new large arcades, with a space between modelled on a more extensive scale, them and the public road, covered at the beginning of the present cenby porticoes, so that foot passengers tury; M. Schoel is the professor of are sheltered from the sun and rain : history and common law: theologithis advantage is obscured by the cal studies are cultivated with great dulness resulting from the unifor

success; but the study of the belles mity of such buildings, and their lettres does not prevail much with heavy and gothic appearance. A the government or the people of canal of fresh water flows through Berne. the middle of the streets, intercepted What most astonish and charm at regular distances by fountains, the traveller at Berne, and what are which are not, as is generally the at the same time a constant source of case, vain and superfluous ornaments, novelty and enjoyment to its citizens, but objects of utility, administering are the pleasant and magnificent to the wants of a numerous popula- public walks. The author gives a tion, 'and productive of general sa- delightful description of them, to lubrity: so that, perhaps, there is no which we must refer our readers, city in the world so clean as Berne. confining ourselves to that called the In general, the 'author judiciously Petit Bastion, which, in the evening, remarks, the salutary luxury of inspires a peculiar interest. fountains is no where greater, nor In the large and deep ditches, conducted with less expense than in which surround the eminence on Switzerland : the number of springs which the Petit Bastion is built, the which run from the glaciers and Government has erected different mountains, furnish the natural means machines to exercise the strength of distributing fresh water every and agility of the young people. where. Berne possesses few monu There the young Bernese gather toments adapted to flatter the pride of gether in groups, and employ the the citizens, or to excite the vain evening hours in active amusements curiosity of travellers. The Cathe- and salutary exercise. Thus, in this dral, a gothic edifice of the twelfth Republic, a useful direction is given century, offers nothing remarkable, to infantine plays; the State providbut that austere simplicity which ing amusement for the young, and pervades the city: the gates alone, pleasure for the old, with equal solioriginally built by the Duke of Ze- citude. ringhen, founder of Berne, and re One thing only in the city of Berne built towards the middle of the last displeased our author, because it century, are quite in the modern presented a disgusting disparity to taste : all the other edifices in Berne the general appearance of public are impressed with the same charac. prosperity: troops of male and feter of public utility, and noble and male malefactors, yoked to a dungsevere simplicity: the buildings, con cart with iron chains, and employed taining specimens of natural history from morning to night in clearing and the arts, are constructed with the streets from dirt. This afflicting great solidity; which, however, does spectacle of human degradation is not altogether exclude elegance; the particularly distressing amongst a interior ornaments, especially, are of free people. Is there, he adds, no exquisite taste. The public library other means of making them anis not numerous, but is well chosen; dergo' the punishment due to their

crimes than in the heart of their me sent a hundred boarders, most of tropolis ?

them of the first families in Germany, The environs of Berne present Russia, and England. Thirty-five some objects worthy of attention to professors are attached to this school, the traveller, such as the celebrated who, in the midst of a desolate tomb of Madame Langhans, of which country, and a soil formerly quite the author gives a description. The uncultivated, enjoy, all the pleasures author mentions the establishments an opulent city could afford. But of rural economy, founded by M. what is still more honourable to the Fellenberg. Hofwil, the chief of heart and learning of M. Fellenberg these establishments, is not only a is, a free agricultural school, where school for labourers, but their foun. thirty orphans, from the age of five der has united all the trades neces years, are taken from the lowest sary to agriculture. The instruments class of people and receive an eleof husbandry they make use of, mentary and practical education, most of which were invented by the calculated to make them honest men, founder, and amongst them a drills and excellent farmers. The quadriplough of easy and simple mecha ennial division of arable lands, and nism, which he ploughed his land other methods adopted by M. Felwith, are manufactured in their own lenberg, have met with


obstashops. The population of Hofwil cles, and may, observes the author, increases every day; and in a few be liable to some inconveniences; but years M. Fellenberg's establishment the voice of critics must be silent will be a flourishing village. An before the benedictions of the poor. inn has been built in the neighbour M, Fellenberg has not introduced hood ; and, though very large, it will the system of mutual instruction inscarcely bold, the strangers whom to either of his schools; and though the reputation of M. Fellenberg at- endowed with an inventive genius, tracts. Thus the industry of one

which induced him to reform the man has changed entirely the face system of rural economy, he makes of the country. Hofwil ‘also con innovations in nothing but agricultains a school upon an extensive and ture. methodical plan; there are at pre

(To be concluded in our next.)

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Displays the cot or busy town,
Ti The verdant méad or flowerý vale; est une ville

Or tells his woes to distant friends,

Or listens to the fire-side tale.

The ship, the sky, the rolling waves,

istogt -
His contemplation every day;
Unless a distant sail pass by,

Which for old England bends her way,
The sight again renews his grief,

Again he feels each parting pain;
~ To happiness !” he thinks they go,

As swift they plough the foaming main.
Why, foolish man, thy country leave?

Was it the pressure of the times ?
No flowers of consolation grow,

Or bud, or bloom, in foreign climes.
Thy home! where'er that home may be,

Thy friends! whate'er may be their state,
Would prove a balm to heal thy woes,

A shelter from the storms of fate.

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England! my country and my home,

Thou only shalt my heart possess;
Thou wilt my every sorrow soothe,

And steal a pang from each distress.
England! the envy of the world;

England! of mighty power and name;
England! a Briton's proudest boast,

A British muse shall speak thy fame-,
Thy beauteous scenes, thy fruitfal soil,

Thy customs, manners, and thy laws;
Thy statesmen wise, thy warriors brave,

Shall be the theme of his applause,
The splendour of the Eastern courts,

The fragrance of Arabia's gale:
Fair Asia's groves, or Afric's plains,

To wean my heart from England fail.


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THE APPARITION. * 1"******

6 Be thou a spirit of health or goblin damned :: mely
Bring with thee airs from heaven, or blasts from hell :
Be thy intents wicked or charitable,
Thou com’st in such a questionable shape,
That I will speak to thee."


WHETHER the souls of the depart- As I lay on my couch, in a small Doed can visit the living has been long minican Convent at Naples, to which a matter of doubt and dispute ; yet I had been conveyed through the the universality of the opinion seems, · burning ashes of the volcano, by a in some degree, to countenance it. poor brother of that order, I dreamThere is a strange longing in hu- ed of home and of happiness; I fanman nature after the fearful and ter- cied myself once more listening to rible secrets of the grave, that would the mighty weltering of the ocean, fain acquire knowledge of the state as it dashed its huge waves in defiwe are hereafter doomed to be pla ance against the rocks of my native ced in ; that this curiosity should be shore; I heard again the war of that damped with fear is not to be won tremendous night-wind that appals dered at. The feeling of dim horror the heart of every Zetlander, as he that must accompany any communi cowers shuddering in his small hacation with a being, which we know bitation ; deeming that the terrible to have been once as ourselves, but king of storms is abroad, shaking of which we know nothing either as his all-covering wings: and I thought to its nature, its power, or its intent: I was again scaling the dizzy steps the idea of corruption, of fear, of I have so often trod in quest of the mystery, and terror which is associ- eggs of sea-fowl; and beheld, from ated with such thoughts, lend inten- the rustling precipice, the eternal sity to horror, and clothe even the lashing and rushing of the boiling loathsomeness of the charnel-house sea beneath. Terrific as these viin more hideous apparelling; the sions were in themselves, my heart idea of which is abhorrence, the re felt gladdened in the idea that I was ality distraction. I value not the treading no foreign strand; and ridiculous stories and feigned proofs that if I perished, the breeze that of Glavil, and such writers; but the gave life to my brethren, would redoubting of such a man as Johnson ceive my latest sigh. may shield from contempt another, As I passed through one of the who may believe in such appear great piazzas or squares of the city,

I met my friend Rudolph Feldspar, My health had been greatly in- of the Mermaid, who seemed dejured by my last adventure in the lighted and surprised to see me; but, inountain ; indeed so much, that I greatly grieved to perceive the wonexpected not, and scarce hoped to derful change that the harassing recover; the fierce, ardent spirit of cares of my wild life had made upon Raymond was at length quelled: my constitution, I informed him of but I longed once more ere I closed my strange adventures, and expresmy mortal career, to view again my sed to him the great desire I had to native Zetland: when once I had re-visit Zetland; he said that he himthought of this, my mind was like self was about to sail almost immean electric flash darting from one diately for England, and thence, object to another; all things assum after some slight preparation, he ed a brighter and more favorable ap- should direct his course homeward. pearance, and my heart yearned and “But perhaps,” said he, “you will panted for the hour when I should join me;" and as he spoke, he adbehold, shrouded in all its misty vanced towards me, and taking my glory, the land of wind and storm. arm we proceeded onwards.


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