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quered by the Saracens, was visited This fire does not burn, and if by thousands of pilgrims. The town any one were in the middle of it of Badku, one of the largest and he would not feel heat. All the finest ports on the Caspian Sea, is earth, for two miles round this large situated in the Peninsula of Abscha- fire, has the singular property, of ron, lat. 42° 22 north. The land being inflamed by a hot coal, when round the town is impregnated with it is only put in two or three inches naphta. The inhabitants of Badku deep, but it does not communicate have no other combustible nor any the fire to the adjoining earth. If a other light than what they obtain hole is made in the ground with a from this substance. The black pe- shovel and a torch applied to it, a troleum, made into little round pieces great fire soon appears. If a hollow mixed with sand, serve them instead stick or only a roll of paper is put of combustible. Three of these into the ground two inches, and if pieces are sufficient to heat an oven some one blows through it on a hot enough to bake bread, but the lighted coal placed at the other end, bread has a disagreeable taste and a light fame will issue, which will smell. This substance supplies the burn neither the stick nor the paper. place of lamps and fire to the lower This method is employed by the inclass of people; and serves also to habitants to illuminate houses which cover flat roofs of houses and keeps are not paved, and by means of these out the rain.

hollow sticks, whence the fire comes About ten miles north-east of the out, they boil their water in their town, there are still to be seen the coffee-pots, and even cook several ancient temples that the" Guebres kinds of food. built. The spiritual retreat where To extinguish the flame it is only the devout adore their God, under necessary to stop up the orifice. The the image of fire, is a place of about ground that has the most pebbles, 60 feet, surrounded by a little wall emits the most brilliant and active and contains a great many places for flame. The smell of the naphta lodging. In each of these is a little spreads very far, but custom makes volcano of sulphurous fire, coming it less disagreeable. The inhabiout of the earth, through a furnace, tants even employ this fire to calin the form of an Indian altar. This cine lime.' The stones are placed fire serves for the purpose of cook- one upon another in an open place, ing as well as religious worship and in less than three days they are Shutting up the furnace extinguish- perfectly calcined. Sulphur is found es the flame. The flame is of a pale where there are fountains of naphta. colour, without smoke, and emits a In bad weather, when the sky is sulphurous smell. The Guebres have covered with thick clouds, the founa wan complexion, and are oppressed tains emit a great deal of fire, and with a consumptive cough. The the naphta, which often takes fire earth in this enclosure is full of spontaneously on the surface of the subterraneous fire, which is emitted earth, tlows burning into the sea, from artificial channels, but which to an incredible distance. cannot be lighted without the as- When the sky is serene and the sistance of another flame.

weather fine, the depth of the founBesides these fires in the apart- tain does not exceed three feet. The ments of the Guebres, another large purest and whitest naphta is found fire, issuing from a rock in an open in the peninsula of Apscharon. It place, burns continually. Several is more fluid and volatile than any of these volcanos may be seen inside other kind, but it is obtained in very the wall, and resemble lime kilns. smallquantities. The Russians drink The space, which contains this yol- it as a stomachic, but it does not canic fire, is about one mile in cir- intoxicate them. Taken inwardly eumference. All the country round it is thought to be useful in the Badku appears sometimes enveloped cure of several diseases, to which the in flames, and as if the fire descend Persians and Russians are more peed on great masses of mountains culiarly subject. with incredible quickness.




What constitutes lying? I an

This is a lie which persons swer, the intention to deceive. If not only think themselves privileged this be a correct definition, there to tell, but one which does not exmust be passive as well as active ly- pose the utterer to severe animadvering; and those who withhold the sion, because all mankind have such truth, or do not tell all the truth, a dislike to be thought old, that the are guilty of lying as well as those wish to be considered younger than who utter a direct falsehood. Lies are the truth warrants meets with commany, and various in their nature and placent sympathy, even when it in their tendency, and may be arrang- shews itself in a notorious falsehood, ed under their different names thus : and that years are annihilated at the

Lies of vanity-Lies of fear - impulse of vanity. Yet if vanity be Lies of benevolence-Lies of flat- a despicable passion, this its darling tery-Lies of first-rate malignity- lie is despicable also. Lies of second-rate malignity-Lies Lies of fear are confined chiefly, I of interest-Lies of convenience-, trust, to weak and uneducated men Lies of mere wantonness; of a de- and women, and to children-but of praved love of lying, and contempt this I am far from certain. The for truth : there are others, perhaps, motive to them is, most commonly, but I believe that this list contains the wish to avoid punishment and those which are of the most import anger, and sometimes the desire of

There are also practical lies, not giving offence, or of forfeiting that is, lies acted, not spoken, but of favour. For instance, a child or a those I shall treat hereafter. I will servant breaks a glass, and denies give a slight illustration of each sort having done it, to avoid punishment of lie in its turn, (lies for the sake or anger-acquaintances forget to of lying excepted; these I should execute a commission intrusted to find'it a difficult matter to define.) them, and either say it is executed

Suppose, to give myself conse- when it is not, or make some false quence, I were to say I was actually excuse for an omission which was acquainted with certain great and the result of forgetfulness only. No distinguished persons, whom I had persons are guilty of so many of merely met in Society, and were also these lies in a year as negligent corto mention being at Ch-y-House, respondents, since excuses for not or the Marchioness of -'s assem- writing sooner are usually so many bly on such a night, without adding lies-and are lies of fear-fear of that I was there, not as an invited having forfeited favour by too long guest, but only because a benefit a silence. The lie of fear often proconcert was held at these houses, for ceeds from want of resolution to say which I had tickets. These would no, when yes is more agreeable to both be lies of vanity, but one would the feelings of the questioner. be an active, and one a passive Tie. not my new gown pretty? Is not my In the first I should assert a direct new hat becoming ? Is not my coat falsehood-in the second I should of a good colour ?" There are few only withhold part of the truth, but persons who have courage to say no, both would be lies, because my in- though, in their opinion, no was tention in both was to deceive. There truth, and yes would be falsehoodis another of the lies of vanity, nor, again, to questions such as this which, as it is one of the most com- -"Is not my picture too old for mon, I shall particularly mention; me? Is not

last work my

best? namely, the violation of truth which Is not my daughter handsome? Is persons indulge in relative to their not my son a fine youth?” Fear of age-an error very generally com- displeasing, prompts an affirmative mitted by the unmarried of both answer, and perhaps this lie is one

6 Is

* This passive lie is a very frequent one indeed in certain circles in London ; and many ladies and gentlemen purchase tickets for benefits, held at certain great honses, merely that they may be able to say, “ I was at lady such a one's on such a night!!!" Eur. Mag. Vol. 82.

2 B

you are.

of the least displeasing because it objects of excessive flattery, if they may proceed, for the most part, from know ought of human nature, must a kind aversion to wound the feel- know that few persons hear with ings of the interrogator,

complacency compliments bestowed The lie of benevolence is still on another; and they feel assured, more decidedly kind in its nature. not only that the praise bestowed Benevolent persons withhold disa" by the one person will provoke sigreeable truths, or speak agreeable lence, if not uttered undervaluing of falsehoods from a wish of giving their pretensions, in others ; but that pleasure. If you say that you are they shall be accused, however looking ill, they say you are looking wrongfully, of confiding in, and well. If you express a fear that you enjoying the gross incense offered to are becoming too corpulent, they them. declare you are only just as fat as I hope that I do not over-rate the you ought to be. "If you desire goodness of human nature in assertthem to guess your age, they always ing that lies of first-rate malignity, guess you some years younger than that is, lies designed to destroy the

If you are hoarse in sing- reputation of a man or woman, are ing, and painfully conscious of it, less frequent than those which I have they assure you, you never sang bet- already enumerated—but it does not ter in your life; and all this not from appear to me that such lies are, comthe mean desire to flatter you, and paratively, rare. Slander is not rare, the malignant one of making you but inaccuracy, carelessness, want of ridiculous by trying to impose on attention, and an imperfect memory, your credulity, but from the really are often the causes of a tale of unbenevolent desire of making you just slander, and not an intention to pleased with yourself. There also deceive, and lie with a view to injure. are lies of benevolence which medi- There are men indeed who'destroy cal men tell a dying patient, and the the reputation of women by boastfriends and relatives on such occa- ing of favours from them, which they sions, unless the patient and the per- never received; but these lies belong sons interested are religious charac- I think, to the lies of vanity, and ters, and on principle desire to know vanity in this case does not so much the truth. It is, however, my firm mean malevolence to injure another, conviction, that in no one instance, as to exalt itself. There is also annot even on these affecting occasions other reason why lies of first-rate is the real truth to be violated or malignity are not more decidedly withheld—but I know that in this frequent, namely, that the arm of the opinion I am in a very small mino- law defends reputations, and can rity, which, however, as the gospel punish the slanderer--but against of truth is more spread, and more lies of second-rate malignity, the law understood, will, I doubt not, be- holds out no defence, and I know come in time the opinion of the ma- no tribunal of power sufficient to jority--for how can a convinced, se- awe those who indulge in it, and rious, and consistent Christian de protect their victims from their at fend lying, that is, deception, on any tacks. A spirit of detraction is, I occasion ; for is it not forbidden to doubt not, more widely diffused than do evil that good may come ? and is any other in society; and it gene not deception evil?

rates satire, ridicule, quizzing, and Lies of flattery are still more com- lies of second-rate malignity, as cermon, but never can, for one moment, tainly as a wet season does snails be otherwise than unprincipled' and and, like the snails, they leave a perdisgusting. They are told, no doubt, nicious slime behind them, which dismerely to gain an ascendancy, and figures and destroys whatever they to conciliate good will. But the flatá prey upon. terer is often far from succeeding in

The lies to which I allude are, his despicable attempt. His intend- tempting persons to do what they ed dupe frequently sees through his are incapable of doing well, by dint art, and he excites indignation, of flattery, and merely from the where he meant to gain regard ; es- mean, malicious wish of leading pecially if the flattery be administered them to expose themselves, in order before other observers, for then the that the flatterer may enjoy a hearty

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laugh at their expense. Persuading lettre, and that order is, “Go and a man to drink more than his head tell a lie for my convenience.” How can bear, by assurances that the wine then, I ask, in the name of justice is not strong, and that he has not and common sense, can I, after givdrank as much as he thinks he has, ing, such an order, resent any lie in order to make him intoxicated, is which a servant may


proper a lie of second-rate malignity. Com- to tell me for his convenience, or plimenting either a man or woman his pleasure, or his interest? But on the qualities which they do not amongst the most frequent lies of possess, in hopes of imposing on convenience are those, which are told their credulity; praising a lady's relative to engagements which they work or dress to her face, and then, who make them are averse to keep. as soon as she is no longer present,

“ Head-aches,” s bad colds,” “unabusing not only both her dress and expected visitors from the country.” work, or person, but laughing at All these in their turn are used as her weakness in believing the praise lies of convenience, and gratify insincere, is one of those lies of second dolence or caprice at the expense of rate malignity, which cannot be ex- integrity. How often have I pitied ceeded in base and petty treachery. the wives and children of profes

Lies of interest are very various, sional men for the number of lies, and more excusable and less offen- which they are obliged to tell in the sive thạn many others. The pale course of the year!

is and ragged beggar who, to add to very sorry, but he was sent for to a the effect of his or her ill looks, tells patient just as he was coming": of the large family which does not Papa's compliments, and he is very exist, has a strong motive to deceivę sorry, but he was forced to attend a in the penury which does exist and commission of bankruptcy, bůt will the tradesman, who tells you he can- certainly come, if he can, bye and not afford to come down to your bye,” when the chances are, that the price because he gave almost as much physician is enjoying himself over for the goods you are cheapening, is his book and his fire, and the lawyer only labouring diligently in his call. also-h-congratulatiog themselves on ing, and telling a falsehood which having escaped that terrible bore, a custom authorizes, and which you party, at the expense of teaching may believe ,or, not as you choose, their wife and daughter, or son, to It is not from persons like these that tell what they call a white lie! I the worst, or most disgusting marks would ask those fathers, I would ask of falsehood are found. It is when mothers who make their children the habitual and petty lying profanes bearers of similar excuses, whether the lips of those, whom independence they could conscientiously resent any preserves from the temptation to vio breach of veracity committed by late the truth, and whom education their children in matters of more and religion ought to have taught to importance. Ce n'est que le premier value it.

pas qui coute, and I believe that Lies of conyenience are next in habitual, permitted, and encouraged my list, and are super-eminent in lying in little and unimportant things, extent, and frequency. The order to leads undoubtedly to want of truth your servant to say, “ Not at home,' and principle in greater and serious is a lie, of conyenience; and one matters. The barrier, the restrictive which custom authorizes, and which principle once thrown down, no one even some moralists defend, because, can presume to say where the inroads say they it , deceives no one, But and the destruction will end ; and this. I deny-It is often meant to however exaggerated, however ridideceivebut were it not so, and were culously rigid my ideas and opinions it understood amongst equals as a may appear, I must repeat, it is my simple and legitimate excuse, it still firm conviction, that on no occasion is very objectionable, because it must whatever is truth to be violated or have a pernicious effect on the minds withheld. of our servants, who cannot be sup- I come now to lies of wantonness, posed parties to this implied com- &c. There are some persons who, I pact among their superiors, and must am certain, lie from a love of lying therefore understand the order à la lie to shew their contempt of truth, and for those scrupulous men or dress partake of the nature of other women of their acquaintance who lying, and become vicious in the look on it with reverence, and en- eyes of the moralist, as well as of deavour to act up to their principles. the religionist. I have said, the man I know more than one person of this or woman so assisted by art; and I description, and I have listened with trust, that in accusing the stronger, horror and disgust to lies apparently as well as the weaker sex, of having uttered without a motive-but, as all recourse to art in personal decoraactions must have motives, I was tion, I have only been strictly just. forced to search for their's, and I While men hide their baldness by could only find them in a depraved gluing a piece of false hair to the fondness for uttering and inventing top of their heads; while they pad falsehood. Not that these persons their coats, in order to give their 'confine their lies to this sort of lying shoulders and chests the breadth

on the contrary, it is to the hav- which nature has denied them; while ing exhausted the strongly-motived their boots are so constructed, that and more natural sorts of lying, that they add an inch or more to their I attribute these comparatively un- height, and then, as is not unfrenatural and weakly-motived indul- quently the case, a false calf gives gences in falsehood. For such as muscular beauty to a shapeless leg, these, there is no more hope of amend- can the just observer, or human life ment than there is of cure for the and manners, do otherwise than inprofligate who has exhausted life of clude the wiser sex in the list, which its pleasure, and his constitution of tells of those who indulge in the perits energy. Such persons must go mitted artifices and mysteries of the despised and (terrible state of human toilet? degradation) untrusted, unbelieved

But still greater have been and in, to their grave!

are, daily I doubt not, the excurI shall now treat of practical sions, even of distinguished men, lies, not uttered, but acted, and into the sacred mysteries of art, in dress will furnish me with most of personal admiration; for I have seen my illustrations of this sort of false, the cheek of a distinguished poet, hood.

glowing with the tint of art, and his It has been said, that the great grey eyebrow frowning with youthart of dress is to conceal defects, ful black; and who is there that, and heighten beauties; therefore, as during the last twenty or thirty concealment is deception, this great years,

has perambulated Bond-street, art of dress is founded on falsehood. or joined the drive in Hyde Park,

But if the false hair be so worn without seeing certain notorious men that no one can fancy it natural ; if of fashion glowing in immortal the cheek be so highly rouged that bloom, and rivalling in tint the its bloom cannot be mistaken for dashing belle beside them. nature; or if the person who thus I shall now give another. sort of conceals defects, and heightens beau- practical lie.-The medical man, who ties, openly avows the deceptions desires his servant to call him out of practised, then is the material false- church, or out of a party, in order hood of the practice in a measure to give him the appearance of the annihilated, and, consequently, its great business which he has not, is immorality; but, if the cheek be so guilty not of uttering, but acting a artfully tinted that its hue is mis- falsehood; and the author also, who taken for natural colour; if the false makes his publisher put second and hair be so judiciously woven and third editions before a work, of even, that it passes for natural hair ; which, perhaps, not even the first if the crooked person or a meagre. edition is sold. form be so cunningly assisted by But the most fałse of practical dress, that the uneven shoulder dis- lies is that acted by men, who know appears, and that becoming fulness themselves to be in the gulph of takes place of unbecoming thinness bankruptcy, but, either from wishing of figure, while the man or woman, to put off the evil day, or from the so assisted by art, hopes and expects visionary hope, that a sort of mirathat these charms will be attributed cle will be worked to save them, to nature alone; then the aids of launch out into new expenses and

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