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ANALYSIS OF THE TRA
TRAVELS OF M. AMEDEE JAUBERT, IN ARMENIA AND PERSIA, IN 1805 AND 1806. By M. JOMARD, Member of the National Institute of France. The author of this work is that for Trebizond, whence they departed intrepid traveller who has underta- directly for Erze-Roum. There M. " ken a journey to Kirgius for the Jaubert was recognized by a certain purpose of importing the Cachemire Ahmed Agha, intendant governor goat into France. He was previ: of the custom-house, who six years ously known for several'excursions before had received many civílities into Turkey and Persia, and for the from the French army in Egypt, part he took in the memorable expé- after having been stripped of every dition to Egypt.
thing by the Arabs ; fortunately it There has appeared during the was our author, then secretary to last twenty years a multitude of ac- the interpreter, who had transmitted counts relative to Persia and the to him the papers of the French gesurrounding countries ; and the au- neral. The gratitude of Ahmed thors are in general worthy of pub- procured M. Jaubert, on his return, lic esteem and gratitude for the care the means of entering the Persian they have taken in observing and territory. describing these different countries. Erze-Roum, the principal city of %
M. Jaubert had an advantage Armenia, has seventy thousand in- " over most of them by which he has habitants, and is situated a short !! profited: the diplomatic office he distance from the sources of the held gave him access to every per: Araxes. The country, though deson of consideration, and it is only prived of trees, is extremely fertile ; by the help of powerful men, that a but it is exposed to the incursions European can break through the of the Kourdes, a wandering people 4 restraints, 'which in the East must resembling in their manners the prevent him from studying, and ob- 'Arabian shepherds. The borders of serving deeply, places, men, and the Araxes and the Euphrates are things. The ability to converse with laid waste by the Kourdes, as those the natives in their own language is of the Nile are by the Bedouins. also another very important advan- To avoid Bayazid our traveller, who tage, which M. Jaubert possessed; had prudently adopted the Armenian and he was thereby enabled to collect costume, directed his course towards a thousand anecdotes which must Mount Ararat, and arrived towards otherwise have escaped him. This night at a large village named Arzab; advantage is not less precious to the where the Kiahia forbad him to protraveller than the sextant and the ceed, in the name of Mahmoud, Pacha compass.
of Bayazid. He was surrounded The principal object of M. Jau- by seven soldiers armed with pistols bert's travels was to ascertain at the and poignards, and desired to excourt of Persia, if it were true that plain the purport of his journey. the king desired the assistance of * I am an Armenian,” replied he, the French government against his “ and I am going to Eriyan to per. enemies. Several motives rendered
form a pilgrimage to the convent of secrecy and diligence necessary, and the three churches." ,The chief of ! he went from Paris to Constantino. the troop, who had acted by the seple in thirty-five days. Selim, who cret orders of Mahmoud, made the at that time filled the Turkish throne, travellers prisoners. M. Jaubert recollected the traveller, who had ex- took advantage of a favourable op ecuted a commission for him; and, 'portunity,' and secreted the papers in spite of Russian influence, our au- and presents of which he was the thor obtained firmans which enabled bearer. An hour before day-break him to travel over the Turkish pro- he was taken to Bayazid. The Pa. vinces. An Armenian who had cha, a deceitful and cruel man, prex brought the letter of the king of tended to set
him at liberty, and rePersia joined him, as well as a Tar- tained the Tartar and Armenian tar of the Grand Signior, and a as prisoners. This latter, being put French servant. They embarked to the torture, confessed the object Eur. Mag. Vol. 82.
of the journey, and was soon after netrated to the pit. The jailor raised strangled. Our traveller, obliged the trap-door, and by help of a cord in his turn to make some contest let down some ounces of bread and sions, was reassured by the insinuata sour milk for the use of the prisona? ing manners of Mahmoud; who der ers: such was their only support clared his zeal for the court of Per during a captivity of four months:* sia, promised him help and proteca. The air of the prison was suffocats tion, and even gave him an escort to ing and infectious; and every day accompany him to the place of his they expected would be their last. destination. “ I hold thee,” said he, To all M. Jaubert's misfortunes were “in my hands as a flower that I wish added the complaints and reproaches to keep from every breath of wind," of his fellow-sufferers, and while his and he added some perfidious words, time passed heavily in this cruel whose covert meaning M. Jaubert anxiety, several of the Kourdes, could not understand. He refused who had taken them, came to him the usual presents, and in order to from the Pacha ; who, not unders procure a list of those persons whom standing the papers which he had our traveller intended to take with found in the boxes, and being ignohim, he carried his dissimulation so rant of the use of the arms, the far, as to declare himself responsible spectacles, and other objects of cu-for their safety. After all these de- riosity, wished to have them explainmonstrations, human prudence.could ed. After having satisfied the ennot foresee the Pacha's design. quiries of these wretches, M. Jau
Our traveller then departed under bert was sent back to his dungeon. an escort of Kourdes, accompanied A relation of the governor of the by the Tartar and two servants, but castle and the governor himself, who deprived of the assistance of his Ar- took pity on the prisoners, came menian guide. The escort soon en- sometimes to console them, and creased, every moment fresh solbrought them news; but the Pacha diers arrived. At length they cross had vowed their destruction. Three the river which runs at the foot of months expired in this manner, their Mount Ararat, and serves as a fron-' clothes were all in rags, sleep had tier to the Turkish possessions ; they forsaken their eyes, and their situaland, and while M. Jaubert was tion was desperate. The Pacha, to congratulating himself on his arri- avoid the reproaches of the Porte, val in the Persian territory, he was or the vengeance of Persia, propasuddenly surrounded by the Kour- gated false reports; but he still he.. des; one seized him in the middle sitated to make an end of his vice of his body, another tied his arms, tims. Such was their horrible situ-: and a third disarmed him. Theyation, when all at once the plague blind-folded him, turned his face to, broke out at Bagazid. It had not! wards, the ground, and bound in the appeared for twenty-four years. The same manner his servants and the Kourdes fell victims to it; and MahTartar. They then carried them all moud was attacked; in his delirium into a solitary valley. Some hours he condemned the strangers to death, after, M. Jaubert and his attendants but he himself died before his rage! were conducted to a lonely castle, was satisfied. where Mahmoud expected them---he His son Ahmed succeeded him pretended to have received from Con- and also condemned the prisoners to stantinople an order to seize the per- death, but as he knew the governor son of the traveller, but protested was averse to it, he found la pre that no attempt should be made on text to get rid of him: all was over his life. He afterwards caused him with these unfortunate men. In his to be thrown into a frightful cave, turn Ahmed was struck with the conthirty feet under ground, with his tagion. Terror and superstition inthree companions. This cavern, five duced him to revoke his sanguinary feet wide, and sixteen long, liad nei. orders; two hours after which he! ther bed, table, nor chair; and upon died, and his uncle Ibrahim was the ground lay the dead body of a acknowledged by the Kourdes. Bey, recently assassinated by order. Through the care of the governor's of the Pacha. um Miti
relation a letter from M. Jaubert; i In the morning a feeble light pe written to the court of Persia,
soitto -14 ? 038103 arrived at its destination. The go (a reflection worthy of notice), that vernor of Erivan had sent for him the traveller amongst the Kourdes i to Bayazid, and the Chah of Persia ought to fear in proportion to the menaced the town with the whole extent of their hospitality. “ Your weight of his vengeance if they did, are welcome,' says the Kourde, whose not restore him to liberty. Ibrahim hut the traveller passes ; "the strana, being frightened consults the Porte, ger is a present from God: let him and in the mean time takes the pri- want nothing: misfortune is sacred.". soners from their cavern, and con- This very man, when traversing the . fines them in a stable. The answer mountains or deserts, is a ferocious" of the Port soon arrives from Con- robber, who strips his guest without stantinople, and the Pacha, for once mercy. The secret, which distinfaithful to the orders of the Grand guishes the Kourde robber, "is, to Signior, sent M. Jaubert to the camp know how to flatter and deceive him of Youssuf Pacha, who was then ad- whose wealth they covet. vaneing towards Armenia at the On the 19th of February, 1806," head of an army. Thus was M. Mr. Jaubert left Bagazid to go to Jaubert miraculously saved from an the Turkish army, and he met with apparently inevitable death.
mountains at the defile of Kusseh-day The country inhabited by the that were covered with snow, whose Kourdes is one of the most interest- brilliancy caused a painful opthalmia ing the author passed through; it in all who did not wear a black veily* belongs, unequally, to the Turkish and neglected to stop up their nósand Persian empires. Its extent is, trils. The hurricanes were also very: in length, from Mount Ararat' at dangerous. The ten thousand Greeks thirty-nine degrees and a half north under Zenophon met with the same latitude, to the Kamerin chain of difficulties at this
passage. Youssuf mountains at thirty-four degrees; Pacha knew the author personally, and in width from Mount Ormiah having seen him in Egypt after his to the Tigris. On the north is the fatal loss at the battle of Héliopolis. ancient Colchis, on the east Media, He gave M. Jaubert a very distinand on the south Chaldea.
guished reception, in consequence of Kourdistan produces numerous having just received news of the herds of goats, sheep, and oxen, great victory gained by the French which constitute its chief wealth; at Austerlitz. He promised to send : and the management of bees is at- him safe to his destination, and, at tended to. The Kourdes are re- the same time, cautioned him against markable for their tall stature, fair the politeness and agreeable manners complexion, and fine features. Their of the Persians, who, although so bodies are covered by large cloaks much thought of in Europe, are dea? of black goat-skin, and their heads ficient in frankness and sincerity. withi hats made of red cloth, orna- The author, while he was waiting to mented with 'acorns. These wander: hear from the Ottoman Porte, visited ing people are good soldiers ; from the Christian churches in this part of military exercises they go to pasto: Armenia. At length his orders ará.. ral occupations, and their leisure rived, and he quitted the camp of the hours are beguiled with vocal music, Osmanlis on the first of April, for which they have a decided taste. with an escort of twenty men; on It is true, that the singer they most
the third day he reached Erz-Ing admire is the one who sings loudest. hian, the ancient Satala, upon the In other respects, they are distin- Euphrates near one of the chains of guished for the same virtues and Taurus. From thence he arrivedi vices as the Arabs of the desert; the five days after at Erze-Roum. Avoid custom of robbing, the love of in- ing the road to Bagazid, he'directed dependence, and great hospitality. his course north, towards Khenes, In reading the account of the man. Melez-ghird and Van, which gives ners of these tribes, I fancied myself its name to a little inland sea. A litin the tent of a Bedouin. The Kourde tle way from the second of these cannot marry without the consent of towns is the high mountain, called his parents, whatever may be his Seiban-dagh, from whose summit the rank or age : paternal authority is eye commands a circumference of to him inviolable. The author adds, fifty leagues : the Yezidis, a Kourde
tribe, terrible to travellers, inhabit The old name Atropatene, as well the foot of the mountain; they wor- the modern one, Aderbidjan, ship, the evil spirit, and consider signifies land of fire; and the robbery and murder lawful. In a author thinks that the mountains defile near the lake of Van, the ca- already mentioned, Ararat, Serban Favan met a troop, who, in conside- and 'Kusseh-Dag have formerly ration of a present, suffered it to emitted fire. The whole country pass without molestation. The lake is full of sulphuric mineral waters, of Van is ninety leagues round; its and sulphur is plentiful: naphtha os trade is very brisk, and the fishing petroleum is found there, and the considerable: eminences covered with inhabitants make use of it for lights. trees surround it on all sides; the According to our author, Tauris is climate is mild, and the land fer- not the ancient Ecbatana, but the tile, and the town is surrounded by Gaza of the Medes; it is now the delicious gardens. The Pacha receiv- second city of Persia, and is sured the author with great distinction; rounded by towers; with a population gave himanescort; and byone of those amounting to fifty thousand. Aderrevolutions so very frequent among bidjan was governed by the Prince the Turks, he perished three days Abbas-Mirza, son of the Chah: after, being assassinated by a rival. when the author
arrived in this proFrom Van, M. Jaubert directed his vince, Feth-Aly-Kan, a well-informcourse towards Cotourah, the last ed and agreeable man, who had acvillage in Turkey: he soon came in companied Mr. Malcolm in his first sight of Khoi, where the aspect of the voyage to Persia, was then lieutecountry suddenly changes :-polite- nant of the Begler-beg: he lodged ness of manner, health of the inha- M. Jaubert in his magnificent palace, bitants, richness and variety of cul- a delicious residence, breathing votivation, elegance of language, every luptuousness and effiminacy: his conthing announces the Persian ter- versation constantly turned either on ritory..
the discoveries of the Europeans in Khoi is a fortified town containing the sciences, the great success at that twenty-five thousand inhabitants. time of the French nation, or upon The governor endeavoured by innu- the wisdom and glory of the reignmerable civilities, to make our tra- ing King, Feth-Åly-Chah. veller forget the horrid treatment he From Tauris our traveller, instead had met with from the Kourdes. At of going on towards Tehéran, travelhis first stage from Khoi, the author led eastward, through Seidabad, Sewas not a little surprised to find rab and Ardebil, in order to visit the lodgings and food prepared for him; camp of Abbas Mirza, not far from but his astonishment was still greater the Caspian Sea: in this country the to find himself received, at the en- houses are built below the soil, like trance of a little village, with com- several parts of Armenia and Georgia, pliments in verse, rather Hattering where the inhabitants lodge underand high-flown it is true, but couched ground. Ardebil is the mart for all in great purity of language. the caravans travelling from Tiflis
After crossing a short desert, he to Teheran and Ispahan: at this arrived at Merend, the ancient Mo place, M. Jaubert, who had resumed ->runda, where opinm and cochineal his European dress, became the oby are found. The distance from this ject of general and disagreeable cuplace to Tauris is reckoned eighteen riosity. On his arrival at the camp leagues. The rivers he crossed in of the young Persian Prince, he was his route emptied themselves into the treated with the greatest distinction. lake of Ormiah, another inland sea .Abbas-Mirza had recently gained
that derives its name from a town, some advantage over the Russians; b celebrated as the birth-place of Zoro- but the renown of the victories of
aster, Tauris has been shaken by the French armies excited his -adpiearthquakes; and if Chardin were to miration, and he wished' to have a surevisit it, he would no longer know it. faithful account of them: he also
The waters of the lake are bitumi. wished to inform himself of every
From time immemorial, the country place amongst the ancients as well
expedition to Egypt, the bravery of lace-gardens are not like those of the Mamelukes, the life of the fero the Turks, planted without either cious Djezzar, &c. On this occasion order or taste, for are they like our traveller related his mission in those of Egypt, entirely deprived of 1804, to the Pacha of Acre, in the turf; there are serpentine walks, suite of General Sebastiani, and the with basins of marble jets d'eart, singular conversations of this sans &c. carpets of rich verdure, and a guinary man. Abbas Mirza depart- great variety of flowers. ed in order to take the field, and our Amongst the trees are the planauthor left for Khalkhal, and after tain, willow, poplar, &c., which wards for Zinghian and Sultânjeh, surround the mysterious pavillion, in Persian Irac: this last'town, lately where the Chah goes every day. The Nourishing and full of inhabitants, account of this voluptaous place, is now an immense mass of ruins, where the most beautiful women in the effect of civil wars: beyond it Asia aspire to the favor of their sou is the fertile valley of Abber, which vereign, must be read in the orifollows the desert of Cazbin: this ginal: the miniatures of all those, country produces excellent wine and who have succeeded in pleasing him, pistachios. Our author witnessed ornament one of the rooms, and at Cazbin a brilliant fete, in honor their number is very considerable. of the birth of three princes of the The library contains some precious blood-royal: music, poetry, illumi- manuscripts, among which our aunations, flowers, dancing, and the thor saw a poem of Feth-Aly-Chah's most delicious perfumes embellished own composition. Teheran has been a splendid repast, where the wine of the capital of the empire since the Schiraz was profusely drank, in de year 1994, which was in the reign of fiance of the law of Mahomet. Mahomet Kan. The fortifications
From Cazbin he travelled in three are inferior-the population incondays to Teheran, the capital of Persia, siderable--and the air unhealthy. escorted by a numerous and magni. This was the time of the annual ficent cavalry that Feth-Aly-Chah the military review, and the King was king had sent him. The Adjutant- desirous of taking M. Jaubert with General Romieux, although he left him ; but a violent fever, caused by France on the same mission after the unhealthiness of Teheran, de M. Jaubert, arrived before him at tained him with Aly-Chah-Abbas.
Teheran, by the way of Bagdad, but The King's chief physician, Mirzahe died no one knew how, before the Chefi, received orders to take every arrival of M. Jaubert. After the care of him; and his own life would accustomed visits to the Vizier and
be endangered if he did not restore the ministers, our traveller obtained his patient to health: this doctor orhis first audience of the Sovereign. dered him, amongst other medicines, We must refer our readers to the stewed rice, raw cucumbers, and original for the curious account of green fruit: another physician of the his reception; when he made his royal harem advised him to pray to first obeisance, he was kept so far the prophet Ali. Happily he esoff, that he could scarcely see the caped both these orders, and got throne of Feth-Aly-Chah. The mas- well in spite of cucumbers and rice. ter of the ceremonies having, an- The King's physician was afraid at nounced him to the king, he replied first that M. Jaubert' would share “ You are welcome;" after which the fate of M. Romieux, who, after a Visier conducted him to the hall of having escaped assassination from audience, the magnificence of which the Arabs in the desert of Orfa, and is beyond expression; millions of received an excellent reception from diamonds, rubies, emeralds and sap- the King, suddenly died, with his phires - glittered on all sides : the travelling companion ; 'or that of King, covered with the finest dia- M. Outrey, vice-consul of Bagdad, monds, had three of his sons with and brother-in-law to the author, him. After reading the credentials, who had also been attacked with the audience lasted an hour: Feth violent and dangerous illness: the Aly-Chah felt pleasure in conversing complaints of our traveller, howewith an European without the as- ver, had a different origin, and soon sistance of an interpreter, The pa- yielded to the care of his friends.