Page images
PDF
EPUB
[ocr errors]

Page 417,25th line, after "facts above specified," insert: ;--,. - j

If is no valid objection that science aa yet throws no light on the origin of Life. Who can explain what is the essence of the Attraction of gravity? Although Leibnitz accused Newton of introducing "occult qualities and - miracles into philosophy;" yet this unknown element of attraction is now universally looked at as a vera causa perfectly well established.]

[I see no good reason why the views given in this volume should shock the religious feelings of any one. It is satisfactory, as showing how transient such impressions are, to remember that the greatest discovery ever made by man, namely, the law of gravity, was attacked by Leibnitz, "as subversive of natural and inferentially of revealed religion." A celebrated author and divine, &c, &c

Page 420, fifteen lines from top, after "deceitful guide," omit whole remainder of paragraph, and insert, instead, as follows:

Nevertheless, all living things have much in common; in their chemical composition, their cellular structure, their laws of growth, and their liability to injurious influ1 ences. We see this in so trifling a circumstance as that the same poison often similarly affects plants and animals, or that the poison secreted by the gall-fly produces monstrous growths on the wild rose or oak tree. In all organic beings the union of a male and female elemental cell seems occasionally to be necessary for the production of a new being. In all, as far as is at present known, the germinal vesicle is the same. So that every individual organic being starts from a common origin. If we look even to the two main divisions—namely, to the animal and vegetable kingdoms—certain low forms are so far intermediate in character that naturalists have disputed to which kingdom they should be referred; and on the principle of natural selection with divergence of character, it does not seem utterly incredible that from some such intermediate production both animals and plants might possibly have been developed. Therefore I snould infer that probably all the organic beings which have ever lived on this earth have descended from some one primordial form, into which life was first breathed by the Creator. But this inference is chiefly grounded on analogy, and it is immaterial whether or not it be accepted. The case is different with the members of each great class, as the Vertebrata or Articulata; for here, as has just been remarked, we have in the laws of homology and embryology, &c, some distinct evidence that all have descended from a single primordial parent.]

INDEX.

Abekbant groups, 373.
Abyssinia, plants of, 326.
Acclimatisation, 127.
Affinities of extinct species, 287.

of organic beings, 358.
Agassiz on Amblyopsis, 127.

on groups of species suddenly ap-
pearing, 264, 267.

on embryological succession, 295.

on the glacial period, 319.

on embryological characters, 364.

on the embryos of vertebrata, 382.

on parallelism of embryological de-
velopment and geological succes-
sion, 390.
Algffl of New Zealand, 327.
Alligators, males, fighting, 84.
Amblyopsis, blind fish, 127.
America, North, productions allied to
those of Europe, 323.

boulders and glaciers of, 325.

South, no modern formations on
west coast, 254.
Ammonites, sudden extinction of, 281.
Anagallis, sterility of, 219.
Analogy of variations, 143.
Aneylus, 336.

Animals, not domesticated from being

variable, 23.
domestic, descended from several

stocks, 24.
acclimatisation of, 129.
of Australia, 108.

with thicker fur in cold climates, 122.
blind, in caves, 125.
extinct, of Australia, 296.
Anomma, 213.

Antarctic Islands, ancient flora of, 347.

Antirrhinum, 145.

Ants attending aphides, 188.

slave-making instinct, 195.
Ants, neuter, structure of, 209.
Aphides attended by ants, 188.
Aphis, development of, 384.
Aptervx, 163.
Arab horses, 38.
Aralo-Caspian Bea, 296.
Arohlae, M. de, on succession of species,

Artichoke, Jerusalem, 129.
Ascension, plants of, 339.
Asclepias, pollen of, 173.
Asparagus, 313.
Aspicarpa, 363.
Asses, striped, 147.
Ateuchus, 123.

Audubon on habits of frigate-bird, 166
on variation in birds'-nests, 189,
on heron eating seeds, 338.

Australia, animals of, 108,
dogs of, 192.
extinct animals of, 296.
European plants in, 327.

Azara on flies destroying cattle, 70.

Azores, flora of, 316.

Babington, Mr., on British plants, 49.

Balanoement of growth, 133.

Bamboo with hooks, 176.

Barberry, flowers of, 92.

Barrande, M., on Silurian colonies, 274.

on the succession of species, 284.

on parallelism of palaeozoic forma*
tions, 287.

on affinities of ancient species, 288.
Barriers, importance of, 303.
Batrachians on islands, 342.
Bats, how structure acquired, 163.

distribution of, 343.
Bear, catching water-insects, 165.
Bee, sting of, ISO.

queen, killing rivals, 180.
Bees fertilising flowers, 71.

hive, not sucking the red clover
89.

hive, cell-making instinct, 200.

humble, cells of, 200.

parasitic, 195.
Beetles, wingless, in Madeira, 124.

with deficient tarsi, 123.
Bentham, Mr., on British plants, 49.

on classification, 365.
Berkeley, Mr., on seeds in salt-water, 312»
Bermuda, birds of, 341.
Birds acquiring fear, 189.

annually cross the Atlantic, 317.

colour of, on continents, 121.

fossil, in caves of Brazil, 296.

Birds of Madeira, Bermuda, and Gala-
pagos, 340. .
song of males, 84.
transporting seeds, 315.
waders, 337.
wingless, 123,163.

with traces of embryonic teeth, 391.
Blzcacha, 305.

affinities of, 373.
Bladder for swimming in fish, 170.
Blindness of cave animals, 126.
Blyth, Mr., on distinctness of Indian cat-
tle, 23.

on striped Hemionus, 147.

on crossed geese, 224.
Boar, shoulder-pad of, 84.
Borrow, Mr., on the Spanish pointer, 38.
Bory Bt. Vincent on Batrachians, 342.
Bosquet, M., on fossil Chthamalus, 266.
Boulders, erratic, on the Azores, 316.
Branchiae, 170.

Brent, Mr., on honse-tumblers, 191.

on hawks killing pigeons, 315.
Brewer, Dr., on American cuckoo, 193.
Britain, mammals of, 344.
Bronn on duration of specific forms, 257.
Brown, Robert, on classification, 361.
Buckman on variation in plants, 17.
Buzareingues on sterility of varieties, 238.

Cabbage, varieties of,
Calceolaria, 222.
Canary-birds, sterility of hybrids, 223.
Cape de Verde Islands, 347.
Cape of Good Hope, plants of, 102, 326.
Carrier-pigeons killed by hawks, 315.
Cassini on flowers of composites, 131.
Catasetum, 369.
Cats, with blue eyes, deaf, 18.

variation in habits of, 86.

curling tail when going to spring, 179.
Cattle destroying fir-trees, 69.

destroyed by fliea in La Plata, 70.

breeds of, locally extinct, 103.

fertility of Indian and European
breeds, 225.
Cave, inhabitants of, blind, 125.
Centres of creation, 307.
Cephalopodae, development of, 384.
Cervulus, 224.

Cetacea, teeth and hair, 131.
Ceylon, plants of, 326.
Chalk formation, 282.
Characters, divergence of, 103.

sexual, variable, 141.

adaptive or analogical, 371.
Charlock, 74.
Checks to increase, 66.

mutual, 69.
Chickens, instinctive tameness of, 192.
Chthamalinaa, 253.

Chthamalus, cretacean species of, 266.
Circumstances favourable to selection of
domestic products, 42.

to natural selection, 95.
Clrripedes capable of crossing, 95.

carapace aborted, 134.

their ovigerous frena, 172.

fossil, 266.

larvw of, 883.

Classification, 360.

Cllft, Mr., on the succession of types, 295.
Climate, effects of, in checking increase ol
beings, 67.
adaptation of, to organisms, 127.
Cobites, intestine of, 170.
Cockroach, 74.

Collections, palaeontological, poor, 252.
Colour, influenced by climate, 121.

in relation to attacks by flies, 177.
Columba li via, parent of domestic pigeons,
27.

Colymbetes, 336.
Compensation of growth, 134.
Compositae, outer and inner florets of, 131.

male flowers of, 392.
Conclusion, general, 416.
Conditions, slight changes in, favourable

to fertility, 235.
Coot, 166.

Coral-islands, seeds drifted to, 315.

reefs, indicating movements of earth,
270.

Corn-crake, 166.

Correlation of growth in domestic produc-
tions, 18.
of growth, 130,177.
Cowslip, 51.

Creation, single centres of, 307.
Crinum, 221.
Crosses, reciprocal, 228.
Crossing of domestic animals, importance
in altering breeds, 25.

advantages of, 91.

unfavourable to selection, 96.
Crustacea of New Zealand, 327.
Crustacean, blind, 125.
Cryptocerus, 211.
Ctenomys, blind, 125.
Cuckoo, instinct of, 193.
Currants, grafts of, 231.
Currents of sea, rate of, 313.
Cuvier on conditions of existence, 184.

on fossil monkeys, 265.

Fred., on instinct, 186.

Dana, Prof, on blind cave-animals, 126.
on relations of crustaceans of Japan,
324.

on crustaceans of New Zealand, 327.
De Candolle on struggle for existence, 61.

on umbelliferae, 132.

on general affinities, 374.

Alph, on low plants, widely dis-
persed, 353.

on widely-ranging plants being va-
riable, 54.

on naturalisation, 107.

on winged seeds, 133.

on Alpine species suddenly becom-
ing rare, 157.

on distribution of plants with largf
seeds, 314.

on vegetation of Australia, 330.

on fresh-water plants, 336".

on insular plants, 339. «
Degradation of coast rocks, 248.
Denudation, rate of, 250.

of oldest rocks, 269.
Development of ancient forms, 298.
Devonian system, 292.
Dianthus, fertility of crosses, 226.
Dirt on feet of birds, 316.
Pispersslj means of, 311.

during glacial period, 318.
Distribution, geographical, 302.

means of, 311.
Disuse, effects of, under nature, 122.
Divergence of character, 103.
Division, physiological, of labour, 107.
Dogs, hairless, with imperfect teeth, 18-

descended from several wild stocks,
23.

domestic instincts of, 190.
inherited civilization of- 192.
fertility of breeds together, 224.
of crosses, 236.

proportions of, when young, 386.
Domestication, variation under, 14.
Downing, Mr., on fruit-trees in America,81.
Downs, North and South, 250.
Dragon-flies, intestines of, 170.
Drift-timber, 314.
Driver-ant. 213.

Drones killed by other bees, 180.
Duck, domestic, wings of, reduced, 17.

logger-headed, 163.
Duckweed, 336.
Dugong, affinities of, 360.
Dung-beetles with deficient tarsi, 124.
Dyticus, 336.

Earl, Mr. "W., on the Malay Archipelago,
344.

Bars, drooping, in domestic animals, 17.

Rudimentary, 394.
Earth, seeds in roots of trees, 314.
Eciton, 211.

Economy of organisation, 134.
Edentata, teeth and hair, 131.

fossil species of, 296.
Edwards, Milne, on physiological divisions
of labour, 107.

on gradations of structure, 173.

on embryological characters, 364.
Eggs, young birds escaping from, 83.
Electric organs, 172.
Elephant, rate of increase, 63.

of glacial period, 128.
Embryology, 381.
Existence, struggle for, 60.

conditions of, 184.
Extinction, 277.

as bearing on natural selection, 102.

of domestic varieties, 103.
Eye, structure of. 167.

correction for aberration, 180.
Eyes reduced in moles, 125.

Fabre, M., on parasitic sphex, 195.
Falconer, Dr., on naturalisation of plants
in India, 64.

on fossil crocodile, 274.

on elephants and mastodons, 292.
Falkland Island, wolf of, 343.
Faults, 250.
Faunas, marine, 304.
Fear, instinctive, in birds, 189.
Feet of birds, young molluscs adhering to,

Fertility of hybrids, 221.
y from slight changes in conditions,

235.

of crossed varieties, 236.
Fir-trees destroyed by cattle, 69.

Sollen of, 181.
- ying,163.
teleostean, sudden appearance of, 267.
eating seeds, 337.
fresh-water, distribution of, 335.
Fishes, ganoid, now confined to fresh
water, 100.
electric organs of, 172.
ganoid, living in fresh water, 281.
of southern hemisphere, 327.
Flight, powers of, how acquired, 163.
Flowers, structure of, in relation to cross-
ing, 91.

of composite and umbelliferae, 131.
Forbes, E., on colours of shells, 121.

on abrupt range of shells in depth,
157.

on poorness of pal aeon tological col.

lections, 252.
on continuous succession of genera,

276.

on continental extensions, 811.
on distribution during glacial period,
319.

on parallelism in time and space,356.
Forests, changes in, in America, 72.
Formation, Devonian, 292.
Formations, thickness of, in Britain, 249.

intermittent, 254.
Formica rufescens, 195.

sanguinea, 195.

flava, neuter of, 212.
Frena, ovigerous, of cirripedes, 172.
Fresh-water productions, dispersal of,
334.

Fries on species in large genera being

closely allied to other species, 57.
Frigate-bird, 166.
Frogs on islands, 342.
Fruit-trees, gradual improvement of, 40.

in United States. 81.

varieties of, acclimatised in United
States, 129. . .

Fuci, crossed, 228.
Fur, thicker in cold climates, 132.
Furze, 382.

Galapagos Archipelago, birds of, 340.

productions of, 347, 348.
Galeoplthecus, 162.

Game, increase of, checked by vermin, 67.
Gartner on sterility of hybrids, 219, 225.

on reciprocal crosses, 228.

on crossed maize and verbnscum,
238.

on comparison of hybrids and mon
grels, 240.
Geese, fertility when crossed, 224.

upland, 166.
Genealogy important in classification, 370.
Geofiroy St. Hilaire on balancement, 183.

on homologous organs, 878.

Isidore, on variability of repeated
parts, 135.

on correlation in monstrosities, 18.

« PreviousContinue »