Page images

· Page 417, 25th line, after"facts above specified," insert:"

It is no valid objection that science as yet throws no light on the origin of Life. Who can explain what is the essence of the Attraction of gravity?" Although Leibnitz accused Newton of introducing" oceult qualities and · miracles into philosophy;" yet this unknown element of

attraction is now universally looked at as a vera causa perfectly well established.] ! . . .." ;

[I see no good reason why the views given in this volume should shock the religious feelings of any one. It is satisfactory, as showing how transient such impressions are, to remember that the greatest discovery ever made by man, namely, the law of gravity, was attacked by Leibnitz, “as subversive of natural and inferentially of revealed religion.” A celebrated author and divine, &c.,

[ocr errors]

Page 420, fifteen lines from top, after “deceitful guide," omit whole remainder of paragraph, and insert, instead, as follows:

Nevertheless, all living things have much in cominon; in their chemical composition, their cellular structure, their laws of growth, and their liability to injurious influ· ences. We see this in so trifling a circumstance as that the same poison often similarly affects plants and animals, or that the poison secreted by the gall-ily produces monstrous growths on the wild rose or oak tree. In all organic beings the union of a male and female elemental cell seems occasionally to be necessary for the production of a new being. In all, as far as is at present known, the germinal vesicle is the same. So that every individual organic being starts from a common origin. If we look even to the two main divisions—namely, to the animal and vegetable kingdoms-certain low forms are so far intermediate in character that naturalists have disputed to which kingdom they should be referred ; and on the principle of natural selection with divergence of character, it does not seem utterly incredible that from some such intermediate production both animals and plants might possibly have been developed. Therefore I should infer that probably all the organic beings which have

ever lived on this earth have descended from some one primordial form, into which life was first breathed by the Creator. But this inference is chiefly grounded on analogy, and it is immaterial whether or not it be accepted. The case is different with the members of each great class, as the Vertebrata or Articulata; for here, as has just been remarked, we have in the laws of homology and embryology, &c., some distinct evidence that all have descended from a single primordial parent.]


tralia, aof, 192. als of,

ABERBANT groups, 373.

Artichoke, Jerusalem, 129.
Abyssinia, plants of, 326.

Ascension, plants of, 339.
Acclimatisation, 127.

Asclepias, pollen of, 173.
Affinities of extinct species, 287.

Asparagus, 313.
of organic beings, 358.

Aspicarpa, 363.
Agassiz on Amblyopsis, 127.

Asses, striped, 147.
on groups of species suddenly ap- Ateuchus, 123.
pearing, 264, 267.

Audubon on habits of frigate-bird, 166
on embryological succession, 29

on variation in birds’-nests, 189.
on the glacial period, 319.

on heron eating seeds, 338.
on embryological characters, 364. Australia, animals of, 108,
on the embryos of vertebrata, 382.
on parallelism of embryological de extinct animals of, 296.

velopment and geological succes European plants in, 327.
sion, 390.

Azara on flies destroying cattle, 70.
Algæ of New Zealand, 327.

Azores, flora of, 316.
Alligators, males, fighting, 84.
Amblyopsis, blind fish, 127.

Babington, Mr., on British plants, 49.
America, North, productions allied to Balancement of growth, 133.
those of Europe, 323.

Bamboo with hooks, 176.
boulders and glaciers of, 325.

Barberry, flowers of, 92.
South, no modern formations on Barrande, M., on Silurian colonies, 274.
west coast, 254.

on the succession of species, 284.
Ammonites, sudden extincti

on parallelism of palæozoić forma
Anagallis, sterility of, 219.

tions, 287.
Analogy of variations, 143.

on affinities of ancient species, 288.
Ancylus, 336.

Barriers, importance of, 303.
Animals, not domesticated from being Batrachians on islands, 342.
variable, 23.

Bats, how structure acquired, 163.
domestic, 'descended from several distribution of, 343.
stocks, 24.

Bear, catching water-insects, 165.
acclimatisation of, 129.

Bee, sting of, 180.
of Australia, 108.

queen, killing rivals, 180.
with thicker fur in cold climates, 122. Bees fertilising flowers, 71.
blind, in cayes, 125.

hive, not sucking the red clover:
extinct, of Australia, 296.

Anomma, 213.

hive, cell-making instinct, 200.
Antarctic islands, ancient flora of, 347.

humble, cells of, 200.
Antirrhinum, 145.

parasitic, 195.
Ants attending aphides,

Beetles, wingless, in Madeira, 124.
slave-making instinct, 195.

with deficient tarsi, 123.
Ants, neuter, structure of, 209.

Bentham, Mr., on British plants, 49.
Aphides attended by ants, 188,

on classification, 365.
Aphis, development of, 384.

Berkeley, Mr., on seeds in salt-water, 312
Apteryx, 163.

Bermuda, birds of, 341.
Arab horses, 38.

Birds acquiring fear, 189.
Aralo-Caspian Sea, 296.

annually cross the Atlantic, 317.
Archiac, M. de, on succession of species, colour of, on continents, 121.

fossil, in caves of Brazil, 296.

[ocr errors]

Birds of Madeira, Bermuda, and Gala- | Classification, 360.
pagos, 340.

Clift, Mr., on the succession of types, 295.
Bong of males, 84.

Climate, effects of, in checking increase of
transporting seeds, 315.

beings, 67.
waders, 337.

adaptation of, to organisms, 127.
wingless, 123, 163.

Cobites, intestine of, 170.
with traces of embryonic teeth, 391. Cockroach, 74.
Bizcacha, 305.

Collections, palæontological, poor, 252
affinities of, 373.

Colour, influenced by climate, 121.
Bladder for swimming in fish, 170.

in relation to attacks by flies, 177.
Blindness of cave animals, 126.

Columba livia, parent of domestic pigeons,
Blyth, Mr., on distinctness of Indian cat-


Colymbetes, 336.
on striped Hemionus, 147.

Compensation of growth, 134.
on crossed geese, 224.

Compositæ, outer and inner florets of, 131.
Boar, shoulder-pad of, 84.

male flowers of, 392.
Borrow, Mr., on the Spanish pointer, 38. Conclusion, general, 416.
Bory St. Vincent on Batrachians, 342. Conditions, slight changes in, favourable
Bosquet, M., on fossil Chthamalus, 266.

to fertility, 235.
Boulders, erratic, on the Azores, 316. Coot, 166.
Branchiæ, 170.

Coral-islands, seeds drifted to, 315.
Brent, Mr., on house-tumblers, 191.

reefs, indicating movements of earth,
on hawks killing pigeons, 315.

Brewer, Dr., on American cuckoo, 193. Corn-crake, 166.
Britain, mammals of, 344.

Correlation of growth in domestic produc-
Bronn on duration of specific forms, 257.

tions, 18.
Brown, Robert, on classification, 361.

of growth, 130, 177.
Buckman on variation in plants, 17. Cowslip, 51.
Buzareingues on sterility of varieties, 238. Creation, single centres of, 307.

Crinum, 221.
Cabbage, varieties of, crossed, 93.

Crosses, reciprocal, 228.
Calceolaria, 222.

Crossing of domestic animals, importance
Canary-birds, sterility of hybrids, 223.

in altering breeds, 25.
Cape de Verde Islands, 347.

advantages of, 91.
Cape of Good Hope, plants of, 102, 326.

unfavourable to selection, 96.
Carrier-pigeons killed by hawks, 315. Crustacea of New Zealand, 327.
Cassini on flowers of compositæ, 131. Crustacean, blind, 125.
Catasetum, 369.

Cryptocerus, 211.
Cats, with blue eyes, deaf, 18.

Ctenomys, blind, 125.
variation in habits of, 86.

Cuckoo, instinct of, 193.
curling tail when going to spring, 179. Currants, grafts of, 231.
Cattle destroying fir-trees, 69.

Currents of sea, rate of, 313.
destroyed by flies in La Plata, 70. Cuvier on conditions of existence, 184.
breeds of, locally extinct, 103.

on fossil monkeys, 265.
fertility of Indian and European Fred., on instinct, 186.

breeds, 225.
Cave, inhabitants of, blind, 125.

Dana, Prof., on blind cave-animals, 126.
Centres of creation, 307.

on relations of crustaceans of Japan,
Cephalopodæ, development of, 384.

Cervulus, 224.

on crustaceans of New Zealand, 327.
Cetacea, teeth and hair, 131.

De Candolle on struggle for existence, 61.
Ceylon, plants of, 326.

on umbelliferæ, 132.
Chalk formation, 282.

on general affinities, 374.
Characters, divergence of, 103.

Alph, on low plants, widely dis-
sexual, variable, 141.

persed, 353.
adaptive or analogical, 371.

on widely-ranging plants being va
Charlock, 74.

riable, 54.
Checks to increase, 66.

on naturalisation, 107.
mutual, 69.

on winged seeds, 133.
Chickens, instinctive tameness of, 192.

on Alpine species suddenly becom.
Chthamalinæ, 253.

ing rare, 157.
Chthamalus, cretacean species of, 266.

on distribution of plants with large
Circumstances favourable to selection of

seeds, 314.
domestic products, 42.

on vegetation of Australia, 330.
to natural selection, 95.

on fresh-water plants, 336.
Cirripedes capable of crossing, 95.

on insular plants, 339.
carapace aborted, 134.

Degradation of coast rocks, 248.
their ovigerous frena, 172.

Denudation, rate of, 250.
fossil, 266.

of oldest rocke, 269.
. larvio of, 383.

Development of ancient forms, 2

of sowers of, hot, in relation

Devonian system, 292.

Fertility of hybrids, 221.
Dianthus, fertility of crosses, 226.

from slight changes in conditions,
Dirt on feet of birds, 316.

Dispersal, means of, 311.

of crossed varieties, 236.
during glacial period, 318.

Fir-trees destroyed by cattle, 69.
Distribution, geographical, 302.

pollen of, 181.
means of, 311.

Fish, Aying, 163. .
Disuse, effects of, under nature, 122.

teleostean, sudden appearance of, 267.
Divergence of character, 103.

eating seeds, 337.
Division, physiological, of labour, 107.

fresh-water, 'distribution of, 335.
Dogs, hairless, with imperfect teeth, 18. Fishes, ganoid, now confined to freshi
descended from several wild stocks,

water, 100.

electric organs of, 172.
domestic instincts of, 190.

ganoid, living in fresh water, 281.
inherited civilization of, 192.

of southern hemisphere, 327.
fertility of breeds together, 224

Flight, powers of, how acquired, 163.
of crosses, 236.

Flowers, structure of, in relation to cross-
proportions of, when young, 386.

ing, 91.
Domestication, variation under, 14.

of compositæ and umbelliferæ, 131.
Downing, Mr., on fruit-trees in America, 8 Forbes, E., on colours of shells, 121.
Downe, North and South, 250.

on abrupt range of shells in depth,
Dragon-flies, intestines of, 170.

Drift-timber, 314.

on poorness of palæontological col-
Driver-ant, 213.

lections, 252.
Drones killed by other bees, 180.

on continuous succession of genera,
Duck, domestic, wings of, reduced, 17.

logger-headed, 163.

on continental extensions, 311.
Duckweed, 336.

on distribution during glacial period,
Dugong, affinities of, 360.

Dung-beetles with deficient tarsi, 124.

on parallelism in time and space,356.
Dyticus, 336.

Forests, changes in, in America, 72.

Formation, Devonian, 292.
Earl, Mr. W., on the Malay Archipelago, Formations, thickness of, in Britain, 249.

intermittent, 254.
Ears, drooping, in domestic animals, 17. Formica rufescens, 195.
Rudimentary, 394.

sanguinea, 195.
Earth, seeds in roots of trees, 314.

flava, neuter of, 212.
Eciton, 211.

Frena, ovigerous, of cirripedes, 172.
Economy of organisation, 134.

Fresh-water productions, dispersal of,
Edentata, teeth and hair, 131.

fossil species of, 296.

Fries on species in large genera being
Edwards, Milne, on physiological divisions closely allied to other species, 53.
of labour, 107.

Frigate-bird, 166.
on gradations of structure, 173. Frogs on islands, 342.

on embryological characters, 364. Fruit-trees, gradual improvement of, 40.
Eggs, young birds escaping from, 83.

in United States, 81.
Electric organs, 172.

varieties of, acclimatised in United
Elephant, rate of increase, 63.

States, 129,
of glacial period, 128.

Fuci, crossed, 228.
Embryology, 381.

Fur, 'thicker in cold climates, 132
Existence, struggle for, 60.

Furze, 382.
conditions of, 184.
Extinction, 277.

Galapagos Archipelago, birds of, 840.
as bearing on natural selection, 102. productions of, 347, 348.
of domestic varieties, 103.

Galeopithecus, 162.
Eye, structure of, 167.

Game, increase of, checked by vermin, 67.
correction for aberration, 180. Gartner on sterility of hybrids, 219, 225.
Eyes reduced in moles, 125.

on reciprocal crosses, 228

on crossed maize and verbascum,
Fabre, M., on parasitic sphex, 195.

Falconer, Dr., on naturalisation of plants on comparison of hybrids and mon
in India, 64

grele, 240.
on fossil crocodile, 274.

Geese, fertility when crossed, 224.
on elephants and mastodons, 292.

upland, 166.
Falkland Island, wolf of, 343.

Genealogy important in classification, 370.
Faults, 250.

Geoffroy St. Hilaire on balancement, 183,
Faunas, marine, 304.

on homologous organs, 378.
Fear, instinctive, in birds, 189.

Isidore, on variability of repeated
Feet of birds, young molluscs adhering to, parts, 185.

on correlation in monstrosities, 18.

« PreviousContinue »