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according act of parliament afford altogether amount ancient ancient Greece annual annuities assessed attention bank of England bounty branch Britain capital cent church clergy colonies commerce common consumer consumption court defraying duties of customs East India Eastland Company employed England equal established Europe excise exclusive privilege expense exportation fall fame manner foreign forts and garrisons France frequently fund greater houses Hudson's Bay Company imposed interest joint stock company land-tax landlord less levied maintain malt manufactures ment merchants millions Minorca monopoly natural necessarily necessary nerally obliged occasion paid pany parliament particular payment perhaps persons philosophy present principal private copartnery produce profit proportion proprietors provinces public debt public revenue quantity raise regulated company render rent of land respect Royal African Company seldom shillings society sometimes sophisms South Sea Company sovereign supposed taxation teachers tion trade universities whole
Page 165 - Where it is otherwise, every person subject to the tax is put more or less in the power of the tax-gatherer, who can either aggravate the tax upon any obnoxious contributor, or extort, by the terror of such aggravation, some present or perquisite to himself.
Page 92 - In such societies the varied occupations of every man oblige every man to exert his capacity, and to invent expedients for removing difficulties which are continually occurring. Invention is kept alive, and the mind is not suffered to fall into that drowsy stupidity which, in a civilized society, seems to benumb the understanding of almost all the inferior ranks of people.
Page 91 - The man whose whole life is spent in performing a few simple operations, of which the effects too are, perhaps, always the same, or very nearly the same, has no occasion to exert his understanding or to exercise his invention in finding out expedients for removing difficulties which never occur. He naturally loses, therefore, the habit of such exertion, and generally becomes as stupid and ignorant as it is possible for a human creature to become.
Page 166 - Taxes upon such consumable goods as are articles of luxury are -all finally paid by the consumer, and generally in a manner that is very convenient for him. He pays them by little and little, as he has occasion to buy the goods.
Page 337 - The foresight of the heavy and unavoidable burdens of war would hinder the people from wantonly calling for it when there was no real or solid interest to fight for.
Page 53 - A temporary monopoly of this kind may be vindicated upon the same principles upon which a like monopoly of a new machine is granted to its inventor, and that of a new book to its author.
Page 166 - The certainty of what each individual ought to pay is, in taxation, a matter of so great importance, that a very considerable degree of inequality, it appears, I believe, from the experience of all nations, is not near so great an evil as a .very small degree of uncertainty.
Page 240 - By necessaries I understand not only the commodities which are indispensably necessary for the support of life, but whatever the custom of the country renders it indecent for creditable people, even of the lowest order, to be without.
Page 33 - The directors of such companies, however, being the managers rather of other people's money than of their own, it cannot well be expected, that they should watch over it with the same anxious vigilance with which the partners in a private copartnery frequently watch over their own.