## A TREATISE ON THE PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE OF LEVELLING |

### From inside the book

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**CHAINS**. 13 LOGARITHMIC RULE FOR COMPUTING DITTO . LEVELLING INSTRUMENTS ... The Y Level , Troughton's Improved Level , Dumpy Level . Levelling Staves , 14 16 The Iron Tripod , The Measuring**Chain**. ON INSTRUMENTAL PARALLAX 23 ON THE ... Page 12

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**chains**. Table of the Difference of the Apparent and True Lev Distances in Miles . Distance in Miles . CORRECTION . Curvature . Curvature and Refraction . feet . inches . feet . inches . 1 3 4 7 H + HAMT HQMHLO COM 0 0.5 0 0.4 0 2.0 0 ... Page 13

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**Chains**. Distance in**Chains**. CORRECTION . Curvature in decimals of feet . Curvature and Refraction in decimals of feet . TABLO CON∞O 1 .000104 .000089 2 .000417 .000358 .000938 .000804 .001668 .001430 5 .002605 .002233 .003752 .003216 ... Page 18

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**chains**( a quarter of a mile ) distant , which was the utmost we could do with a twenty - inch level upon the old construction ; we have , therefore , the advantage of a more portable instrument , fourteen inches in length , capable of ... Page 21

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**CHAIN**. In levelling operations it is in most cases necessary to note the relative distances of the staves from each ...**chain**; the one commonly used is 4 poles in length , called Gunter's**chain**, which is divided into 100 links of 7.92 ...### Other editions - View all

### Common terms and phrases

50 base adjustment approximate point b₁ b₂ back sight back staff bench mark calculations centre line centre stake chain clinometer Cloth computed half width construction correct cross wires curvature curve cuttings and embankments datum line depth of cutting determined diagram difference of level direction distance Dover Castle Dumpy Level earth edition engraving equal example field-book Folkstone Foot of bank Fore Sight forward reading forward station give gradient ground Gunter's chain horizontal line hypothenuse Hypsometry Illustrated inches inclined plane instrument J. P. WHITNEY length line A B lines of railway mean height measured Merrimack River method middle area mile object glass observer obtain outer rail parallax perpendicular placed plates point a₁ point H practice radius ratio Reduced Levels refraction represent right angles slope spirit-level stones subtracted superelevation surveyor Tables tangent telescope theodolite tion Top of bank Treatise turnpike road yards

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