# A Treatise on Surveying: Comprising the Theory and the Practice

D. Appleton and Company, 1887 - Surveying - 692 pages

### Contents

 ARTICLE 67 Instrumentally 73 Surveying by diagonals 82 Chainangles 88 Optical square 95 Equalizing 101 By perpendiculars 130 Principle 165
 Use of instrument 480 Third adjustment 486 CHAP PAGE 489 Direct leveling 492 PART VI 498 ARTICLE 508 The level 514 Locating New Lines 518

 The points 171 ARTICLE 186 ARTICLE 284 Movement of objective and eye 290 Parallel plates 296 The theodolite 303 PART II 337 ARTICLE 374 General method 382 General statement 389 When they are not adjacent 261 395 Principles 399 To lay out circles 401 PART III 407 To part off a triangle 413 To part off any figure 419 Signs for miscellaneous objects 428 PART IV 442 By lines starting from points in 447 General system 455 PART V 471 301 472
 APPENDIX B Transversals Harmonic Division etc 532 Levels 7 341 9 Scales 19 Compassvernier 4 With a scale of chords 5 To interpolate a base 8 APPENDIX 9 First form of fieldbook 15 By a random line 16 Pins 17 PART VI 40 Vertical surveying 46 342 49 With a table of chords 50 By pantagraph 57 Perambulator and odometer 15 58 Tangent scale 73 TABLES 87 Verniers 107 Copyright

### Popular passages

Page 293 - And in all cases where the exterior lines of the townships, thus to be subdivided into sections or half sections, shall exceed or shall not extend six miles, the excess or deficiency shall be specially noted, and added to or deducted from the western and northern ranges of sections or half sections in such township, according as the error may be in. running the lines from east to west, or from south to north.
Page 513 - Every circumference is regarded as being divided into 360 equal parts, called degrees. Each degree is divided into 60 equal parts, called minutes, and each minute into 60 seconds. These divisions are indicated by the marks ° ' ". Thus 28 degrees, 17 minutes, and 49 seconds, are written 28° 17
Page 305 - Prior to piling up the earth, in a cavity, formed at the corner boundary point, is to be deposited a stone, or a portion of charcoal; or a charred stake is to be driven twelve inches down into such center point to be a witness for the future.
Page 299 - ... to be surveyed in tracts of two acres in width, fronting on any river, bayou, lake, or water-course, and running back the depth of forty acres...
Page 304 - From quarter section and meander corners two bearing trees are to be marked, one within each of the adjoining sections. Stones at township corners (a small monument of stones being alongside thereof) must have six notches cut with a pick or chisel on each edge or side towards the cardinal points ; and where used as section corners on the range and township lines, or as section corners in the interior of a township, they will also be notched by a pick or chisel, to correspond with the directions given...
Page 298 - ... vary the mode heretofore prescribed by law, so far as relates to the contents of the tracts, and to the angles and boundary lines, and to lay out the same into tracts as far as practicable, of fifty-eight poles in front and four hundred and sixty-five poles in depth, of such shape, and bounded by such lines as the nature of the country will render practicable, and most convenient: Provided however.
Page 292 - ... six miles square, — two things involving in connection a mathematical impossibility — for, strictly to conform to the meridian, necessarily throws the township out of square, by reason of the convergency of meridians...
Page 304 - Whenever bearing trees are not found, MOUNDS of earth, or stone, are to be raised around posts on which the corners are to be marked in the manner aforesaid. Wherever a mound of earth is adopted, the same...
Page 301 - ... traced, the blazes to be opposite each other, coinciding in direction with the line where the trees stand very near it, and to approach nearer each other, the further the line passes from the blazed trees. Due care must ever be taken to have the lines so well marked as to be readily followed.
Page 10 - If foot for each degree of Fahrenheit. If a wind blows with or against the movement of the sound, its velocity must be added or subtracted. If it blows obliquely, the correction will evidently equal its velocity multiplied by the cosine of the angle which the direction of the wind makes with the direction of the sound.* If the gun be fired at each end of the base in turn, and the means of the times taken, the effect of the wind -will be eliminated. If a watch is not at hand, suspend a pebble to a...