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of the disguised Juturna. So Heyne, who makes successu here equivalent to processu. Wagner, however, refers the language of the text to the success of the equestrian conflict.

621. Dirersá ab urbe. “ From the city, lying, as it does, in a different quarter from the fight.” The city was in his rear. -626. Prima rictoria, i. e. the success we have thus far met with.-630. Nec numero inferior, &c. “ Nor shalt thou retire from the field inferior (to thy opponent) in the number of the slain or in the honour of the fight.”

634. Nequidquam fallis. " In vain dost thou seek to escape my observation.” Fallis is equivalent to the Greek Aavdáveis.-638. Vidi oculos, &c. Virgil has made no mention before of Turnus's having been an eyewitness to the death of Murranus. It is reserved for this place, in order to come in with more force.-641. Ufens. Slain by the Trojan Gyas. Compare line 460.-643. Rebus. “To our (fallen) affairs."—646. Usque adeone mori miserum est. This hemistich was quoted by Nero, when hesitating about putting himself to death. (Sueton. Vit. Ner. 47.)647. Quoniam superis, &c. “Since with the gods above the inclination to save is turned away for me.” -648. Culpæ. Equivalent to ignominiæ, and referring to the “foul disgrace” of fight.

657. Mussat. \Equivalent to tacite deliberat.-549. Tui fidissima. "(Who was ever) most faithful to thy interests.” Bothe conjectures tibi.-664. Tu currum deserto, &c. “Thou, meanwhile, art wheeling thy chariot to and fro in a remote quarter of the field.” Deserto in gramine is, as Heyne remarks, equivalent to extremo campo.

665. Variá imagine rerum, i. e. by the various events detailed in the brief narrative of Saces, all of them more or less disastrous.667. Uno in corde. Compare note on x. 871.-671. Rotis. For curru. 672. Flammis inter tabulata, &c. “A spire of flames, after having rolled amid the different stories, was curling upward to the sky.”

680. Hunc, oro, sine me furere ante furorem. “Permit me, I entreat, to indulge first in this maddening feeling (that now comes over me).” As regards the force of ante, compare the explanatory remark of Heyne : “Ante, ante quam morte patiar quidquid acerbi est.”-Furere furorem. A frequent construction in both the Greek and Latin, as well as our own language. Compare vivere vitam, currere cursum, &c.

686. Aut sublapsa vetustas. “Or time, gliding imperceptibly by.”687. Mons. “ The mountain-fragment.' -694. Verius. just.”

699. Præcipitatque moras omnes. “ And removes quickly every hinderance.” Compare viii. 443.—Rumpit. “ Interrupts." Literally,“ breaks through,” i. e. leaves unfinished.—701. Quantus Athos, &c. Heyne cites Milton (P. L. iv. 984): Dilated stood, like Teneriffe or Athos, unremoved." Ipse. As being near at hand.—703. Pater. Apenninus. So called because the parent source or father of so many rivers, which take their rise among its eminences, and water the plains of Italy, emptying into the Tuscan Sea to the east, and the Adriatic to the west.-706. Pulsabant ariete muros. Consult note on č. 492.-707. Humeris. “From their shoulders.” Compare line 130, scuta reclinant.”—709. Et cernere. “ And are preparing to contend.” Cernere for decernere.

710. Vacuo æquore. “In unobstructed extent.”—712. Inoadunt Martem. “ Rush to the conflict.”—Clypeis et ære sonoro. Hendiadys. 714. Fors et virtus. This applies equally to both combatants.--715.

“ It is more


Sila. A large forest in the territory of the Bruttii.- Taburno. Mount Taburnus, between Campania, Samnium, and Apulia. It is now Monte Taburo in Terra di Lavoro.717. Magistri. “ The herdsmen." -718. Mussant. “Faintly low.” After this we must supply dubiæ, or something equivalent.-722. Nemus. Put here for the pastureground itself, more or less covered with trees.

725. Duas æquato examine lances. “A pair of equally balanced scales.” Lanx denotes the metallic dish, two of which were used in the Libra, and but one in the Statera, or steelyard.-Aquato examine. Literally, “ with balanced tongue.” Examen means the tongue or needle of the scales.-727. Quem damnet labor. “ (In order to ascertain) which one the toilsome conflict is to doom," i. e. to destruction.-Et quo vergat pondere letum. “ And in what direction death is to sink (downward) with its own weight.” Quo is equivalent to quam in partem, and must not be construed with pondere. With pondere supply suo. The fates, remarks Valpy, are not at Jupiter's discretion: he can but examine and inquire into futurity.

728. Emicat hic, impune putans. “Here Turnus leaps forth, thinking he might with safety (do this).”—733. Ni fuga subsidio subeat. “Unless flight come to his aid.” Something must be supplied by the mind before this clause, intimating that Turnus would certainly have perished, had not, &c.—734. Capulum ignotum.“ The stranger hilt.” He had struck the blow with the sword of Metiscus, not his own, and therefore, the hilt remaining after the blow is termed " ignotum,i. e. alienum.737. Dum trepidat, i. e. in his haste.—739. Arma Vulcania. As worn by Æneas. Vulcania equivalent, in fact, to a Vulcano fabricata.

743. Incertos implicat orbes. “ Wheels round irregularly in his flight.” Literally, “ folds irregular circuits (one within the other).”746. Tardante sagitta. “By reason of the retarding arrow-wound.” The arrow for the wound inflicted by it.—750. Punicece formidine pennce. Consult note on iv. 120.—753. Vividus Umber. 66 The Umbrian hound, all alive for the pursuit."

761. Si quisquam adeat. Heyne attempts to justify this conduct on the part of Æneas by regarding it as an imitation of Homeric times, and he refers to the well-known conflict between Achilles and Hector, where the latter, when wounded, is pursued by the former. Be this, however, as it may, the character of Æneas certainly suffers by the act.—763. Retexunt. They retrace."-764. Levia aut ludicra.

Slight in their character, or such as are contended for in athletic encounters,” i. e. in the public games or ludi.

769. Votas destes. The vestments they had vowed to consecrate to him, if preserved from shipwreck. This was an ordinary custom.770. Nullo discrimine. “With no feeling of reverence." Literally, “ with no (exercise of) discrimination," i. e. as regarded its sacred character.-771. Puro. For non impedito.772. Stabut. The spear stood fixed here, having been thrown at Turnus (line 711).-775. -Sequi. “To overtake.”—785. Ensein. “His own sword.”—786. Quod licere. “That this was permitted.”—789. Arduus. Referring to the attitude of Æneas; not, as Heyne says, equivalent to elatus animo.

794. Indigetem. “ As a deified hero." By indigetes are meant men deified, or worshipped as gods after death. Æneas was deified after death' under the title of Jupiter indiges. (Liv. i. 2.)—796. Gelidis in nubibus. Alluding to her still being engaged in wit

nessing the fight.—797. Mortalin decuit, &c. “ Was it becoming that one destined for the honours of divinity should be violated by a mortal wound ?" i. e. inflicted by a mortal. Jupiter alludes to the wound inflicted through the agency of Juturna, who had herself been instigated by Juno. (Compare line 134, seqq.)- Didum. Æneas is already called thus, as one destined for divinity.-800. Victis, i. e. to a conquered one, to one already as good as conquered. Consult Wagner, ad loc.-801. Et mihi curæ, &c., i. e, nor let such cares as these so frequently be the subject of thy converse with me. According to Heyne, whose opinion is followed by Wagner, et here takes the place of nec, just as, in line 825, aut is found for nec.

804. Infandum bellum. “ An unhallowed war.” Because origi. nating in a violation of a solemn compact, namely, the truce between Æneas and Latinus.-805. Deformare domum. “ To spread gloom over an entire house,” i. e. the family of Latinus.Hymenæos. A (promised) union.” Alluding to the marriage of Æneas and Lavinia. -806. Orsus. “ Spoke.” Supply est.-811. The expression digna, indigna, is a kind of proverbial one, and meant, in fact, “all things, whether worthy or unworthy.” Compare “ æqua, iniqua;” and again, “ fanda, infanda.” In order to complete the sense of this passage, we must supply “ nisi hoc ita se haberet," i. e. were this not so ; did I not know that such was thy will and pleasure.

814. Suasi. Compare line 157.- Pro vita. “ For (his) life.”816. Adjuro Stygii caput, &c. “ I swear by the inexorable source of the Stygian water (that what I here say is true).” Compare, as regards the oath of the gods by the river Styx, the note on vi. 324.Implacabile. Because not to be appeased if such an oath be vio. lated.—817. Una superstitio, &c. “ The only obligation that is im. posed on the gods above,” i. e. an oath that forms the only solemn obligation that a deity dare not violate.—818. Exosa. “With feelings of deep loathing."

819. Tenetur. “ Is prevented.” Literally, “is held (fettered),” or “ is restrained.”—820. Pro majestate tuorum “ For the dignity of thy own kindred." Saturn, the father of Jove, had reigned in Latium during the golden age, and from him Latinus was descended.--823. Indigenas Latinos. “The Latins, the children of the soil.” Assigning to the race an autochthonous origin.-825. Vocem. “ Their language.” Observe the alliteration in this line.— 826. Sit Latium. “Let Latium exist.”—828. Occideritque sinas, &c. Juno begs that the name of Troy may never be revived.

829. Hominum rerumque repertor. “The parent of men and things." During the fabled reign of Saturn, observes Valpy, the wants of men were supplied without labour; on Jupiter's accession they were obliged to have recourse to industry and the arts for their support.833. Me remitto. "Do I yield me (to thy prayer).”—835. Commixti corpore tantum, &c. “ Only commingled with the body (of the race), thé Trojans shall settle down in the land.”—836. Morem ritusque sacrorum adjiciam. “I will add (merely to those already existing) the sacred usages and rites (of the new comers).”——837. Uno ore. “ With one common tongue."

839. Supra deos. Mere poetic exaggeration, to indicate the illustrious character of the race.—840. Æque. “With equal zeal." Juno was highly honoured among the Romans, particularly by the females. -841. Retorsit. According to Heyne, equivalent to mutavit.—842. Coelo. The sky is here meant as the region of clouds, &c., not the


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main heavens. She retires from the sky to her Jálapos, or own apartment on Olympus. (Hom. Il. xiv. 166, seqq.)

844. Fratris ab armis. “From aiding her brother's arms.”—845. Dicuntur geminæ pestes, &c. “ There are two pests called by name the Dire (sisters).” The allusion is to Alecto and Tisiphone, the Furies.-846. Et. “ And along with them.” Megæra, the third : Fury, is now mentioned.--849. Sævi regis. Pluto.-850. Apparent, i. e. they wait there to execute the orders of both deities.—854. In

“As a fatal sign.”—858. Cydon. “ Cydonian,” i. e. Cretan. The Cydonians were the inhabitants of Cydon, a city of Crete, and stand here for the whole race. According to Lucian (Nigrin. vol. ii. 79), the Cretans were accustomed to poison their arrows.-859. Incognita. Invisible,” i. e. passing with such rapidity as to be invisible.

862. Collecta. “Shrunk up."-863. Quæ quondam in bustis, &c. The poet is supposed to mean one of the smaller species of owl.-864. Importuna. “Of evil omen.”—869. Dira. “Of the dire sister.”—873. Durce mihi. “For me a cruel one." Servius : “Duræ, immiti, quæ posset fratrem cernere tot laboribus subditum.-876. Obscence volucres. “ Ye birds of evil omen," i. e. thou art one of this class of birds.Verbera. “ The lash-like flappings.”—877. Fallunt. “ Escape me.” She is no stranger to the mandates of Jove.—879. Quo. “Wherefore." Some read cur.

888. Arboreum. “ Tree-like,” i. e. in size like the trunk of a tree. -891. Et contrahe, quidquid, &c. “ And collect whatever powerful means are thine either in courage or in skill.”—892. Opta ardua pennis, &c. The idea intended to be conveyed is simply this : do what thou wilt, go where thou wilt, thou canst not escape me. 896. Circumspicit.

“He looks round and espies.” Having no spear to hurl, he casts instead of it a mighty stone, after the fashion of Homer's heroes.-898. Litem ut discerneret arvis.

“ That it might settle some controversy respecting the division of fields,” i. e. some controversy about limits. So Forcellini.-899. Vix illud lecti, &c. Imitated from Homer (Il. v. 303, seqq. &c.).—903. Sed neque currentem, &c. “But he knows not himself even while running,” &c. i. e. he feels that his accustomed strength and speed have departed.—907. Nec edasit, &c. “Neither cleared the whole intervening space, nor inflicted,” &c.

911. Corpore. Not the dative for corpori, as some assert, but the regular ablative.-914. Sensus vertuntur varii.

“ Various designs are formed by him.”—920. Sortitus fortunam oculis. “ Having marked out with his eyes the vulnerable spot,” i. e. the spot that fortune gave. So Heyne.—Corpore toto. 6 With his whole force."--921. Murali concita tormento. “Shot from some battering engine.” Literally, some engine for walls,” i. e. to be employed against them. The reference is to a balista,

935. Et me, &c. A speech not unworthy of a brave man, He shrinks not from death, nor yet will he refuse the boon of life.-936. Victum. “Him whom thou hast overcome.” Referring to himself. -940. Sermo. “ The speech of his fallen foe.”—942. Balteus. Compare x. 496.—952. Indignata. Indignant at its untimely fate.

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