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273. Ad medium, &c. “In the middle, where the sewed belt is worn by the stomach, and a clasp confines the extremities of the same," i. e. the extremities of the belt.—274. Laterum juncturas. The two ends of the belt fastened in front by a clasp or buckle.—280. Inundant. “ Inundate (the plain).” Supply campum. More freely,

“pour themselves over the field.”—281. Agyllina. Compare viii. 478, seq.Pictis armis. Bacchylides, as quoted by Servius, states that the Arcadians used to have the images of the gods painted on their shields. The poet, therefore, may be alluding here to a national custom. The expression, however, “picta arma,as applied to Pallas in (viii. 588), is generally understood in a different sense. (Consult note, ad loc.)

285. Crateras focosque ferunt.“ (The ministers of the sacrifice) bear away the bowls (used in libation), and the (sacred) hearths.”— Focos. Wagner thinks that these were either altars made of brass (altaria ex ære facta), or else pans (batilli) for holding ignited coals.286. Pulsatos dicos. “ His insulted gods."

287. Currus. “The car-drawing steeds.”—288. Subjiciunt. “Spring." Motion from under, upward, is often represented by verbs compounded with the preposition sub.-292. Oppositis a tergo aris.

“ Amid the altars that opposed from behind,” i. e. that stood erected behind him, and opposed his retreat.-—294. Trabali. “ Like a beam.” Equivalent to instar trabis. Servius says that this epithet is borrowed from Ennius.

296. Huc habet. “He has got it.” Literally," he has got this (wound).” Supply vulnus. An exclamation used by the spectators at gladiatorial combats when either of the contending parties received a wound. The more common form, however, was simply habet.299. Ebuso. Ebusus appears to have been one of the followers of Mezentius, and to have worn his beard after the Etrurian fashion. Corynæus was a Trojan.— Ferenti. “ Aiming.” For inferenti.-300. Occupat os flammis. “Anticipates by dashing the flames full into his face.”—301. Super secutus. “Having followed up the blow.

304. Podalirius. ` A Trojan.-306. Superimminet. Well describes the attitude of one who, with uplifted arm, is in the act of coming down upon another with a heavy blow.

312. Nudato capite. This is in accordance with the piety of the hero, who did not wish, by assuming his helmet on this occasion, to appear to be taking up arms and participating in the violation of the league. This explanation, moreover, harmonizes with the sentiments expressed in his speech.-315. Concurrere. Referring to his combat with Turnus.-317. Turnum debent mihi, i. e. have pledged to me that the combat shall take place.

320. Quo turbine adacta. “ By what force driven to its mark.” Turbine is here a poetic expression for motu vehemente, or magno. -322. Pressa est. For suppressa est.

327. Manibus. “With his own hands." He is here represented as mounting his chariot alone, without his charioteer ; but at line 469 his charioteer, Metiscus, is mentioned. Wagner regards this, therefore, as one of the passages that would liave been altered by Virgil, had he lived to revise his poem.-330. Raptas. Caught by him," i. e. from his own car, not from the bodies of the slain, as some explain it.

335. Thraca. “ Thrace.” From the Greek Opýrn, in Æolo-Doric θρακα. .

345. Vel conferre manum, &c. “ For fighting either from on foot, or from a chariot.”—347. Antiqui Dolonis. The epithet antiqui carries with it here somewhat of the force of nobilis, but, of course, in an ironical sense, since Homer gives no very wariike character to Dolon. (11. x. 299, seq.)Bello præclara. This, with animo manibusque parentem, that follows, must also be taken ironically.-350. Ausus Pelidæ, &c. He had been promised as a reward the chariot and steeds of Achilles, in case the Trojans should, through his means, prove successful. This reward he himself had named.351. Tydides. As he was approaching the Grecian camp for the purpose of exploring it, he encountered Diomede and Ulysses, who had been despatched to the Trojan camp on a similar errand, and he was put to death by the former.

354. Ante levi jaculo, &c. “Having first hurled at him with fleet javelin through a long intervening space,” i. e. from a considerable distance. Secutus for insecutus.-356. Semianimi lapsoque. He had been struck by the javelin which Turnus hurled, and had fallen to the ground.— 357.- Mucronem. Turnus, having discharged his own spear, wrests the other's sword out of his hand, with which to de. spatch him.-360. Jacens. “ As thou liest there,” i. e. with thy length.

364. Sternacis equi. Of his fiercely-plunging steed.” Compare Servius : “Sternacis equi, ferocis, qui facile sternit sedentem.”—365. Edoni. For Thracii. The Edones were a people of Thrace, on the left bank of the Strymon, and their name, as well as their appellative formed from it, is often used to desiguate the whole of Thrace.370. Adrerso curru. “ In his car borne onward against it,” i.e. against the breeze.

372. Frenis. For circum frena.—-374. Retectum. “Unprotected.” Turnus wounds him in the side, where he was undefended at the moment by his shield.-375. Bilicem. Consult note on iii. 467.—376. Degustat. “ Grazes.” A figurative expression. The spear slightly drinks his blood.

386. Alternos gressus. We may infer from this that the wound had been inflicted in one of his thighs, and had rendered the entire limb lame.—387. Infractâ arundine. “ The shaft being broken off.”—390. Rescindantque penitus. “And lay quite open.”

393. Suas artes. The arts over which Apollo presided were, Ist. Prophecy. 2d. Music. 3d. Archery. 4th. The healing art.-394. Dabat. “Offered to bestow.” Observe the force of the imperfect. 395. Ut depositi proferret, &c. “ That he might prolong the destiny of his parent, laid out (as near expiring.)” Fata for citam.-397. Mutas. Because unheralded by fame.

400. Ille. “ The other.” Referring to Iapis.—401. Pæoniam in morem, &c. “ Having his robe girt up after Pæonian fashion," i. e. after the manner of his craft, in order to operate more conveniently. Pæon, often confounded with Apollo, was the physician of the gods.—402. Multa trepidat. "Full of trepidation, tries many an expedient.”404. Sollicitat. “Essays," i. e. strives to loosen.-405. Nulla viam fortuna regit. “ No success crowns this mode of proceeding." Literally, “ directs.”-Auctor. “ The author of his art,” i. e. his patron-deity.406. Horror. Equivalent here to terror. Put, as Heyne remarks, pro causâ horrendi.-407. Coelum stare. “ The air stand thick."

412. Dictamnun. “The herb dittany.” This, observes Valpy, is the Origanum dictamnus, cultivated in hothouses under the name

“ Had

dittany of Crete. It was found by Sibthorp in that island, and in no other part of the Levant.-413. Puberibus caulem foliis, &c. “A stem all blooming with downy leaves and bright-hued flowers.” The longer leaves of this plant, according to Valpy, are woolly. large, upright pinnacle of very handsome flowers, rose-coloured or white, terminates each stem.-414. Illa gramina. “ This kind of pasture,” i. e. the cropping of this herb.

417. Hoc fusum labris, &c. “With this she impreguates the water poured within the bright lips (of the vase), secretly medicating it,” &c. By ambrosia is here meant, not the so-called food of the gods, but a species of heavenly unguent, to sooth the pain of a wound.-419. Panaceam. The herb all-heal, or panacea, of which Pliny enumerates several kinds.—422. Quippe. “As may well be imagined.” Literally, “ in very truth. Equivalent to the Greek particle on. Compare note on i. 59.—424. Atque novæ rediere, &c. “And his powers returned anew to their former state." In pristina for in pristinum.

427. Arte magistrá. “From any mastering skill of mine.”—429. Major agit deus. “Some deity far more powerful (than Iapis) is the actor."

Heyne, with less propriety, makes agit here equivalent to mittit te ad pugnam.-Remittit. Supply te.-430. Incluserat. already encased.” Observe the rapidity of action here denoted by the pluperfect.— Auro. Consult note on vii. 634.—434. Summaque delibans oscula. Compare i. 256.—435. Virtutem et verum laborem, i. e. the lesson of duty and of patience under difficulties.- 436. Fortunam. Supply pete. He wishes his son a less chequered fortune than his own.-437. Defensum dabit. For defendet.Ēt magna inter præmia, &c., i. e. the rich recompenses of victory.

438. Tu facito sis memor. “See that thou remember this.”—440. Et pater Æneas, &c. Repeated from iii. 343.—446. Ab adverso aggere. " From a rising ground full in front."~450. Ille volat. Referring to · Æneas.

451. Abrupto sidere. “ The influence of some constellation having burst forth,” i. e. some stormy constellation having on a sudden exerted its influence. Commentators generally regard this as equivalent to abruptâ nube, but such an interpretation appears tame.452. Longe. From afar," i. e. while the storın is still distant.

456. Rhoteïus. For Trojanus. Compare ii. 108.—457. Densi cuneis, &c. “In close array they each gather themselves together unto the compact wedges," i. e. wedgelike battalions. By cuneus, in military language, meant a body of soldiers, drawn up in the form of a wedge for the purpose of breaking through an enemy's line.—458. Gravem. “Of ponderous bulk.”—464. Ipse. Referring to Æneas.

468. Virago. Heyne regards this as merely the ancient form of virgo, and, therefore, more fitted for epic poetry. Hardly so. It would seem rather equivalent to our term “heroine,” and to denote a female who displays spirit and courage above her sex. Servius : “Virago dicitur mulier quce virile implet officium, i. e. mulier que viri animum habet."-469. Metiscum. Consult note on line 327.-471. Subit. “ Succeeds.”—480. Conferre manum. “ To engage in combat," i. e. with Æneas.Volat avia longe. " Leaving the track (that would have brought them into collision), she flees far away."

481. Tortos legit obrius orbes. “Pursues many an intricate, circuitous route, for the purpose of confronting him.” Heyne compares legit orbes with legere vestigia, oras, vias, i. e. persequi.--484. Fugam. “The speed."-485. Adersos currus retursit. 6 Turned away, and


wheeled about the chariot.”—486. Agat. Referring to Æneas.491. Se collegit in arma. “ Covered himself with his buckler."-492. Apicem tamen incita, &c. “The rapidly-impelled spear, however, carried off the topmost projection of his helmet.”—494. Insidiisque subactus. “ And forced to the step by the treacherous conduct of the foe.” Alluding to their secret attack upon him, and the consequent rupture of the league ; and also to the unfair onset just made upon him by Messapus.-495. Diversos referri. “ Were borne back in a different career from his own,” i. e. were constantly avoiding him.Irarum omnes effundit habenas. Servius says that this figure is quite moderate in its character, when compared with Ennius's “irarumque effunde quadrigas."

501. Cædes diversas. “ The carnage on either side.”—502. Inque vicem. Tmesis, for indicemque.—503. Tanton placuit concurrere, &c. “Was it thy pleasure, 0 Jove, that nations, destined (one day) to be (united) in eternal peace, should rush together (to the conflict) with such fierce commotion ?” As regards the form tanton, consult note on iii. 319.—505. Ea prima ruentes, &c. “ This combat first detained in one place the Trojans, (before this) rushing on (in pursuit of Turnus).” By the Trojans are here meant Æneas and his immediate followers.—507. Qua fata celerrima. “ Where death is speediest.”Crudum. For cruentum. The root is the same in both words, cruor cruidus, crudus, &c.

509. Amycum, fratremque Diorem. Sons of Priam. Compare v. 297, and i. 222.-513. Ille. Referring to Æneas.-514. Moestum.

Gloomy of visage.” Equivalent, as Servius correctly explains it, to tristem, seterum, or the Greek okv@pw tóv.-515. Nomen Echionium, &c.“ In name the son of Echion, the offspring of a mother (called) Peridia.” Nomen is the accusative of nearer detinition, and Echionium is the same as Echionides. Compare the form Hicetaonius (x. 123). There is no allusion here, as some suppose, to Theban origin. Genus. Equivalent to prolem.

516. Hic. Turnus. - Apollinis agris. Alluding to the territory around Patara, a Lycian city, sacred to Apollo.-518. Lernce. This lake, though in the Argive territory, was near the confines of Arcadia. -519. Nec nota potentum munera. “Nor were the employments of the powerful known at all unto him.” He was a poor fisherman, content to follow his humble calling ; nor did he sigh after the employments which excite the cupidity and ambition of the more powerful, such as offices, dignities, &c. (Consult Wagner, ad loc.) The common text has liminu, for which there is no good authority what. ever. Heyne, however, gives it; but Wagner restores munera.

522. Virgulta sonantia lauro. "Twigs crackling with the bay,” i. e. groves of crackling bay. The reference is to the loud crackling made by the bay while burning.-524. In æquora. “ Over the plains. So Wakefield, who refers, in defence of it, to Il. iv. 453, and Æn. ii. 305.—526. Suum populatus iter. “Having laid waste a path for itself.” –527. Rumpuntur nescia vinci, &c. Their hearts, not knowing what it is to be overcome, are bursting with rage.

529. Hic. Æneas.-531. Scopulo atque ingentis, &c. “With a rock and the whirling of a mighty stone,” i. e. with a large mass of stone whirled around in throwing. A species of hendiadys.-533. By rotæ is meant, in fact, the chariot in rapid motion. He was pitched forward from this, and, becoming entangled in the reins, was trampled under fout by the horses.



535. Ille. Turnus.- 536. Aurata ad tempora, i. e. against his temples covered by a gilded helmet.—538. Graiúm fortissime. We may suppose Creteus to have been one of the Arcadian auxiliaries.—539. Di sui. “His own gods," i. e. the gods whom he served as priest. Servius says that cupencus meant "a priest” in the Sabine tongue.546. Hic. “Here,” in this foreign land.-Mortis metæ. Life is here compared to a chariot race, of which death is the goal.---547. Lyrnessi. “In Lyrnessus.”—548. Concersæ. “Were turned (upon each other).”

554. Ænece. Poetic for in Ænean.-558. Acies. “His earnest look.” Supply oculorum.-559. Impune quietam. Reposing unharmed.” As the capital of Latinus, and the great source of opposition, it ought to have been the first to feel the

* репа belli." 562. Tumulum. “A rising ground,” from which to be seen and heard the more easily by his followers. The poet here follows the Roman custom.—Cetera legio. “ The rest of the army.”— 565. Jupiter hâc stat. “ Here (on our side) Jupiter stands," i. e. Heaven is with

He alludes to the violation of the league on the part of the Latins, and the consequent offence given to the gods. Macrobius (vi. 1.) makes the language of the text to have been borrowed from Ennius. --566. Ob inceptum subitum, i. e. because this my resolve has been suddenly formed.-568. Fatentur. “ They consent.” More literally, “confess themselves ready.”

572. Hæc summa. “ This is the centre.”—573. Foedusque reposcite flammis. “ And demand with flames a fulfilment of the league." Reposcite literally means, “ demand back,” the Latins being supposed to have wrested from the Trojans what was theirs by virtue of the league.—575. Dant cuneum. “ Form a wedge.” Compare note on line 269.—582. Bis jam Italos hostes. Supply factos esse, and compare, as regards the whole line, vii. 263, and xii. 212.

585. Ipsumque trahunt, &c. In order to fulfil the treaty, and surrender.-588. Impleritque. “ And has filled (their dwellings).”—589. Trepidæ rerum. “Alarmed for their affairs." Equivalent to de rebus, or propter res trepidæ.Cerea castra. “ Their waxen encampment." A beautiful expression.-590. Acuunt. “Whet.” The idea properly is, that they express the keenness of their rage by their loud buzzings. But for this we have poetic diction.

595. Tectis. “From the palace-roof.”—596. Tecta. "The dwellings of the city.”—597. Contra. “On the other hand.” Equivalent, in some degree, to vicissim. (Drakenb. ad Lio. iv. 53.)—600. Crimen. Equivalent to “ ream, quæ culpam meruit.”—603. Informis leti. disgraceful death.” The poet speaks of suicide here in accordance with the religious ideas of his own time, since Servius informs us that by the Pontifical Books persons who hanged themselves were deprived of the rites of sepulture. Perhaps, too, self-destruction by hanging was deemed disgraceful when compared with that by the sword, and was therefore left for women. Many instances of females thus ending their days occur in the ancient writers. Fabius Pictor, however, made Amata to have ended her days by voluntary starvation.

609. Demittunt. “Despond.” Supply sese.—612. Multaque se incu. sat, &c. This line and the next one have already appeared in ix. 471-2, and are omitted here in several MSS.-614. In extremo wquore. On the extreme confines of the field.”—616. Successu equo

“With the speed of his coursers.” Their strength had by this timę begun to fail, in consequence of the rapid and protracted driving

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