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896. Interea, Turnum, &c. “ Meanwhile, most harrowing tidings engross the whole soul of Turnus (as he lies in ambush), in the forest, and Acca brings to the warrior (what causes in him) the deepest agitation.” Nuntius for res nuntiata.-901. Sæta numina. “ The hostile decrees.” The parenthetical clause is added here for the purpose of showing that Turnus was compelled to take the step which he did, and to abandon his well-selected post.-—902. Obsessos. “ That had been beset (by his forces).”

904. Apertos. “No longer occupied by the foe.”-905. Exsuperatque jugum. Compare line 522, seg.-907. Longis passibus. “Many paces.”_913. Gurgite Hibero.' “In the Iberian Sea," i. e. in the Western Ocean. As the sea on the coast of Spain lay westward of Italy, it was imagined that the sun sets in that sea. The god of day was supposed to plunge his chariot into the ocean at the Promontorium Sacrum, now Cape St. Vincent.

BOOK TWELFTH.

1. Infractos. Equivalent to fractos.—2. Defecisse. “Have lost courage.” Supply animis.-Sua promissa nunc reposci. He had promised that the war should have a favourable issue, and that, if necessary, he should meet Æneas in single combat.-3. Oculis. Supply omnium.

4. Poenorum in arois. Referring to Africa generally.-5. Ille leo. Consult note on x. 707.-6. Gaudetque comantes, &c., i. e. in developing the muscles of his shaggy neck. Cerrice toros is, by a poetic idiom, for cercicis toros, and this for cervicem torosam.7. Latronis. “Of the hunter that has come upon him unawares." Observe the peculiar use of this term here, as referring to one who attacks by surprise.

ii. Nihil est quod dicta, &c. “ There is no reason why the cowardly Trojans shall retract their challenge," i. e. why Æneas shall recede from the contest for which he has offered himself.-13. Congredior. “My resolution remains fixed to engage with him.”—Fer sacra. Cornpare line 118, seq.-Concipe foedus.“ Ratify the compact in due form of words,” i. e. the compact with the Trojans, by which a single combat between Æneas and Turnus should terminate the war. The expression derba concepta refers to the formula of the oath, and both it and concipio are of a technical nature.–16. Crimen commune. “ The charge made by every one against me,” i. e. the charge of wanting courage.-17. Aut habeat victos, &c. “Or let him rule us vanquished;" “ let Lavinia fall to him as his spouse.” More literally, 6 let him hold us," i. e, under his sway ...." let Lavinia yield unto him," &c.

20. Ecsuperas. Supply alios omnes.- Æquum est. Supply mihi. The prudence of the aged must temper the impetuous feelings of the young.-23. Nec non aurumque, &c. “ Latinus, too, has wealth, and favourable feelings towards thee.” The monarch means that Turnus may command his resources, and may claim his hearty concurrence in all things save one, and that is in the case of his daughter's hand. Her he cannot have.

27. Veterum procorum. They are called "old" in comparison with

Æneas, the new-comer.—29. Cognato sanguine. Venilia, the mother of Turnus, was sister to Amata, the wife of Latinus.–31. Promissam. Lavinia had been promised to Æneas through the ambassadors sent by the latter. Compare vii. 267.—Genero. Supply futuro. Alluding to Æneas.-33. Primus. “ Above all others." **

35. Spes Italas. “ The hopes of Italy," i. e. our hopes.-35. Recalent for the simple calent.-37. Quo referor toties ? “ Whither am I so often carried back (from my purpose) ?” i. e. why should I thus be carried backward and forward, and be continually changing my resolve? Why not make peace at once with the Trojans.-38. Adscire, Supply hos, as referring to the Trojans.-39. Incotumi. “ While he is still safe.” Why not put an end to all conflicts, and save the life of Turnus ?–42. Prodiderim. By allowing him to engage with Æneas. --43. Res varias, i. e. the vicissitudes.—44. Longe dividit. Ardea was at no great distance from Laurentum ; but, as Heyne remarks, we are here dealing with a poet, not with a geographer

49. Letum pro laude pacisci. “ To obtain glory by my death." Literally,“ to bargain for death at the price of glory.”-53. Femineâ. “ Collected by a woman's hand.” Homer represents Venus as rescuing Æneas in a cloud from the fury of Diomede.- Vanis. Turnus, in using this epithet, sneers at the divine origin of Æneas, as if it were false. -Sese. Observe the peculiar use of this pronoun in place of eum. The reference is to what is supposed to be passing in the mind of Æneas, at some moment of peril, as if he were invoking his supposed parent to come to his aid. Hence the propriety of sese in the text. On this whole passage consult the critical note of Wagner.

54. Novâ pugnce sorte.“ By the new kind of combat (proposed)," i. e, single combat between Turnus and Æneas.-—55. Moritura. “Like one resolved on death,” i. e, in case he did not yield to her request, and abstain from the encounter.–56. Per has ego te, &c. Consult note on iv. 314.—Per si quis, &c. Consult note on ii. 141.59. In te omnis domus, &c. “On thee alone our whole house, now bending (as if to its fall), relies (for safety).”

65. Cui plurimus ignem, &c. « Unto whom a deep blush kindled up the hot current within, and overspread her burning visage.” We have here a blending of the prosaic and poetic idioms. According to the former, the blush would be the result of the hot current in the veins; according to the latter, the hot current within would be set in motion by the blush. There is no need, therefore, of our having recourse to any hypallage.-67. The epithet Indum is poetical here, the Indian ivory being the most valued.

72. Omine tanto, i. e. with these ill-omened tears.-74. Neque enim Turno, &c., i. e. I have not the freedom of choice: if the fates have doomed me to death, it is not in my power to avert that death.

80. Illo campo, i. e. in that encounter between him and me.—83. Decus, i. e. as an honorary gift.-Orithyia. The bride of Boreas. The steeds in question were, therefore, of the best breed, and recall to mind the storm-footed” coursers of Pindar.–85. Manibusque lacessunt, &c. “And with hollow hands pat their resounding chests.”

87. Squalentem. Consult note on x. 314.-Alboque orichalco. “And with pale orichalcum." A species of brass is probably meant here.

88. Habendo. “For use." Equivalent to ad habendum.-89. Rubræ cornua cristce. The reference is to a helmet with a double or triple crest, and by cornua appear to be meant the extremities or curling ends of these crests.

94. Adoris Aurici spolia. It had been taken from him in battle.-95. Vocatus mecs. “My callings upon thee." -99. Senariri Phrygis. The Phrygians, with whom the Trojans are here and elsewhere confounded, were potorious for effeminaey, &e.-100. Pirata. “ Curled."

104. Atque irasci in cornya tentat. "And strives to arouse his angry energies for a real eonfiiet with horns." The contest with the tree serves as a preparatory exercise for some real encounter with a rival antagonist.

107. Seous. Equivalent here, as often elsewhere, to fortis.-108. Acuit Marten. “ Calls up his martial ardour.”

114. Cum primum, &c. From this to part is merely parenthetical, and carries out the idea expressed in the previous elause.-117. Parabant. If the parenthetical clause had not been inserted, this would have been the same as curr pararert.-118. Deas compraribus. Referring to the gods worshipped by both Trojans and Latins, and by whom both sides were to swear.-119. Fontan. Pat here for aquam.- 120. V dati limo. “ Arrayed in the limus." The limus was a bandage or covering for the loins, and so called either from its crossing the thighs transversely, or from its having a transverse purple stripe, limus being the same in force as obliquus. It was wom by the officiating pope at sacrifices, and also by athletes, actors on the stage, &c. The common text has lino, which is far inferior.

130. Reclinant. Equivalent to reponunt in terra.

131. Studio, i. e. deeply interested in the event.--134. E samo tumulo. “From the suinmit of the high ground.”- Albanus. Referring to the mons Albanus, or Alban Mount.-135. Tum. “At that early day.” The mountain became famous afterward, when Alba Longa was built upon it.-138. Sororem, Jaturna. She is called a Naiad by Ovid (Fast. ï. 585). A fountain issuing from the Alban Mount, and a lake which it feeds, were sacred to her. Compare line 886.-139. Deam. The term dea, as in the present instance, was often applied to mere nymphs.

144. Ingratum. Equivalent to invisum, i. e. Junoni, on account of the infidelities of her spouse.-146. Tuum dolorem. “ The misfortune that awaits thee.” Dolorem for infortunium, the consequence for what is antecedent.–148. Cedere. “ To prosper.”—152. Si quid praesentius audes. “ If thou darest to form any bold and sudden resolution." Literally," anything more ready (of aid than ordinary)."" -153. Forsan miseros, &c. Juno means, that perhaps the order fixed by the fates may be in some degree changed.-154. Vix ea. Supply diserat.

159. Auctor ego audendi, i. e. I advise thee to dare the deed.

161. Interea reges, &c. “ Meanwhile the kings, (and in particular) Latinus, of ample frame, are borne along," &c. A species of anacoluthon, where the writer, commencing with what is general in its nature, breaks off on a sudden, and descends to particulars. Grammarians understand procedunt with reges, but for this there is no ne cessity. The clause is the same, in effect, as interea reges tecti sunt curribus, et quidem primo loco Latinus vehitur, &c.-Ingenti mole. Some editors, following Servius, render this “ with great pomp.” It is better, however, with Wagner, to make it the same as ingenti corpore, in its heroic sense. Compare ii. 557.-163. Aurati bis sex radii, &c. Latinus is here represented as wearing the corona radiata.

164. Solis adi specimen. “ An emblem of his ancestor the sun." Ser. vius makes Marica, the mother of Latinus, to have been the same with Circe, the daughter of Apollo. This, however, appears somewhat forced. It is better to suppose, with Heyne, that Virgil had here in view some early legend, which made Faunus or some ancestor of Turnus to have sprung from Circe.

Bigis in albis. “In a car drawn by two white steeds.”—167. Sidereo. For fulgenti.-168. Spes altera. Æneas was the first ; Ascanius the second.-170. Setigeri foetum suis. The poet here follows the customs of his countrymen, who, in making a league, sacrificed a sow-pig. The Trojans and Greeks, on such occasions, offered up a lamb. -171. Pecus. « The victims."

173. Fruges salsas. “The salted meal.” This was sprinkled on the head of the victim, and also on the entrails, before they were burned upon the altar. Consult note on ii. 133.-Et tempora ferro, &e. Referring to the custom of cutting off the hairs from the forehead of the victim. Compare vi. 245. — 176. Esto nunc Sol testis, &c. Imitated from Homer, I. iii. 276, seq.-Vocanti, i. e. invoking you as witnesses. The common reading is precanti.

179. Jam melior. “Now more propitious.” This change in Juno's disposition towards him had been foretold by Helenus. Compare iii. 435.-180. Torques. “ Directest.” A metaphor borrowed from the management of a chariot.-181. Quceque ætheris alti religio. Equivalent, in effect, to otherem indoco, whatever there is holy in æther; whatever divinities preside over it, these he invokes.

183. Cesserit si fors victoria. “If the victory shall chance to fall.” Fors for forsitan, or forsan.-184. Convenit. “It is hereby agreed.” 185. Rebelles. “Renewing the war.”—187. Sin nostrum annuerit, &c. “ But if Victory shall grant unto us Mars as our own.” · 192. Sacra Deosque dabo. A main condition. The Latins are to receive the religious rites and the gods of the Trojans. Heyne refers this to the Trojan penates and the worship of Vesta. Niebuhr sees in this passage an indication of the union of the Tyrrheni and Casci. -Socer arma Latinus, &c. “Let my father-in-law Latinus continue to enjoy the control of arms; let my father-in-law (continue to exercise) his accustomed sway.” Arma, equivalent to jus belli, or the power of making war and peace.-193. Sollemne. The same here as solitur, and therefore integrum. Latinus is to retain all his power undiminished.

197. Hæc eadem, &c. Latinus here names the old Pelasgic deities, worshipped in the earliest region of Italy.-Terram, &c. Equivalent to per Terram, per Mare, &c.—199. Vimque deúm infernam. And the powerful divinities of the lower world.” A well-known Greek idiom.--Et duri sacraria Ditis. “And the sanctuary of inexorable Pluto.”—200. Genitor. Jupiter. Zeus OKLOG. (Valck. ad Hipp. 1027.) Jove, who watches over oaths, and punishes their infringement.-Fulmine. Alluding to the thunder as a portent or omen.

201. Tango aras. The person making a supplication, offering a sacrifice, or taking an oath, laid his hand on the altar itself, or held one of the horns of the altar.-Medios ignes, et numina testor. “I call to witness the fires here placed in the midst, and the deities (that have just been named.)”–203. Volentem. This is well added, for the league might be broken against his will.-204. Non si tellurem, &c. “Not even though it wash away,” &c. The nominative to effundat is to be deduced from vis ulla that precedes, as if the

language of the text had been non si eadem cis tellurem, &e.—205. Dilutio. Equivalent to aquis inundantibus.

206. Ut sceptrum hoc, &c. Imitated from Homer, Il. i. 234, sq.209. Jatre. * Its parent tree."-213. Rite scratas. Compare line 172, seq.-214. In fummam jugulant. Equivalent to in flamman propiciunt jugulatas.

216. Videri. Historical infinitive. So also misceri in the next line. –218. Ut propius cernunt, &c. “ As they discern more nearly that the contest is one of unequal strength.”—219. Adjunat. “Increases those apprehensions.”—223. Et Vogi cariare labantia corda. “ And that the drooping hearts of the multitude were beginning to waver," i.e. between à regard for the sacred character of the league and a wish to break through its restraints.

229. Pro cunctis talibus. “For all who are such," i.e. when all are men of valour equal to Turnus. The common text has cunctis pro talibus, i. e. pro talibus quales cuncti sunt.--232. Fatalisque marus, e. Fatalis refers to the circumstance mentioned by Euander, that the Etrurian forces could not move against the Rutulians until a leader appointed by the Fates should come to take the command. So, again, the expression infensa Etruria Turno is to be explained by vii. 494. The whole line, however, is regarded as an interpolation by Heyne, Wagner, and others, and owes its origin, very probably, to some one who thought that the Tuscan auxiliaries ought to be mentioned here along with the Arcadians.--233. Alterni si congrediamur. “If every second man of us engage.” The meaning intended to be conveyed by the whole passage is, that the Rutalians and Latins are twice as numerous, at least, as their combined foes.

235. Vidus, i.e. immortalized by the voice of fame.—242. Fadus infectum. “That the league may be annulled.” The participle, according to the Greek idiom, for the infinitive.-244. Aliud majus. Supply incitamentum.—245. Praesentius. “More adapted to the moment.”—246. Monstro. “By the portent which it afforded.”—248. Litoreas ares. “ Some water-fowl." Literally, "shore birds.” The reference, as appears from what follows, is to swans.-250. Excellentem. “ Surpassing the rest in size.”—250. Improbus. Equivalent to rapaz, not to audat, as Heyne maintains.

252. Convertunt clamore fugam. “ Return with loud cries.”_254. Factá nube. “Having formed in dense array.”— Vi victus. Observe the alliteration, which is purposely introduced to give force to the passage.

258. Expediuntque manus. “And get their hands ready (for seizing their arms)."—260. Accipio. Supply omen or augurium.—263. Penitus profundo. “ Into the remote ocean," i. e, far into the ocean. –265. Raptum, i. e. of whom they endeavour to deprive you. Compare with this the description in line 250, &c.: “ Cycnum eccellenten rapit,” &c.

267. Cornus stridula. “The whizzing cornel-shaft.” The shaft was made of cornel-wood.-268. Omnes turbati cunei. “All the rows (of spectators) were thrown into confusion.” The term cunei properly means the rows of seats in a theatre, arranged in a wedgelike form. (Consult note on v. 664.) Here, however, it is taken for the rows of spectators, either sitting or standing, around the place intended for the combat,

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