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536. Nostris. Camilla was armed in the same manner as Diana and her nymphs.-539. Pulsus ob invidiam, &c. The flight of Metabus with Camilla, observes Valpy, and their living in exile, are re. lated without a word which might imply her return. Yet it would appear that she afterward acts with Volscian troops, and is termed their queen (xi. 800).- Viresque superbas. “ Aud a too haughty exercise of authority.” This was, in fact, the cause of the odium (inoidia) excited against him.-543. Mutatâ parte. “A part (of it only) being changed,” i. e, the letter s being dropped.–544. Juga longa solorum nemorum. “Long mountain-tracts, covered with lonely forests."
547. Amasenus abundans. « The overflowing Amasenus.”—549. Ruperat. For eruperat se.--55). Subito vix hæc sententia sedit. “ The following idea suddenly occurred, and had hardly occurred before he carried it into execution.” So Wagner. The brevity and confused arrangement of the text are purposely adopted by the poet to show the trepidation of Metabus, and the rapidity with which his plan was formed and carried into execution.
552. Telum immane. Nominative absolute ; or, rather, a species of anacoluthon, the construction changing after cocto.—553. Cocto. “ Hardened in the smoke.”—554. Libro et silvestri subere clausam. “ Wrapped up in bark and wild cork,” i, e. in the bark of a wild cork-tree.-555. Habilem.“ In a position convenient to throw.”— 558. Famulam. “ As a handmaid," i. t. as one consecrated to the service of the goddess.—560. Dubiis. “Uncertain," i. e. through which the infant is to pass with more or less of danger.-561. Contortum. Compare ix. 705.—562. Sonuere, i. e, with the whizzing of the spear.
565. Victor. “Succeeding in the attempt.”—566. Trivice. Diana again alludes to herself, where, in prose, we would have mihi. So Diance in line 537.
568. Neque ipse, manus feritate, &c. “Nor would he, on account of his savage manners, have consented (so to live).” Manus dare, “to yield to a conqueror," and then “ to yield” in a general sense. [So « Do manus scientice," Hor.]-569. Pastorum et solis, &c. “ He led a pastoral life, and on the lonely mountains.”—570. Horrentia lustra. “ Gloomy forests.” Lustra, properly the haunts of savage men, stands here for siloas.-571. Armentalis equce. “Of a brood-mare.”
576. Pro crinali auro. “ Instead of the golden ornament for the hair.”
584. Correpta. “Hurried away by (the love of).”—590. Hæc cape. When speaking, Diana gives unto Opis her own bow and arrow. 596. Insonuit.“ Gave forth a rushing noise as she went.”
600. Insultans sonipes. “ The prancing charger.”—604. Fratre. Catillus.—607. Adventusque virúm, &c. As the troops approached, their ardour increased, and the neighing of the steeds became louder.
609. Constiterat. “Halted for a moment, and closed up their ranks," i. e. formed into close order preparatory to charging.–613. Primique ruinam, &c. “And give the first shock against each other, and bring into violent contact the breasts of their coursers, dashed one against the other.” They miss each other with their spears, and, consequently, dash their steeds one against the other.-616. Aut tormento ponderis acti. “Or a heavy mass shot from an engine.”
619. Rejiciunt parmas, i, e. they place their shields on their backs, as a defence in their retreat against missiles.—622. Mollia colla reflectunt. “ Wheel about the flexile necks (of their horses).”
624. Alterno procurrens gurgite. “Rolling on in alternate tides." Observe the force of pro in composition, as indicating an onward movement, at one time towards the land, at another towards the main ocean.”—625. Scopulos superjacit. For jacit se super scopulos.628. Vado labente. “ With its decreasing waters.”
630. Bis rejecti armis, &c. “ Twice (the latter), after having been driven back, face about on their foes, (now in their turn retreating, and) protecting their backs with their shields." This flight of each is not to be attributed to fear, but to the then usual practice in cavalry actions.-633. Tum vero et gernitus, &c. In the ardour of narrating, the verb is purposely dropped. Supply audiuntur.
636. Orsilochus. A Trojan. Compare line 690.-Remuli. Remulus was one of the Latins, but is not to be confounded with the indivi. dual mentioned in ix. 592, seq.—640. Catillus. Commanding the Ti. burtines. Compare vii. 672. Iollas and Herminius, therefore, belong to the Trojans and Etrurians.—643. Nec vulnera terrent, &c. “ Nor do any wounds alarm (him); so much of his body was exposed to the weapons (of the foe)," i. e. inasmuch as he fought with his head undefended by a helmet, and his shoulders unprotected by armour, it was apparent enough that he feared not wounds, since so large a part of his person was purposely exposed to the weapons of the foe.645. Duplicatque virum transfixa dolore. “And, having transfixed, bends down the warrior (convulsively) with pain,"
649. Latus. Put for mammam.—650. Denset. “She plies.” Literally, “thickens." From denseo, ēre, of the second conjugation. Compare vii. 794.–65). Bipennem. The double-edged battle-axe, which formed part of the equipment of an Amazon.
653. In tergum recessit. “She gave ground.”-654. Spicula fugientia. “ The arrows discharged by her as she flees.” She discharges her arrows as she flees, after the Parthian fashion.
659. Threïciæ. This epithet is here applied to the Amazons, because the earliest poets call the regions lying to the north at one time Thrace, at another Scythia. (Compare Voss, ad Georg. iv. 518, p. 907, seq.)–Cum flumina Thermodontis pulsant. “When they beat (with their coursers' hoofs) the (frozen) waters of the Thermodon.” -660. Pictis armis, i. e. arms inlaid with gold and silver.- Bellantur. “ They war.” Used here as a deponent. The active form, however, is more commonly employed.—661. Se refert, i. e. returns victorious from some conflict.—662. Magnoque ululante tumultu. “And with loud and joyous tumult.” Observe the use of ululare, in a good sense, for ooare.-663. Lunatis peltis. Consult note on i. 490.
667. Longa abiete. “ With the long fir-shafted spear.”-670. Super. “ Besides.” -671. Suffuso. “About to fall.” Equivalent, as Servius remarks, to casuro. Heyne reads suffosso, “ stabbed beneath,” or “ in the belly.”—673. Ruunt. For cadunt.
678. Ignotis. “ Of an unusual kind.”—Equo Iapyge. “An Apulian steed.” Iapyge for Iapygio, and this for Apulo. (Compare line 247.)-680. Cui pugnatori. “Unto whom, engaging in the fight.”— 682. Agrestis sparus. “A rustic spear.” Sparus is evidently the same word with the English spar or spear. It was the rudest missile of the kind, and only used when better could not be obtained ; except on occasions like the present, wliere it was used in order to harmonize with the rest of the equipments.
684. Exceptum. “ Overtaken as he flies.”—Neque enim labor, &c. “ Nor was it a difficult task, his band having been put to the rout."
687. Advenit qui vestra, &c. “The day has come that refutes, I think, thy boasting by means of female arms," i.e. the boast connected with his appearing in the battle in a hunter's costume, as if he had come to contend merely with wild animals. Observe the latent irony in redarguerit, as if she were merely stating her own opinion, that might possibly be wrong.
692. Sedentis. Supply in equo.-694. Orsilochum, fugiens, &c. While he was galloping in a circle around her, mistaking her movements for an attempt at flight, she described an internal circle, and on a sudden dealt him a blow with her battle-axe.—698. Congeminat. “She drives with redoubled blows."
701. Haud Ligurum extremus, “Not the last of the Ligurians,” i. e. in fraud and deceit. Not inferior to any one of his countrymen in these respects.-Fallere. “To practice fraud.” The Ligurians had a very bad reputation for fraud and treachery.—704. Consilio versare dolos, &c. “Having attempted to execute a stratagem with (prompt) adroitness and deceit.” .
705. Quid tam egregium. “What so remarkable ?" i. e. what so remarkable a display of courage have we here ?–706. Dimitte fugam. “Put away the means of flight," i. e. dismount, and leave that steed which only enables thee to fly.—708. Ventosa ferat cui, &c. “ Unto which one of us vainglorious boasting will bring (its proper punishment).” By fraudem is meant punishment, or ill consequences resulting from an act, such being one of the earlier meanings of the term.
711. Purâ parmā. “With her shield bearing no device.” Compare ix. 548.-714. Ferratâ calce. “With the iron-shod heel," i. e. with iron spur. The poet here speaks of the custom of his own times, the spur not having been known in the heroic ages.
717. Nec fraus te incolumem, &c. “ Nor shall thy artifice bring thee in safety unto (thy sire) the treacherous Aunus," i. e. unto thy sire as deceitful as thyself, and, therefore, as true a Ligurian.-719. Transit. “ She outstrips.”—721. Sacer ales. Because auguries were particularly taken from these birds, and hence that which offered an omen of the will of the gods was itself deemed sacred.
725. Nullis oculis. “With inattentive eyes.”—732. Nunquam dolituri. “ Never to be influenced by indignant feelings,” i: e. destined ever to remain a spiritless race. They had borne the tyranny of Mezentius without avenging themselves, and now they turn their backs on a woman.—737. Curoa tibia. This differed in form from the ordinary or straight tibia, and was especially used in the rites of Cybele and Bacchus. (Compare Voss, ad Eclog. viii. 21.)—739. Dum sacra secundus, &c. “Until the augur, declaring favourable omens, announce the sacred rites (to have begun),” &c. On the diviner's announcing favourable auspices, the sacred banquet immediately began, and consisted of the remains of the hostia or victim.—740. Lucos in altos. The sacrifice and sacred banquet succeeding it are here described as celebrated in a grove.
741. Moriturus. “ Resolved on death."-748. Partes apertas. “The part (of his throat) not protected by armour.”—750. Vim viribus exit. «« Repels force by force, Literally, “evades.”—755. Urguet. Equivalent to tundit or pulsat.—758. Eventum. “ The fortune.”—759. Mæonidæ. “ The Etrurians.” In allusion to their fabled Lydian or Mæonian origin.
Fatis debitus. Compare line 590, seq9.-760. Jaculo. “With his javelin,” i. e. which he keeps continually brandished and ready to
hurl.-Prior. “Keeping in advance.” He follows all her movements, keeping by her side, and a little in advance.-761. Quæ sit fortuna facillima. “ What may be the most favourable chance," i. e. for inflicting a wound.—763. Subit. “ Follows."—767. Certam.“ Intended for an unerring wound.”
768. Sacer Cybelæ. Perhaps consecrated in early life to the worship of Cybele, as Čamilla had been to that of Diana.—770. Pellis aënis in plumam, &c.“ A skin fastened with golden clasps, (and covered) with brazen scales, overlapping each other like feathers.” The clasps brought the two ends together under the belly of the horse.--771. In plumam. Equivalent to instar plumæ.-772. Peregrina ferrugine clarus et ostro. * Bright to the view, in barbaric purple of darkened hue.” Observe the hendiadys, and compare ix. 582.
773. Spicula Gortynia. “Cretan arrows." Gortyna was one of the cities of Crete ; hence, “Gortynian” for “Cretan.” The Cretan arrows were among the best of antiquity. Their superiority is said to have been owing to their heavy make, which enabled them to fly against the wind. (Compare Plin. H. N. xiv. 65.)-Lycio cornu. The Lycians, also, were famed for their skill in archery; and hence a “ Lycian bow” means one superior of its kind.-774. Sonat, “ Hangs rattling."-775. Cassida. The word in this form appears, also, in Propertius (iïi. 2). The more common form of the nominative is cassis. Helmets which had a metallic basis (kpávn xalxã) were in Latin properly called cassides, although the terms galea and cassis are often confounded.
775. Tum croceam chlamydemque, &c. “Then, again, he had gathered into a knot, with a clasp of yellow gold, both his saffronhued chlamys and its rustling linen folds.” So Wagner.-777. Barbara tegmina crurum. “The coverings of his legs were Phrygian.” Literally, “ of barbaric fashion." The allusion is here to the braccæ or coverings for the thighs and legs worn by many of the nations of antiquity, and especially by the Phrygians.
779. Se ferret. “Might display herself.” Observe the art of the poet in describing the gaudy attire of Chloreus, in order to account for Camilla's womanish eagerness to possess herself of this finery. 780. Venatrix. An adjective here, and to be joined in construction with virgo, “ the huntress-maiden.” The epithet is here added for the purpose of designating Camilla more clearly, since she had not been named for a long time previous, and, in this case, virgo would hardly have been sufficient to indicate her.—783. Ex insidiis. “From his unobserved position.”
785. Summe deúm. This is applied to Apollo, as being the deity most appropriate to be invoked on the present occasion, and one, also, worshipped with peculiar honours by the nation to whom the speaker belonged.- Soractis. Apollo had a celebrated temple on Mount Soracte, near Falerii, in Etruria.—786. Primi. “ Particularly," i. e. in the first place.--Pineus ardor acerco. “ The fire kept up from heaped pinebranches.”—787. Medium freti pietate, &c. This was done by the Hirpi or Hirpii, a clan or collection of families, of no great numbers, who dwelt in the vicinity of Soracte.-788. Multâ premimus vestigia prunâ, i. e. walk on burning coals.
789. Hoc dedecus. The disgrace of a female's putting men to flight. —792. Hæc dira pestis. “This dire source of destruction to our host." Camilla.—793. Inglorius.“ Content to derive no glory therefrom," ii e. from slaying a woman.—796. Turbatam. “Hurried on by her
excited feelings," i. e. and, therefore, off her guard.—798. Notos. For the winds in general.
801. Nec aurce, nec sonitus, memor. Equivalent to non audiens sonitum per auram factum.-809. Ile lupus. Consult note on x. 707.-810. Abdidit. “Hides," i. e. is accustomed to hide. An imitation of the Greek idiom in the case of the aorist. So also subjecit and petioit. 812. Remulcens. “Bending it backward," i, e. as if hugging it.--Caudam pacitantem. Applying to the tail, as an index of fear, what belongs properly to the animal itself.--815. Contentus fugâ. “ Content with making his escape," i. e. without attempting to follow up his success.
816. Trahit. “Endeavours to draw forth.”—818. Labitur. “Sinks down.” She does not, however, fall from her horse.—821. Fida ante alias quce. Supply erat.-822. Partiri. Supply consuererat.--823.
Potui.“ Have I held out." Equivalent to viribus calui.—827. Linque. bat habenas. “She gradually relaxed her hold of the reins.” Observe the force of the imperfect.
833. Crudescit. *“ Begins to grow (more) bloody.”—835. Alæ. 6 Cavalry.” Compare line 604.-839. Multatam. “ Amerced.” A much better reading than mulcatam.
847. Famam inultæ. “ The ignominy of dying unavenged.” Literally, “ of an unavenged one." —850. Dercenni. Dercennus was an ancient king of Laurentum, otherwise unknown.-Terreno ex aggere. “ Formed of a mound of earth.” One of the most ancient forms of a tomb,-852. Dea. Said of the nymph.
856. Digna Camillæ præemia. “A fit reward for the death of Camilla.”—857. Tune etiam telis, &c. “Shalt thou even die by the weapons of Diana ?” i. e. shall such a cowardly being as thou be honoured by such a death as this ?-858. Threïssa. Compare i. 316.861. Capita. The two extremities of the bow.-Manibus æquis, i. e. equally with her hands.—862. Aciem ferri. “The arrow-head."-866. Obliti. Equivalent here to negligentes. They neglected him in their eagerness to escape.
870. Desolati is equivalent here to relicti a ducibus.—875. Quadrupedumque putrem, &c. Repeated from viii. 596.-877. E speculis. “ From the elevations on the ramparts.”
880. Inimica turba. Supply sequentum.-882. Monibus in patriis. “Under their native walls.”—Tuta. “ The shelter.”_883. Claudere. The historical infinitive, for claudunt.-888. Urgente ruinâ. “From the crowd pressing on."-889. Immissis pars ccca, &c. “A part, blinded by terror, and urged onward with loosened reins, drive full against the gates, and the door-posts rendered firm by bars."
892. Monstrat. “ Points out the way," i. e. suggests this mode of defending the ramparts.-Ut videre Camillam, i. e. resolve to die for their country, even as they saw Camilla lose her life for Latium. This is the explanation of Wagner, and is certainly the best that can be offered. We must therefore construe de muris with jaciunt, and place a comma after matres. It is very evident that Camillam” cannot mean “the corpse of Camilla,” because Diana had declared that she herself would bear it away in a hollow cloud. (Compare line 593, seq.) Nor, on the other hand, can it refer to Camilla while still engaged in the fight, for the approach of the enemy to the walls of Laurentum did not take place until after she had fallen.-894. Ferrum imitantur. They use these weapons in the absence of iron ones, and endeavour to make them equally effectual.