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80. Pacem orare manu, &c. i. e. to come bearing in their hands fillets and suppliant boughs, as if suing for peace; and yet, at the same time, to be raising a shield in the front part of their vessels as a signal for naval combat. Puppibus put for nacibus, simply.
81. Tu potes Æneam, &c. Compare Hom. Il. v. 315, segg, where Venus rescues Æneas from the hands of Diomede.--82. Proque viro nebulam, &c. Juno here ascribes to Venus what was done, in fact, by Neptune, who preserved him in this way from the power of Achilles. (n. xx. 321, segg.)-83. Et potes in totidem, &c. This, again, was the act of another divinity (compare ix. 77, segg.); but as it was done for the benefit of Venus and her son, it is here ascribed to her immediate agency.-84. Aliquid Rutulos contra juvisse. “ To have aided the Rutulians in any degree against (him).”
85. Æneas ignarus abest, &c. “Æneas (thou sayest) is absent, ignorant of all that is passing; and absent let him remain, in his ignorance.” The meaning is this : “Is Æneas absent! What is that to me! I did not pervert his mind, so as to induce him to take that step. Still, however, may he remain absent, and by his absence prove the ruin of his cause !”–87. Quid gravidam bellis, &c. i. e. why, then, dost thou seek to gain over to thy sway a city, &c. Why not be content with thy Paphos, &c., unto which thou mayest conduct in safety thy cherished grandson ?-88. Nosne tibi fuxas Phrygiæ, &c. “ Do we endeavour to overthrow for thee, from their very foundation, the unstable affairs of Phrygia ? We? or he rather, who exposed the wretched Trojans to the Grecks ?” i. e. or Paris rather, who was the cause of that warfare which brought ruin on his native land. Juno seeks to show that Venus herself had occasioned all their sufferings for the Trojans, since she had prompted the abduction of Helen by Paris, which act led at once to the Trojan war.-Tibi. More freely, " to thy sorrow.”
91. Et foedera soldere furto. “And dissolved an ancient league by a perfidious abduction.”-92. Me duce Dardanius Spartam, &c. “ Was it under my guidance that the Dardan adulterer did foul wrong to Sparta ?” We have followed the idea of Wagner, who thinks that the key to the meaning of expugnavit here may be obtained from such passages as the following: “Pudicitiam femince expugnare," " expugnare toros,” &c.; and that, instead of saying mulieris Spartance pudicitiam expugnavit, the poet merely has “Spartam expugnavit.”
93. Forive Cupidine bella. “Or by means of (thy) Cupid, cherish (and prolong the war),” i. e. protract the war in consequence of the refusal of Paris to restore Helen to the Greeks.-94. Tum. When the very first step was about to be taken, which afterward led to the war.-95. Irrita jurgia jactas. “And Alingest forth unavailing charges."
96. Orabat. For dicebat.-Cunctique fremebant, &c. The gods were divided in opinion, one party siding with Venus, another with Juno, and a low murmuring noise arose amongst them as they expressed to one another their different sentiments, like the first murmurings of the rising wind.
102. T'remefacto solo. “ Trembled with its surface.”—103. Posuere. Supply se.
107. Quæ cuique est fortuna hodie, &c. “Whatever fortune is this day unto each party, whatever hope each hews (and fashions) for itself,” i. e. whatever hope each party has, in consequence of its own
deeds, been led to entertain. The expression secare spem is figurative, of course, but the origin of the figure it is difficult to discover. We have given the interpretation of Wagner. Heyne gives a very different explanation. He thinks that the latter half of the line was meant to be contrasted with the former. Whatever good fortune each party at present enjoys, or whatever hope each by his conduct may destroy.-108. Fuat for sit, from the old stem-form, fuo, fuěre.
109. Seu fatis Italúm, &c. “Whether the (Trojan) camp be now held in siege by the Italians through the decrees of fate, or whether by reason of an evil terror on the part of Troy (in interpreting prophecies) and deceitful oracles.”—Italúm obsidione. Literally, by a siege on the part of the Italians.” Some join fatis in construction with Italúm; but had the poet intended this, he would probably have said Sive Italúm fatis, &c.
111. Nec Rutulos soloo. “Nor (on the other hand) do I exempt. the Rutulians (from their fate).”- Sua cuique exorsa.' “What each has undertaken.”—114. Per pice torrentes, &c. Repeated from ix. 104, seqq.
In all the speeches which the poet has here assigned to the deities of Olympus, the student cannot have failed to perceive how admirably the antiquated language which pervades them is in keeping with the grave majesty that should characterize an assembly of the gods. The stiff and old-fashioned air of many of the lines is purposely emploved with the same view.
122. Rará corona. “ With but a thin ring of defenders.”—123. Hicetaonius. “Son of Hicetaon.” For Hicetaonides.—125. Prima acies. “ Formed the first line.”—Germani. Uterine brothers, as some suppose.—126. Clarus et Themon. Sons of Sarpedon, who accompanied Æneas to Italy.-Alta. Equivalent to clarâ.
130. Hi. The besiegers.--Illi. The besieged.-131. Molirique ignen. “And to hurl firebrands." These were thrown at the besiegers, and consisted of javelins with bundles of tow attached, and smeared over with pitch, tallow, and other combustible substances. Sometimes they struck a shield, and, becoming attached to it, compelled the wearer, by the fierceness of the flames, to throw aside this portion of his defensive armour, and leave his person exposed. Compare the account given by Livy, xxi. 8.
133. Caput detectus honestum, i. e, without a helmet. He had been directed to withdraw from the fight. Compare ix. 661.
136. Oricia terebintho. The turpentine-tree abounded near Oricus in Epirus. Hence the epithet “ Orician.”—137. Fusos cerrix cui lactea crines, &c. i. e. his flowing locks hang down upon his ivory neck, while around his brow he wears a band of thin, ductile gold.
142. Exercent. For colunt.-Auro. The Pactolus, a Lydian river, was famed for its golden sands.
143. Pulsi pristina Turni, &c., i. e. the glory of having, on a previous occasion, repelled Turnus, &c. Compare ix. 781.-145. Campano urbi. Capua.—146. Certamina contulerant. The more common forms of expression are conferre manus, conferre arma, &c.--147. Media nocte. The night after the battle which has just been described.
148. Namque, ut ab Euandro, &c. “ For when, having left Euander, he had entered the Etrurian camp," &c., i. e. he repairs to Tarchon, who commanded the Etrurian forces at Cære, and mentions unto him his name and lineage. Compare viii. 478, seq. and 603, seq.—150. Quidoe petat, &c. “What he seeks, what he himself proposes.” The
particle de, in such constructions as the present, has, according to Wagner, more of an interrogative than disjunctive force. (Quæst. Virg. xxxvi. 5.)—152. Quæ sit fiducia. “How little confidence is to be reposed.”'
154. Libera fati. “Freed from all restraint of the fates.” The augurs had announced that the Tuscans were to be led to war against Mezentius by a foreigner. Compare viïi. 498, seg.-155. Gens Lydia, i.e. the Etrurians, as being of Lydian origin, according to the common account. Consult note on viii. 499.
157. Rostro Phrygios subjuncta leones. “Having Phrygian lions joined to it beneath the beak.” Literally, “joined as to Phrygian lions beneath the beak.” The poet is here describing the figurehead of the vessel, otherwise called the Parasemon. The representation of the animals was either in carved work or painting. The lions are called “ Phrygian," because these animals were sacred to Cybele, the tutelary deity of Phrygia, and who was also worshipped on Mount Ida in Troas.-158. Imminet Ida super. Above the figures of the Jions was a representation of Mount Ida. The delineation of this mountain proved here most grateful to the feelings of the Trojans, since it reminded them of their native country.
159. Hic. “In this.” Referring to the vessel generally, not merely to the prow, as Heinrich maintains. In line 218, Æneas is represented as sitting in the stern of the ship.-161. Opacæ noctis iter. " Their path amid the gloomy night.” Iter is put in apposition with sidera.
163. Pandite nunc Helicona, &c. Repeated from vii, 641.-164. Interea. While the scenes just described are passing in Latium,165. Armetque rates. “And mans his ships.” There were thirty vessels in all, with about 4000 Etrurians, and also 400 Arcadian horsemen under the command of Pallas.–166. Æratá Tigri. “In the brazen-beaked Tiger.” The vessel had a figure-head of this animal, either under, or at the extremity of the brazen-plated beak. - 169. Corytique ledes. “ And light bow-cases."
171. Et aurato fulgebat, &c. • And the stern (of his vessel) shone resplendent with a gilded (figure of) Apollo.”
172. Populonia mater. “His native Populonia.” This city was also called Populonium. Compare, as regards the peculiar force of mater in this passage, the note on vii. 762.-174. Inexhaustis Chalybum, &c., i. e. with inexhaustible mines of the choicest iron. Generosa is here, as Heyne remarks, equivalent to fecunda, with the additional idea of what is choice and excellent of its kind.
176. Cui pecudum fibræ, &c. The poet means that all these were subject to his skilful interpretation ; in other words, he blends the idea of commanding the future with the soothsaying art.—178. Mille rapit densos, &c. “ Hurries (to the war) a thousand (followers), close-ranged in battle array,” i. e, accustomed to fight in close array, The reference is, as Wagner supposes, to heavy-armed troops.
179. Hos parere jubent, &c.“ Pisa, Alphéan in origin, (but) an Etrurian city in its territory, commands thee to obey (him),” i. e. Pisa, a city Elean in origin, but Etrurian in situation, sends these under the command of Asilas. Pisa in Etruria was fabler to have been founded by a colony from Pisa in the Peloponnesus. This latter city was situate in the district of Elis, on the banks of the Alpheus; and hence “ Alphean” here is the same as Elean.
181. Versicoloribus. Because made of different metals.-182. Ter. centum adjiciunt, &c. “ Those who are of Cære as their home, &c. ... and unhealthy Graviscæ, add three hundred (unto him),” i. e. the followers of Astur are three hundred in number, and come from the city of Cære, from the plains watered by the river Minio, from Pyrgi and from Graviscæ.
186. Cuparo. The son of Cycnus. This latter was a monarch of the Ligurians, fondly attached to Phaëthon, and who pined away in sorrow at his untimely end, until he was changed into a swan. His son, on this occasion, had his helmet adorned with swan's feathers in token of his origin.-187. Cujus olorince surgunt, &c. “From whose crest arise the plumes of a swan, memorial also of a father's (altered) form (love was the cause of evil unto you and yours)." Heyne regards line 188 as spurious, while Wagner defends it. We have adopted the pointing and explanation of the latter, namely, a comma after pennce, and crimen amor destrum in a parenthesis. Heyne places a colon after pennce, and makes line 188 entirely parenthetic. According to Wagner's punctuation, the words formæque insigne paternce become an epexegesis, or additional explanation to line 187. He confesses, however, that the copula que might better be away, and suggests fortunce for formæque. The same critic regards crimen as equivalent in some degree to causa malorum, or malce rei, and the misfortune referred to is the transformation of the father. Still there lurks some difficulty in vestrum, even though we refer it to both father and son, since no part of the crimen formed in reality the heritage of the latter, and his grief for his father's transformation would hardly be indicated by such a term. Neither is it at all likely that destrum here is meant to refer to Cycnus merely. The whole passage is involved in great obscurity.
190. Populeas inter frondes, &c., i. e. amid the shade cast by the -foliage of the poplars, into which the sisters of Phaëthon had been changed.-192. Canentem molli plumâ, &c. “Brought upon himself old age, whitening to the view with downy plumage, and left the earth, and followed the stars with his song," i. e. brought upon himself, or caused himself to be covered with, a white downy plumage, so that he appeared hoary with years. We have given the explanation of Heyne and Heinrich, which appears to be the only true one, and have made duxisse equivalent, not to egisse (“spent” or “passed”), but to induxisse sibi. - 193. Linquentem. To be rendered here as if et liquisse ; so sequentem for secutum esse. Consult Wagner, Quæst. Virg. xxix. 5.
194. Æquales comitatus classe catercas. “Accompanying in the fleet the bands of his equals," i. e. a Ligurian himself, and accompanying the bands of the Ligurians.- 195. Ille. “The monster.” Literally, “it.” The reference is to the figure-head of a Centaur, placed at the bow of the vessel.—196. Saxumque undis immane, &c., i. e. is in the attitude of one about to hurl a large rock into the waves, with both hands uplifted.
198. Ille ..... Ocnus. “He, too, Ocnus.” Compare note on v. 609.-199. Mantûs. The genitive of Manto, a Greek form.-200. Qui muros matrisque, &c. Virgil follows here the ordinary legend, according to which Mantua was founded by Ocnus, son of Manto the daughter of Tiresias, and was named by him after his mother.—201. Dives avis. “Rich in ancestors." Alluding to the mixed population of the place and territory.-202. Gens illi triplex, populi sub gente quaterni. “Its race is threefold ; under each division of the race there are four tribes.” The three races here alluded to, which made up the combined population of Mantua, were the Greeks, the Etrurians, and the Umbri. (Compare Müller, Etrusker, vol. i. p. 137, seq.; and Wagner, ad loc.)- Populi. We have given this term the force of tribus. Niebuhr, however, makes it equivalent to the Greek onuoi. (Röm. Gesch. vol. i. p. 328, n. 757.)–203. Ipsa caput populis, &c. “ Mantua herself is the capital to these different communities : the principal strength, however, (of the nation,) is derived from Etrurian blood," i. e. the chief city was Mantua, and among the Mantuans the Tuscans had the predominance.
204. Quingentos in se, &c. The odium in which Mezentius was held, induced them to arm with the rest.—205. Quos patre Benaco, &c.“ These the Mincius, (sprung) from the parent (lake) Benacus, crowned with green flags, conveyed to the sea in hostile pine.” The vessel that carried them had a figure of the god of the river Mincius at its prow.-Patre Benaco. The Mincius flows from the Lake Benacus (now Lago di Garda) into the Po.
207. By centená arbore, in the language of poetry, are meant à hundred oars, each in size resembling a tree. The epithet gratis seems to refer to the great size of his vessel.
209. Triton. Consult note on i. 144. The figure-head of the vessel of Aulestes was a Triton blowing on a shell. -210. Cui laterum tenus, &c. “Whose hairy front, as he swims along, displays a human form down to the middle.” Frons must here be taken in a more extended sense than usual.—211. Pristim. Consult note on v. 116.
215. Dies. The third since Æneas had left his camp; or, in other words, the day on which the Rutulians had attacked the Trojan intrenchments, as described in ix. 459, seq.-Coelo. For e coelo.
218. Ipse sedens, &c. Compare note on line 159.- Velisque ministrat. Compare vi. 302.-219. Suarum comitum. Referring to the vessels which had once been the companions of his wanderings.
220. Cybebe. From the Greek Kußnßn. The form Cyběle (KuBean) vitiates, of course, the metre.–221. Numen habere maris. « To enjoy the divinity of ocean," i. e. to be marine divinities.--222. Innabant pariter. « Came swimming towards him with equal motion.”
-224. Lustrantque choreïs. “And sport around him in dance-like movements."
226. Ipsa is here employed in a species of opposition to dextra, or as a whole in opposition to a part, and has nearly the same force as tota.-227. Subremigat. “She gently rows her way.” Supply se.228. Deúm gens is equivalent here to diis genite. The Vestal Virgins, according to Servius, when commencing certain ceremonies, thus addressed the Rex Sacrorum : “ Vigilasne Rex ? Vigila." Virgil here imitates this form of invocation.
231. Classis tua. “ (Once) thy fleet.”—Perfidus. Because he made war upon the Trojans, in violation of the league between these and Latinus.--233. Tua vincula, i. e. the fastenings by which thou hadst attached us to the shore.-234. Hanc faciem refecit. “ Made anew this our present form.”
239. Arcas eques. The poet here alludes to a circumstance not mentioned before, but easy enough to infer. When Æneas embarked the infantry, he appears to have given orders that the cavalry should march by the shore to the Trojan camp. Turnus, as we learn from what follows, resolved to prevent this junction.-Medias illis opponere