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employed in the defence of walls, and was hence called hasta muralis.

706. Duo taurea terga. “ Two bull-hides,” i. e. on his shield. Terga, for the more common form tergora, from tergus.707. Duplici squamâ et auro. “ With double scales of gold,”. i. e. plates formed in imitation of scales. Observe the hendiadys in squamâ et auro.708. Collapsa. “ Powerless.”—709. Et clypeum super intonat ingens, i. e. his shield, vast of size, falls over him with a sound like that of the thunder. We have followed here the best commentators in making clypeum a noun of the neuter gender. So also Servius. And again, Donatus explains the passage as follows : " Magna clypei species magnum fecerat sonitum.” If, however, we make clypeum the accusative of the ordinary masculine form clypeus, the meaning will be, “and vast of size, he thunders above his shield,” i. e. falls with a noise like thunder upon his shield.

710. Talis in Eubożco Baiarum, &c. “ Thus, at times, on the Euboean shore of Baiæ, falls the stony pile, which, constructed previously of large masses (cemented together), they cast into the deep: in this same way does it, descending headlong,” &c. We have given talis with Wagner, as making a more forcible combination with sic, than qualis, which Heyne adopts.—Euboico Baiarum litore. So called on account of its vicinity to Cumæ, a colony from Chalcis, in Eubea. Compare vi. 2.

711. Sarea pila. Baiæ was a favourite residence of the rich and luxurious Romans, who constructed beautiful villas along all the shores of the Bay of Baiæ, or Sinus Baianus. These villas were commonly erected on artificial moles carried out to some distance from the land, for the sake of the sea-air and prospect; and in the construction of the moles, vast pillars of stone-work were employed to give stability to the whole. These pillars (cr pilæ) were formed of large masses of stone cemented together with pozzolona, which becomes hard under water, and were then sunk into the sea. The poet compares the fall of Bitias to the descent of one of these masses amid the waves.-Ante constructam. The preposition must be joined with constructam (notwithstanding what Heyne says), as denoting the length of time previously spent in the work.—713. Penitusque vadis illisa recumbit. “And, dashed against the bottom, sinks deeply down (into its bed).”—Vadis. Used here for the bottom of the sea.

715. Prochyta alta. Prochyta raised above the waves.” As the surface of this island (now Procida) is, in fact, level, alta must be taken here as a common epithet for islands, in so far as they project above the waters, whether that projecting be to a considerable height or not.-Durumque cubile Inarime, &c. " And Inarime, placed, by Jove's commands, as a rugged couch upon Typhoeus.” Inarime was another name for the island Ænaria or Pithecusa, off the Campanian coast. Jupiter was fabled to have confined here the giant Typhoeus, having placed upon him an extinguished volcano, while, as he lay, his back was goaded by the rugged island-couch. In other words, he lay between the volcano and the bosom of the isle, just as Pindar makes him to have been confined between the base of Ætna and the bosom of Sicily. (Pyth. i. 50. Comp. Dissen, ad loc.). Hence we see the double idea conveyed in the words durum cubile imposta.

718. Et stimulos acres, &c. Consult note on vi. 101.—720. Data copia pugnce. The success of Turnus at the gates affords them now

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a favourable opportunity of attacking and taking the Trojan encampment.—721. Bellator deus. Mars.—723. Qui casus agat res. “ What sudden turn now controls affairs.” Agat for regat.

728. Qui non viderit. “In that he saw not.” Observe the employment of the subjunctive with qui, in assigning a reason or cause for the appellation of demens, as given by the poet to Pandarus : “ inasmuch as he saw not.”—729. Ultroque." And by his own act.”

731. Nora lux oculis effulsit. “A strange light gleamed forth from his eyes.” The reference is to Turnus. We have given effulsit, with Wagner, in place of Heyne's offulsit. Wagner correctly remarks, Offulget luc ei qui videt lucem ; quod alienum hoc loco est.”733. Mittit

. Referring to Turnus. Heyne gives mittunt, equivalent to mittunt se, but this even he himself confesses is harslı. Brunck, Jahn, and Wagner all approve of mittit.734. Immania membra. Compare vii. 784, where it is said of Turnus, “toto vertice supra est.”

736. Non hæc dotalis, &c. « This is not the palace of Amata, promised as the dowry of her child,” i.e. this camp is no Laurentum. - Dotalis. Amata had promised her daughter Lavinia in marriage to Turnus before the arrival of Æneas.--738. Media Ardea. heart of Ardea." Ardea was the native city, and the capital of Tur. nus.--739. Potestas. Supply erit tibi.

742. Hic etiam inventum, &c. “ Thou shalt (soon) announce to Priam (in the world below) that here also has an Achilles been found.”—745. Excepere auræ vulnus, i.e. the spear wasted its strength on the air.

747. Neque enim is teli, &c. “For neither is the possessor of the weapon nor the inflictor of the wound such a one,” i. e. as that thou canst escape. Is elegantly used for talis ; hence the full expression would be "talis, qualem effugere possis.”

757. Et si continuo, &c. “ And had this idea occurred at the instant to the victor."

763. Excipit. “He overtakes." Not, as Servius pretends, excipit in se irruentem. The nature of the wound inflicted on Gyges, namely, in the ham (succiso poplite), shows that Phaleris and Gyges were fleeing with the rest.--Hinc raptas fugientibus. “Then he hurls the spears snatched (from the slain) against the backs of the fugitives."

-765. Comitem. “As a companion (unto them in death).”—766. Ignaros. “ Ignorant of his approach.” They were on the ramparts facing the foe, and had their backs turned towards him.

769. Vibranti gladio, &c. Having collected all his strength, he with gleaming sword, from (where he now stood on) the rampart, dexterously anticipates (by a blow).” Turnus had sprung upon the ramparts, and there he slays Lynceus, who was advancing to meet him. Observe the force of occupat. He anticipates Lynceus by dealing dexterously the first blow.—771. Longe jacuit. “(In an in. stant) lay afar," i. e. was severed in an instant, and carried to some distance by the force of the blow.

775. Musarum comitem. Compare Hom. Hymn. xxxii. 20: doudoi, Movoáwv DepátovteG.776. Numerosque intendere nerris. adapt poetic numbers to the strings," i. e. and to sing to the lyre.777. Equos. Put for currus. The allusion is not to chariots victorious in the race, but to war-cars, as appears from what follows immediately after, namely, “ arma virúm, pugnasque..

778. Tandem ductores, &c. The main leaders of the Trojans, who had been engaged elsewhere, now hear of the slaughter made by

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Turnus, and come to the rescue.—780. Palantes. “ Fleeing in confusion.” Equivalent to discurrentes.-Receptur. “ Received (within their very camp).” Supply in castra.

788. Agmen here shows that they not only resisted the attack of Turnus, but kept gradually driving him back. It always, as has been before remarked, refers to a body of men in motion.—789. Excedere. “ Begins to retire.” Historical infinitive for the present indicative.—790. Quæ cingitur unda. We have given undá with Wagner, in place of amni, the reading of Heyne. Amni would follow too closely after fluvium.

798. Improperata. Equivalent to tarda. 802. Vires sufficere. To supply sufficient strength.”—804. Ger

“ To his sister.” Juno was both the wife and sister of Jove. 806. Ergo nec clypeo juvenis, &c. The whole of the fine passage that now follows is imitated freely by Virgil from an account given by Ennius of a combat between the Istrians and the tribune Caelius, itself imitated from Homer (Il. xvi. 102).-Subsistere tantum. withstand as powerfully (as they rush on)."—809. Et saxis solida æra fatiscunt. And the solid brass gapes in chinks beneath many a stone." The reference is still to the helmet.

811. Et ipse fulmineus Mnestheus. “ And especially Mnestheus himself, in might like a thunderbolt.” Observe the force of et here, after et Troës.—813. Et piceum flumen agit. “And pours (at length) a dark, dust-discoloured tide.“ Piceum is here, according to Servius, equivalent to sordidum, or, as Valpy translates it, "foul," "discoloured by dust.”—816. Fluvium. The Tiber.-Gurgite flaco. Heyne makes the construction to be accepit cum gurgite flavo, giving cum the force of in. This is very properly denied by Wagner, who joins ille cum suo gurgite flavo.-Flavo. The proper colour of the waters of the Tiber was, and still continues to be, yellowish, or a mixture, rather, of yellow and brown.—817. Extulit. Buoyed him up."

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Β Ο Ο Κ Τ Ε Ν Τ Η.

1. Domus omnipotentis Olympi. “ The mansion of all-powerful Olympus,” i. e. of Olympus, seat of empire for the universe. Much discussion has arisen respecting the true reading of this passage. Some suggest Olympi, a contraction for Olympii, referring the term to Jove as the monarch of Olympus. Others read omnipatentis,“ spreading far and wide;" but this appears to clash with panditur. Others, again, have omniparentis. The true reading, however, is the one which we have given.

5. Considunt tectis bipatentibus. “They take their places in the abode with its gates of double folds.” So Wagner and Heyne.

6. Quianam. Why.” An old form, imitated from Ennius, and equivalent to cur. Heyne writes quia nam, but quianam, as one word, is more correct, since nam is here an enclitic.—7. Versa retro. “Changed.” Literally," turned backward.” Another old form of expression. These archaisms are purposely introduced, to impart additional majesty to the speech of the Father of the Gods.-8. Abnueram bello, &c. No such prohibition has been given in the previous part of the poem; and, therefore, Heyne, with great probability,

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ranks this among those parts of the Æneid that would have felt the poet's revising hand had his life been spared.

9. Quæ contra vetitum discordia. “What discord (is this that now prevails),” &c.-10. Ferrum lacessere, i. e. movere or excitare. Compare xi. 254.

13. Exitium magnum, &c., i. e. shall, under the guidance of Hannibal, open a way for her armies over the Alps, and threaten destruction to the towers of Rome.-14. Res rapuisse. “ To plunder." To carry on war after the fashion of early times. An archaism for rapere.--15. Et placitum læti, &c. “And, with joyous feelings, bring to a conclusion the league that has been agreed upon," i. e. between Æneas and Latinus.

19. Aliud quid sit, quod, &c. Venus here presumes that all the other divinities are on the side of Juno.-24. Aggeribus murorum. An old form of expression, borrowed, probably, from Ennius, and equivalent merely to munimentis, or muris. Heyne and Wagner give the old form, moerorum.-24. Inundant. “ Overflow." Used in transitively.-27. Nascentis Troja. “Of Troy, just rising anew into life.”—28. Ætolis ab Arpis. “From Ætolian Arpi.” A city of Daunia, a district of Apulia, in Italy, founded by a body of Ætoliars under Diomede, after the Trojan war. Ambassadors had been sent thither by the Latins to request Diomede to take part in the war against Æneas. Compare viii. 9; and xi. 226.

29. Equidem credo, &c. “I do, indeed, believe that wounds (still) remain for me." Venus had been wounded by Diomede before 'ì'roy, when seeking to rescue Æneas from the conflict. She now fears lest a similar fate may await her in Latium. Heyne's interpretation is not correct : " Supersunt adhuc cicatrices vulneris a Diomede accepti.” Wagner's is better, i. e. ut ipse vulnerer.-30. Et tua progenies, &c. “And I, thy own progeny, await a contest with a mortal.” Equivalent to expecto certamen cum mortali ineundum, I, thy own daughter, roust again enter into collision with Diomede.

31. Sine pace tua. “ Without thy permission.”—34. Superi. As, for example, Apollo in the island of Delos. Compare iii. 94.-Manes. Those of Hector (ii. 294); of Creusa (ii. 780); and of Anchises (v. 729).–35. Noca condere fata. 66 To establish a new order of the fates." —36. Exustas Erycino, &c. Compare v. 606, se99.-37. Tempestatum regem. Compare i. 50.—38. Actam nubibus Irim. Alluding to Juno’s having sent Iris to Turnus. Compare ix. 2, seqq.

39. Manes. « The gods below.” Compare vii. 223.-40. Hæc sors rerum. “ This quarter.” Equivalent to hæc pars or portio. Literally, this allotment of things.” The reference is to the kingdom of Pluto, or, in other words, to that portion of the universe which had fallen to his lot when he and his brothers Jupiter and Neptune divided the whole world between themselves.--41. Bacchata. “ Has moved wildly.” Supply est.

42. Nil super imperio moveor. “ I am not at all concerned for empire,” i. e. I give up now all expectations of any enjoyment of empire on the part of the Trojans, although once promised by thee. Compare i. 257, seqg.–43. Dum fortuna fuit.

" While fortune was ours."

47. Incolumem Ascanium. She prays for the safety of Ascanius, since from him is to descend the Julian line, and to that line the empire of the world is due.--- 48. In undis. Let Æneas, if a settlement be denied him in Italy, again embark, and wander over the deep as

before.-50. Hunc tegere. “ To protect this one.” Alluding to Ascanius.-51. Est Amathus, &c. We have adopted the reading of Wagner, as more musical than that of Heyne : Est Amathus, est celsa mihi Paphus, atque Cythera.-52. Idaliæque domus. “And the abode of Idalia,” i. e. and the Idalian grove. Domus is the nominative, and Idaliæ the genitive of the same number. 54. Inde. “ From him," i. e. from Ascanius and his race.

e.-Tyriis urbibus. Carthage especially is alluded to, as a colony from Tyre.—56. Argolicos ignes. The flames of Troy:-57. Exhausta. Supply esse. — 58. Dum Latium Teucri, &c. The idea intended to be conveyed by the whole passage is this : Of what possible advantage is it to the Trojans to have braved so many dangers and undergone so many hardships, if their former evil fortune still accompanies them, and the city which they have just founded in Latium is destined, like its prototype, to be destroyed by the foe?—Recidira Pergama. Compare iv. 434.

59. Non satius. 6 Would it not have been better.”Insedisse. “ To have settled upon," i. e. to have built a new city upon.60. Xanthum Simoëntaque. The rivers put for the land itself.—61. Iterumque revolvere casus, &c. Venus prays that the Trojans may be allowed to go back again to their native land, even though there the same evils await them as before. If they are to suffer, it will be some consolation to them to suffer in their native land.

64. Obductum. Secret.—67. Esto : Cassandræ impulsus furiis. “ Granted : but then he was impelled to the step by the insane ravings of Cassandra.” A bitter remark. Cassandra, the daughter of Priam, had predicted to Anchises that the Trojans would come to Hesperia, or the western land (iii. 183, seqq.). These predictions Juno here terms furiæ, and makes these, and these alone, the destinies that urged Æneas to the step.

68. Num linquere castra, &c. Alluding to Æneas's visit to Euander, and his journey thence into Etruria.-70. Summam belli. chief management of the war.” This, of course, is purposely exaggerated.--71. Tyrrhenamque fidem, &c. “ And to seek for a Tuscan league or to arouse peaceful communities.” Observe the zeugma in agitare. _Tyrrhenam fidem is equivalent to Tyrrhenum fædus, i. e. sollicitare Etruscos, ut fædus ineant.

72. Quis deus in fraudem, &c. “What deity, what cruel exercise of power on my part, involved him in evil ! Where was Juno in all this ?" Fraudem is here, as often elsewhere, equivalent to malum ; not, as Servius says, to periculum.74. Indignum est. indignity, it seems).” Ironical.—75. Et patriâ Turnum consistere terrã.

« And for Turnus to make a stand (against mere strangers) in his own native land.”—76. Cui Pilumnus avus, &c. Juno indicates by this that Turnus is no less descended from a heavenly race than Æneas himself. Compare ix. 4.

77. Quid, face Trojanos, &c. “ What is it) for the Trojans to wage violent warfare against the Latins with the gloomy torch,” i. e. how is it less an indignity for the Trojans to lay waste with fire and sword the fields of the Latins.—78. Arra aliena, i. e. the lands of a stranger-people.—79. Quid soceros legere, &c. “Wlat (is it) to choose for themselves fathers-in-law (at their own pleasure), and to carry off betrothed brides from the bosoms (of those unto whom they have been promised) ?”—Pactas. Alluding to Lavinia, as having been promised to Turnus.

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