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sad offices for one ;" but the verb is here elegantly applied to the person at once, and indicates the bestowal upon him of the last offices of affection.

488. Veste tegens, &c. “Covering thee with the robe which, with haste, I was urging on night and day for thee, and was consoling with the loom the cares of age.” The mother, of course, in preparing the robe, was not anticipating the death of her son. She was getting it ready for him as an ornamental appendage.

491. Hoc mihi de te, &c. “Is this all of thee that thou bringest back to me?” Alluding to the gory head of her son which she had in full view.-492. Hoc sum secuta. “Was it on this account that I followed thee ?”- 499. Infractæ. “Enfeebled.”-502. Inter manus, For in manibus.

503. At tuba terribilem, &c. Observe the beautiful effect produced by this sudden change from tears and sadness to the bustle of war. It is as if we were aroused at the instant by the very blast of the trumpet. The line is imitated from a well-known one of Ennius. 505. Accelerant actâ pariter, &c. “The Volscians hasten on in equal order, a testudo having been formed.” Consult note on ii. 441.508. Quâ rara est acies, &c. “Where the (Trojan) front of battle is thin, and the circle of defenders not so dense with men, shows openings through it."-509. Non tam, i. e. non valde.

513. Tectam aciem. “The testudo-protected band.” They rolled down large stones in order to break through the serried order of the testudo. If the shields were kept firmly locked together, the missiles cast upon them would roll off like water from a roof.-514. With juoat supply Rutulos.—515. Nec jam sufficiunt. (At length, however,) their strength suffices not." Supply viribus.-Globus. Referring to the testudo.-516. Ruunt. “Pitch over (on the foe.)" Taken actively, in the sense of projiciunt.

517. Armorum. “Shields."-518. Cæco Marte. “In covered fight,” i. e, under the covering of the testudo.—522. Pinum. Probably a pine-tree in flames, instead of an ordinary torch.

525. Vos, O Calliope, precor, &c. “Do you (O ye Muses, and thou in particular), O Calliope, aid me, I entreat, while I tell 'in song," &c. A peculiar construction, by which the Muses are all invoked, but the invocation is specially addressed to one of the number, who alone is named. This construction is imitated from the Greek.—528. Et mecum ingentes, &c. “And unfold with me the vast outlines of the war.” Oræ, meaning, literally, the extreme edges of a garment, here denote figuratively the whole circuit of events, the main outlines. The details themselves are too numerous to be all given.

530. Suspectu. “Height.”—Et pontibus altis, i. e. communications by timbers laid across from the tower to the walls.—534. Caras fenestras. “The hollow loop-holes.”—-535. Ardentem lampada. “A blazing fire-vessel.” According to some of the commentators, lampas here denotes a kind of vessel, containing combustibles, and furnished with hooks, which was thrown in sieges.—536. Plurima. “Increased." Equivalent to aucta.–537. Tabulas. “The boards.”—Et postibus hæsit adesis. “And (then) clung to the timbers, (by this time) partially consumed.” More literally, “ eaten in,” By postes are here meant the main or upright beams.

540. Tum pondere turris, &c. By crowding too much into that part of the structure to which the flames had not as yet come, they over.

turn the tower, which was merely of wood and rested on the ground, and it falls over on its side towards the foe.

543. Confixique suis telis, &c. Some of them are pierced by one another's weapons ; some are transfixed by the splintered timber of the tower.-545. Primærus. “(Still) in the flower of youth.”

547. Vetitis armis. Not, as Heyne says, because on account of his tender youth, he was yet unfit to bear arms, but because he had been forbidden by his father to engage in warfare at so early an age.548. Parmă albâ. The shields of distinguished warriors bore painted devices ; but Helenor, the young warrior, had still to gain himself a name. Hence the epithet inglorius.

552. Haud nescia. “Not ignorant (of its approaching fate).”— 558. Tecta. “ The summit (of the ramparts).”

559. Pariter cursu teloque secutus, i. e. equalling in speed the javelin which he threw.—562. Magnâ muri cum parte, &c. The wall appears to have been a low one, according to the custom of the heroic age.564. Joris armiger, i. e. the eagle ; so called from its being represented in ancient works of art as bearing the thunderbolt of Jove.- 566. Martius lupus. “ The wolf, sacred to Mars.”

569. Ingenti fragmine montis. Explanatory of saxo.-572. Longe fallente sagittà. “ With the arrow deceiving from afar," i. e. coming from afar, and inflicting an unexpected wound.-575. Summis pro turribus.“ On the summit of a tower.”

576. Levis strinxerat. “Had slightly grazed.”—577. Projecto tegmine. “ Having thrown aside his shield.” His person thereby became exposed, and hence he is called demens.579. *Infixa est. “ Was pinned.”Læco lateri. The side that had been previously protected by the shield now thrown aside.

582. Pictus acu chlamydem, &c. “In embroidered cloak, and bright with Iberian purple." "Compare i. 708.-Ferrugine Iberá. Alluding to the purple dye of Spain, which was of a darker colour than ordinary, and hence is termed by the poet ferrugo.-584. Matris luco. “ In the grove of (the nymph) his mother.” We have written matris with the small initial letter, and have given it the explanation of Wagner. The mother of the youth, according to this, was a nymph of Sicily (the Symæthus being a Sicilian river), to whom the grove was sacred, but her name is not mentioned. Heyne writes Matris, with the initial letter a capital, and refers the term to Ceres, or the Ennæan Mother, so called from the plain of Enna in Sicily ; this goddess being often called Myrne, as her daughter Proserpina was styled Kópn. But so plain and bald an allusion to Ceres, when no other part of the context refers to her, does not harmonize with the usual practice of an epic poet.

585. Pinguis ubi et placabilis ara Palici. ««« Where there is a rich and appeasing altar of the Palici.” Literally, “of Palicus." As the Palici were two in number, there is some doubt whether we ought not to read Palicúm (for Palicorum), as Creda suggests. With respect to the expression pinguis et placabilis ara, consult note on vii. 764.

588. Media tempora is well explained by Wagner as being the space between the two temples, in other words, the forehead or brow. - Liquefacto plumbo. Not with a leaden bullet' that melted in the air in consequence of its rapid flight, but lead melted into the form of a bullet.

590. Bello. Having only done it before in the chase.- 593. Minorem. Supply natu.

596. Nodo regno. “By his recent alliance with royalty.”

598. Iterum. Alluding to their having before this been besieged by the Greeks in Troy.—599. Bis capti. Once by the Greeks, and once, as he is confident will be the case, by the Latins.—Et morti prætendere muros. “And to extend walls as a screen against death.” So Wagner, instead of Marti, adopted by Heyne.-600. Nostra connubia. “ Our brides." Referring particularly to Lavinia, whom Æneas was seeking to take away from Turnus.—602. Fandi fictor, “ False of

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603. Primum. “ At the moment of their birth.” – 604.-Sccoque gelu, &c. The poet alludes here to a custom said to have been prevalent among several of the early Italian nations.-605. Venatu intigilant, &c. “ Our boys are on the alert for the hunt, and incessantly scour the woods.” Venatu is the old dative for venatui.-606. Flectere ludus equos, &c. “ Their sport consists in,” &c,

609. Omne doum ferro teritur. “Our whole life is passed in arms." Versâ hastá. “With inverted spear.” They urge on their oxen at the plough with the handle of the spear, and also guide them with the same.-615. Desidiæ cordi. “ Indolence is your delight.” Supply sunt vobis.-Choreïs. Choral dances, the accompaniments of a peaceful state of things, are here regarded as marks of effeminacy by this member of a warlike nation.-616. Manicas. “ Sleeves.” A mark of effeminacy, like the preceding.-Mitræ. Consult note on iv. 216.Redimicula. “ Ties," i. e. side-bands. These were ribands or sidepieces, attached to the mitra or other head-dress at the occiput, and passing over the shoulders, so as to hang on each side, over the breast. They were, properly, female ornaments, and in the statues of Venus were imitated in gold. The Phrygians, an effeminate nation, also wore them.

617. O cere Phrygiæ, &c. Imitated from Homer (Il. ii. 235).Ite per alta Dindyma. Mount Dindymus, in Phrygia, was sacred to Cybele, and here her rites were celebrated with peculiar fervour. They were characterized by great licentiousness.--618. Ubi assuetis biforem, &c. “Where for you, accustomed thereto, the pipe utters its twofold note," i. e. its harsh and grating note. The allusion is to a very simple instrument used at the festivals of Cybele, and having merely two openings or perforations. It was probably a relic of rude and early art, which had retained its place at these celebrations, and the music obtained from which was of the rudest and simplest kind. Some commentators refer to Varro, as cited by Servius, who states that the Phrigian tibia was formed of two pipes, that on the right hand having one perforation, that on the left two. This, however, is inferior.

619. The tibia or pipe was made of boxwood ; hence buxus is here equivalent, in fact, to tibia.—620. Idæve matris. Cybele. Compare ii. 111.-Tympana. The tympanum was a small drum or timbrel carried in the hand. Of these, some resembled, in all respects, a modern tambourine with bells. Others presented a flat circular disk on the upper surface, and swelled out beneath, like a kettledrum.

622. Nerooque obrersus equino, &c. “ But, having confronted him, aimed an arrow on his horse-hair string, and drawing his arms far apart,” &c.-624. Ante. “ Before he discharged the shaft.

627. Aurată fronte. “With gilded front,” i. e. with gilded horns. This was a common custom.—628. Pariterque caput, &c. Of equal height with its mother.

630. Thunder and lightning in a clear sky was regarded as a preternatural indication of the will of the deity, and was favourable or unfavourable, according to the nature of the case, and the quarter of the heavens in which it was heard.-631. Intonuit lærum. Thunder on the left was deemed a favourable omen among the Romans, an unfavourable one among the Greeks. This was owing to the different positions of the Roman and Greek soothsayers when they took their respective omens. The former faced the south, and, of course, had the eastern part of the heavens, the lucky quarter, on their left. The latter faced the north, and had the east on the right. The east was always deemed lucky, because the heavenly motions were supposed to commence there. When the Romans, therefore, use læcus in the sense of “unlucky,” they speak after the Greek fashion.

Sonat una fatifer arcus. “The fate-bearing bow twangs at the same instant.” The moment Ascanius hears the thunder, he knows that his prayer is granted, and straightway discharges his arrow.-632. Adducta sagitta. The arrow was drawn back with the bowstring.– 636. Sequuntur. “Greet the deed.”

638. Crinitus Apollo. Long and beautiful hair was a peculiar characteristic of Apollo. Compare note on i. 740.-639. Urbemque. “ And the (Trojan) city," i. e. their city and encampment, or New Troy.- 641. Macté norā virtute, &c. “Go on and increase in early valour, O hoy! This is the pathway to the stars, O descendant of gods, and thou that art destined to be the progenitor of gods.” According to Priscian (v. xii. 66), the earlier Romans used the nominative form, mactus. In addressing a person, they would say mactus esto, which, according to etymologists, is equivalent to magis auctus esto, “be thou more increased." The vocative, however, seems gradually to have supplanted the nominative in such expressions, until the latter became quite obsolete. Hence arose the form that we have in the text, macte, i. e. macte esto, for mactus esto. Nay, so far did usage prevail, that macte was even employed instead of macta, with feminine nouns. (Wagner, ad loc.)

Sic itur ad astra, i.e. this is the path to immortality.-642. Dis. He was the grandson of Venus.—Deos. Cæsar and Augustus.

644. Nec te Troja capit. “ Nor is Troy capable of containing thee," i. e. Troy alone, or, in other words, the state to which the Trojans are now reduced is no longer worthy to contain thee.-647. Antiquum. This epithet is here employed, in an unusual sense, for senem. --648. Ad limina. “For his threshold.” Compare Livy (xxxiv. 6), “ Serri ad remum," and Terence (Andr. i. 130), “Canes ad venandum.”—651. Sæva sonoribus. “Harsh in sound.” Alluding to the corslet, and the shield covered with metal plates, the clanking sound of which would be different, of course, from the noise made by the bow and arrows which the god was accustomed to wear. Butes, it must be remembered, was still in a vigorous old age, and could still move actively in arms.

653. Æneide. More correct than Æneada, as given by Heyne and others, and more appropriate, too, on the present occasion, as designating the son of Æneas, whereas Æneada would be an appellation for any Trojan.-656. Cetera. “For what remains," i. e. of the conflict.

660. Pharetramque fugâ, &c. “ And they heard, as he departed, the rattling quiver.” Apollo, in departing, resumes his divine form. 665. Amentaque torquent. “ And whirl the straps of the javelins.”


They give the javelin a rotatory motion around its own axis, by means of the strap attached to it, before hurling the weapon at the foe. Consult note on vii. 730.—667. Flictu. “On being struck.”

668. Pluvialibus Hædis. “Under the influence of the rainy Kids." Storms attend the rising and setting of these stars.”—670. In rada. “ Into the waters of ocean.”—671. Præcipitant. Supply se.—Torquet. “ Sets in commotion.”

673. Jovis luco. Situate on Mount Ida.-Silvestris læra. “The forest nymph læra.”—674. Abietibus jurenes patriis, &c. Poetic exaggeration, to denote loftiness of stature.

677. Pro turribus. “As (two) towers.” Literally, “for towers." Equivalent to the Greek ávri húpywv.679. Liquentia flumina circum. “ Around the clear streams." Heyne regards liquentia as a mere poetic embellishment, and equivalent to liquida.-681. Intonsa capita. « Their leafy heads.” Intonsa is here equivalent to frondosa.

684. Quercens, et pulcher Aguicolus, &c. These are the names of the Rutulian chieftains who made a rush at the gates accompanied by their followers. The attempt, however, was unsuccessful. Some of them were put to the rout along with their bands; others fell in the very entrance.—686. Agminibus totis aut versi, &c. “ Either put to the rout, turned their backs with all their bands (of followers)," &c. Some commentators refer agminibus to the Trojans, and make it the dative case : “presented their backs to whole bands (of the Trojans);" but the poet, thus far, is describing the prowess of two Trojans merely, Pandarus and Bitias; and the Trojan bands are not collected on the spot until we reach verse 689.

688. I'um magis increscunt, &c. This is commonly supposed to apply to the Trojans, whereas the foiled Rutulians are evidently meant.-Discordibus. Equivalent here to hostilibus.-690. Et pro currere longius audent. The Trojans now forget the caution given them by Æneas, and begin to venture forth from their camp into the open field.

695. Fratresque superbos. Pandarus and Bitias.

697. Thebanâ de matre, &c. “Illegitimate offspring of the great Sarpedon, by a mother a native of Thebe.” The city of Hypoplacian Thebe, in Mysia, is here meant.—698. Itala cornus. “ The Italian cornel,” i. e. the weapon made of the wood of the cornel.—699. Stomacho. “ The throat." Compare Cicero (N. D. ii. 54): “ Ad radices (linguice) hærens, incipit stomachus.—700. Reddit specus atri tulneris, &c. “The gaping aperture (of the wound) sends forth," &c. Specus is here equivalent to cavum, or vulnus hians; and atri culneris (which is governed in construction by undam) is the same as atri sanguinis.

704. Neque enim jaculo, &c. When it is said that Bitias would not have surrendered his life to a common javelin, nothing more is meant than that the armour worn by this gigantic warrior was so strong that it could not be penetrated by the spears which were usually thrown by the hand in battle.

705. Contorta phalarica. “ The twisted phalarica,” i. e. the phalarica, with its twisted ropes. The phalarica was the spear of the Saguntines, and was impelled by the aid of twisted ropes. It was large and ponderous, having a head of iron a cubit in length, and a ball of lead at its other end. It sometimes carried flaming pitch and tow. This missile was generally thrown from an engine; here, however, it is burled from the hand of Turnus. It was chiefly

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