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-195. Videor posse. 6. Methinks I can.” Supply mihi.-196. In such a construction as the present, where mænia occurs immediately after muros, the latter appears to refer to the walls, the former to the city itself, with its buildings.
202. Argolicum terrorem, &c. “ Bred up amid the fearful warring of the Greeks.”—203. Sublatum. An allusion to the Roman custom of fathers taking up their children newly born, in token of acknowledging them.—Nec tecum talia gessi, &c. “ Nor did I ever perform such a part, with thee (for a witness), when I followed, &c.—204. Fata extrema. Alluding to the wanderings of Æneas in quest of his destined city and final home.
205. Hic. Indicative of gesture, the hand being placed on the breast.–Et istum qui vitâ, &c. 6 And one that will believe the glory unto which thou dost aspire to be cheaply purchased by the sacrifice of) life.”—208. Nec fas; non. “Nor have I any right to do so ; no.” The full expressiou would be, nec fas est mihi tale vereri.210. Sed, si quis, &c. “ But if any (many things of which kind thou seest in enterprises as hazardous as this), if any, whether chance or deity, hurry me into adverse fortune," &c.
214. Solitâ. “ As she is wont to do.” Alluding to the usual fickleness of Fortune.—215. Absenti ferat inferias. “ May bring funeral offerings unto me, though far away," i. e. to my absent corpse. The ancient Greeks and Romans were accustomed to visit at stated periods the tombs of their relatives and friends, and to offer to them sacrifices and various gifts. These oblations were called inferice.
Decoretque sepulcro. “And may honour me with a cenotaph.”217. Quæ te, sola, puer, &c. The mother of Euryalus had refused to be left behind in Sicily with the other Trojan females, but boldly followed her son. Compare v. 715, seqq. It must be borne in mind, however, that not all the Trojan females were left behind in Sicily, but only those advanced in years. The mother of Euryalus, therefore, was the only one of the more aged matrons that accompanied the fleet. Compare xi. 35.
221. Vigiles. Those who were to take the guard.—222. Servantque vices. “ And take their turn.”—223. Regem. “ The prince." Ascanius.—230. Castrorum et campi medio.“ In the centre of the camp and plain.” Equivalent to castrorum campestrium medio, “in the middle of their camp situate in the plain.”
232. Rem magnam, &c. “ That it was a matter of great importance, and would be worth the delay," į. e. the interruption which it might occasion to the council.—233. Trepidos, ž. e. excited by the idea of the service they were about to render their country.
235. Nete hæc nostris, &c. “Nor let these things which we are now going to propose be judged of by our years.”—237. Locum insidiis conspeximus ipsi, &c. " We ourselves have observed a place (fit) for our secret design, which presents itself in the double road leading from the gate that is nearest the sea.” Two roads led from this gate: one to Laurentum, and through the camp of the Rutulians, who had come by it to attack the Trojan camp; the other turned to the left, passed in the rear of the camp, and led into the interior of the country.
244. Vidimus obscuris primam, &c. " Often, while hunting, have we seen from amid the shady valleys the nearest part of the town.”
249. Certa. “ Bold.”-252. Pro laudibus istis. “ For this most
meritorious conduct of yours.”—254. Moresque vestri. “ And your own virtues," i. e. your own approving consciences.
255. Integer ævi. “ Now in the bloom of years." Taken in connexion with what follows, it denotes that they will ever find a friend in Ascanius from youth upward.—257. Immo. Referring back to immemor. Hence we render as follows : “No! (never upmindful ; on the contrary), I, whose sole happiness is centred in my father's return,” &c.—258. Nise. Ascanius names one of the two merely, but means, in fact, both ; since at line 525 we have “ros, 0 Calliope, precor," by a precisely similar construction.-259. Assaracique Larem, i. e. the tutelary divinity of our line. Assaracus, one of his early forefathers, is here placed for the whole line.
260. Fides. “Confident hope," i. e. that my father will be restored to us.—261. In vestris pono gremiis. “I place in your bosoms.” A beautiful expression. I place all my happiness and hopes under your care, to cherish and preserve, even as a mother cherishes her child in her bosom.-262. Nihil triste. Supply erit.
263. Aspera signis. “Rough with embossed work.”—Tripodas. Compare note on iii. 92.-266. Dat. Certain substantives denoting something that remains with one, or is more or less abiding in its nature, such as donum, munus, &c. sometimes take the verb in the present tense with the poets, where we must translate by a past one.
268. Et prædæ dicere sortem. “ And to appoint a distribution of booty,” i. e. to fix a day, place, and manner of distribution. So Wag. ner. Heyne and others have ducere ; but ducere sortem cannot be said of a leader himself, since the portion of the latter was always taken from the plunder before the main body of his followers drew lots for their own shares. If, therefore, we retain ducere here, it can only have the meaning of ducendum curare.
270. Ipsum illum. Supply equum.-272. Matrum. Equivalent merely to feminarum.—273. Suaque omnibus arma. “ And the arms that belong to all," i. e. together with their arms. The allusion, of course, is to the “captioi."
275. Te vero. Ascanius now turns to Euryalus.—Mea quem spatiis, &c. “Whom my own age follows with nearer interval,” i. e. to whom I am nearer in age. A metaphor taken from racers, spatia denoting here the intervening space between the two competitors for the prize.
281. Me nulla dies, &c. “No day (of my future life) shall, as I hope, prove me unworthy of this so bold an attempt : thus much (do I promise).” We have adopted here the punctuation of Heyne, excepting the stop after argueret, which we have changed from a semicolon to a colon.—282. Tantum. Supply promitto.
288. Inque salutatam. “And without having taken leave.” Literally, “and unsaluted (by me).” Observe the tmesis in inque salutatam for insalutatamque.- Nox et tua testis, &c. He invokes what was nearest at the moment of speaking, namely, the surrounding darkness, and the right hand of Ascanius, which he was then grasping.
291. Tui, the genitive of the personal pronoun.—294. Atque animum patriæ, &c. “And the image of parental affection (which these words called up) moved his bosom powerfully.” The poet refers here to the thought of his own father, as occurring to Iulus on beholding the filial devotion of Euryalus.
296. Sponde digna tuis, &c. “Expect all things worthy of thy
glorious undertaking.” Literally, “promise unto thyself ;" tibi to be supplied. We have given the ordinary reading, which Wagner defends. Heyne, on the other hand, has spondeo, which involves a metrical difficulty, for o final in verbs is very rarely shortened by writers of the Augustan age, and (excluding the present instance) no example occurs in Virgil of the final o in a verb being left short, except in scio and nescio. If therefore, we retain spondeo with Heyne, it ought to be pronounced as a dissyllable, spondyo.
297. Namque erit ista, &c. “For that mother of thine shall be a mother unto me,” i. e. shall be cherished by me as fondly as if she were my own.—298. Nec partum gratia, &c. “ Nor does merely a slight return of gratitude await (her, for having given us) such a son.'
-300. Per quod pater ante, &c. By what my father, before me, was accustomed (to swear by).” Ascanius here imitates his father Æneas in the form of his oath. His parent was accustomed to swear by his own head : the son now swears by his own.
301. Reduci. “ In case thou return.”—305. Atque habilem ragina, &c. “ And had fitted it, easy (in consequence) to wear, unto an ivory sheath.” We must suppose a sheath adorned merely with ivory.306. Pellem horrentisque, &c., i.e. a skin, the spoil of, &c.; a skin stripped from, &c.
309. Primorum.“ Of leaders.” The genitive of primores.-311. Ante annos.
“ Before the years (of manhood had even come).” Supply viriles.
Sed auræ omnia discerpunt, &c. “ But the breezes scatter them all,” &c. The messengers did not succeed in reaching Æneas, but perished by the way.
315. Ante. “Before they themselves perished.” To complete the sense, some words must be supplied here. Servius makes the full expression to be antequam ipsi perirent, which we have followed in translating.-317. Arrectos litore, currus. Along the shore, chariots with the poles raised in air.” The allusion is to chariots froin which the horses have been unharnessed.
319. Vina, i.e. vessels more or less full of wine, the remains of the previous evening's debauch.
322. Consule longe. “And keep a look out from afar.” Consule is equivalent to prospice, or provide.-323. Vasta dabo. For vastabo.Et lato te limite ducam. “And will lead thee along a broad pathway,' i. e. made wide by the sword.—325. Tapetibus altis exstructus.“ Raised high on lofty carpets,” i. e. on a lofty couch overlaid with rich carpets.
329. Temere. “ Promiscuously.”—331. Pendentia. “ Hanging (relaxed in sleep).”—333. Sanguine singultantem. “Spirting forth blood with convulsive throes.” Sanguine, poetic for sanguinem.-- 334. Tori. Referring to the places where they lay.-335. Plurima. Neuter plural, accus. for plurimum, by a poetic idiom.
337. Multo deo. “ By the potent influence of the god," i. e. by much wine.-Si protenus illum, &c. “ If he had without intermission made that sport equal to the night, and had prolonged it until the light of day."-339. Turbans. Spreading confusion.”—341. Fremit ore cruento. After these words, we must supply in the mind some such form of expression as this : simili modo furebat Nisus.
343. Ac multam in medio, &c. “ And secretly attacks, in promiscuous slaughter, a numerous and ignoble throng." So Wagner.
348. Et multâ morte recepit. " And withdrew it amid abundant
death,” i. e. and withdrew it after inflicting by the wound certain death.–349. Purpuream animam. “ The purple tide of life.”
354. Sensit enim nimia, &c. “ For he perceived that they were getting hurried away by too eager a desire for slaughter."-356. Poenarum exhaustum satis est. “ Vengeance has been sufficiently exhausted.”
359. Phaleras. Consult note on v. 310.-Et aurea bullis. “Adorned with golden bosses.”—360. Cingula. Observe the force of the plural, as indicating a costly belt.—361. Hospitio quum jungeret absens.
When, though absent, he connected himself with him by the tie of hospitality.” With jungeret supply se illi.—362. Ille. Remulus.363. Post mortem bello, &c. After the death of the grandson of Remulus, who was slain in battle by the Rutulians, the latter became possessed of the belt, and gave it, either as a portion of the booty, or as the prize of valour, to Rhamnes. Wagner regards this line as spurious.
364. Nequidquam. Because not destined long to enjoy ther:366. Tuta capessunt.
“ Make for a place of safety.” 369. Et Turno regi responsa ferebant. Turnus had gone on before with a light-armed band, to attack the Trojan camp. Meanwhile, forces were collecting in the city of Laurentum, and Turnus sends back word to accelerate the march of these. The three hundred horse are despatched with an answer to this request, from the capital of Latinus. Heyne and others read regis, making the answer come from Latinus himself. But Wagner, with more propriety, and on better MS, authority, gives regi, and supposes the answer to have come from the commander of the infantry, which still remained behind; for Latinus himself had given up the reins of affairs, as we have been told in viii. 600.
372. Hos. Nisus and Euryalus.—Looo flectentes limite.“ Turning away by the left-hand path.” The two Trojans had at first taken the right-hand path, in order to reach the camp of the Rutulians ; in leaving this, they turn to the left, and fall in with the hostile cavalry. The left-hand route would have carried them towards the Tiber and the city of Euander.
374. Immemorem, i. e. unconscious that his helmet was betraying him.- Radiisque adversa refulsit. “ And, being opposed to the beams of the moon, sent forth a gleam of light.”—375. Haud temere est visum. “ This passed not unobserved.” Literally," the thing was not observed in vain."
377. Nihil illi tendere contra. “ They made no reply.” The historical infinitive. Tendere is well explained by Servius as equivalent to tendere verbis.-379. Ad dicortia nota. “ At the well-known bye-ways.”
383. Rara per occultos, &c. “ Here and there a pathway gave light, through tracts covered with underwood.” Calles can hardly be the right reading here, and ought, probably, to be changed into valles. If it be allowed to stand, it must be taken in the sense which we have assigned to it.-385. Fallitque timor regione viarum. “ And fear leads him astray from the true direction of his route.” Compare note on ii. 737.
386. Imprudens. “Not perceiving that Euryalus remained behind.”—387. Ad lucos. “As far as the groves.” Heyne reads lacus.
391. Recolons. Retracing."-394. Signa. “ The signals," i. e. their calling upon one another in different parts of the wood.-397.
“ He only
Fraude loci et noctis oppressum. “Overcome by the treachery of the place and night," i. e. led astray by the darkness and his ignorance of the country,
405. Latonia custos. “Latonian guardian," i. e. Diana, or the Moon. Custos refers to her as a huntress, and goddess of the woods. -406. Si qua ipse meis, &c. “ If any I myself ever added.” Auxi in the sense of addidi.
412. Atersi. “Who was turned away (at the time).” The common text has adversi, which cannot stand, even though we explain tergum by scutum, as Servius and Donatus do.-Ibique frangitur, &c. The spear of Nisus was driven through the back of Sulmo, so that the head projected out of his breast; the long handle, however, behind, bends down by its own weight, and breaks off.
417. Summâ ab aure. “ From the tip of his ear.” He poised the weapon above his shoulder before throwing it.—418. Dum trepidant. “While they keep moving about in confusion.”
427. Me, me (adsum, qui feci), &c. “Me, me (here am I, who did it), turn your weapons against me." Eagerness to save his friend gives a broken and interrupted air to his speech. We may suppose petite, or some such verb, to be understood with me, me, though not required in translating. Some make me, me, to be governed by the preposition in understood, as inferred from in me convertite, &c. This, however, is extremely harsh.
428. Mea fraus est omnis. “The whole offence is mine.” Fraus is equivalent to scelus or culpa.—Iste. “He who is now in your possession." Observe the force of iste.–430. Tantum, &c. loved too much."
435. Purpureus flos. “Some bright-hued flower." This beautiful passage appears to be imitated from Catullus (xi. 22).
447. Nulla dies. “No lapse of time.” 448. By the domus Ænece is meant the Julian line.-Immobile saxum. Rome was to stand as long as the rock of the Capitol stood, and to a Roman the Capitol was eternal.-449. Pater Romanus. According to Heyne, Jupiter Capitolinus is here meant; but, according to Wagner, Augustus, This latter opinion is the more probable, the poet not meaning that Augustus is to reign for ever, but that the empire of the world will be ever held by his line.
464. Suas. So Wagner. Heyne gives suos, and regards it as an elegance; to which Wagner replies, “ Sed quid in hoc manifesto vitio insit elegantiæ, non video.”—Rumoribus. These appear to have had reference to the nocturnal slaughter.
473. Pavidam per urbem, i. e. the encampment and new city of Trojans.—476. Radii. “The shuttle.” Revolutaque pensa. the web was unravelled.”—478. Agmina prima. She mingles in the foremost line of the combatants, in order to behold once more the features of her son.
481. Hunc. “Thus.”. Equivalent to talem.— 485. Terrâ ignota. “? In a strange land.” His native country, on the other hand, would be terra nota.—486. Nec te in tua funera, &c. “ Nor did I, (thy) mother, bestow my cares upon thee for thy funeral rites,” &c. A most corrupt passage, and one which all the commentators give up in despair. All the MSS. read funera, and we have, therefore, instead of changing this to funere, with Wagner, adopted the emendation of Donatus, which consists in the insertion of the preposition in. The phrase producere, or ducere funus, means “ to perform the last