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partly to the two arms of the river, namely, the Vahalis and Rhenus, and partly to the usual costume of river-deities. Consult note on line 77.728. Et pontem indignatus Araxes. “And the Araxes, disdaining a bridge.”* Strong poetic language to designate a rapid and impetuous stream. Servius adds, that Augustus succeeded in throwing a bridge over this river, a previous one, erected by Alexander the Great, having been swept away. The remark is probably incorrect. If, however, it be true, Virgil's meaning will be, “and the Araxes that (once) disdained a bridge.”

729. Dóna parentis. “ The splendid gift of his parent.” Observe the force of the plural. Dona is in apposition with clipeum.—730. Rerumque ignarus, &c. “And, though ignorant of the events themselves (delineated thereon), delights in the mere representation.” — 731. Attollens humero, &c. He raises up, and throws over his shoulder, by means of the strap attached to it, the shield which thus contained on its broad surface some of the most glorious events in the history of his descendants. In the Homeric times, the Greeks used a belt for the sword, and another for the shield. These passed over the shoulders and crossed upon the breast. The shield-belt lay over the other, and was the larger and broader of the two. This mode of carrying the shield was subsequently laid aside, on account of its inconvenience.


1. Atque. The particle atque connects the narrative that follows with the portion of the story detailed in the previous book.- Ea. Referring to what is described in the eighth book respecting the movements of Æneas at the court of Euander, and his subsequent visit to the people of Cære.- Diversâ penitus parte. “In a far different quarter," i. e. at the court of Euander, and also in Etruria.

4. Sacratâ calle. “ (Which lay) in a sacred vale.” - Pilumni. Compare x. 619.-5. Thaumantias. “ The daughter of Thaumas.” A beautifully-expressive appellation for the goddess of the rainbow. Thaumas signifying “wonder," from the Greek Oaõua.

6. Optanti. Supply tibi.-7. Voldenda dies. “ Time, as it rolls on.” Consult note on i. 269.-8. Urbe. “His new city."-9. Sceptra. “ The realms.” For regna.-10. Corythi. “ Of Corythus," i. e. of Etruria. Corythus, the mythic founder of Cortona, one of the cities of Etruria, is put for that city itself. Cortona was also called Cory. thus from him. - 11. Lydorumque manum. Alluding to the Lydian origin of Etrurian civilization, through the Pelasgic Tyrrheni. 'Consult note on viii. 479.–Agrestes. Not mere undisciplined rustics, but hardy bands of the cultivators of the soil. Compare x. 310, where mention is made, in the same sense, of the agrestes turmæ of Turnus, and consult also line 607, seqq., of the present book.

13. Turbata arripe castra, i. e. attack the Trojan camp while in a state of confusion and alarm at the absence of its commander. "No intelligence had' as yet been received respecting Æneas ; for the events in this book are simultaneous with those described in the preceding book, and the companions of Æneas were as yet on their return from the court of Euander.

18. Nubibus actam. “Shot from the clouds." --20. Tempestas answers here precisely to our term “sky," and denotes the upper region of the air, where the clouds are, and where the changes of weather (tempestates) are supposed to originate.—Medium video discedere coelum. " I see the mid-heavens part asunder.” Iris, in her departure from the earth, cleaves the air with a flash of light, and the beholder, as he follows her with his eye, fancies that he sees the heavens opening to his view, and the very stars appearing amid the beams of day.—21. Palantes. Referring merely to the regular courses of the stars in the sky.

22. Quisquis in arma vocas. Turnus knew Iris, but he did not know by what deity she had been sent to earth.-23. Summoque hausit, &c. This was done that he might pray with washed hands and with the greater purity.--24. Multa. “Earnestly."

26. Dices pictaï cestis et auri. “Rich in attire interwoven with gold.” Equivalent, as Heinrich and Wagner remark, to vestis auro intertexto.- Pictaï. old form for picto. – 28. Tyrrhidoe juvenes. Compare vii. 484.—29. Vertitur arma tenens, &c. This verse is found already in vii. 784, and is wanting also in many MSS. It interrupts the comparison, as Heyne remarks, between the progress of an army and that of a river, in the three next verses, and he therefore regards it as interpolated. It is rejected also by Brunck, Schrader, Bothe, and Weichert. Jahn and Wagner defend it, but without much force.

31. Per tacitum. “(Flows on) in silence.” According to the ancients, the Ganges, soon after leaving its sources in the Montes Emodi, flowed along in seven channels for a part of its course. This idea is here adopted by Virgil. Amnibus, therefore, does not refer to tributary streams, but is equivalent merely to aloeïs. The force of the comparison lies in the silent flow of the river and the silent march of the mighty host.-Surgens. Referring to the periodical increase of the waters of the Ganges.- Sedatis. « Of which the violence has abated.” The Ganges has now left the mountains, and its stream is less impetuous along the more level country.

Aut pingui flumine ilus, &c. “Or the Nile, with its fertilizing stream, when it flows back from the fields, and has now compressed itself within its former channel.” Another comparison of the silent march of the host, with the silent reflux of the Nile, and its flow of waters after the annual inundation has subsided.

35. Ab adversâ mole. “From that part of the ramparts which fronted the foe.”—37. Date tela, &c. The common text has date tela, scandite, which has been condemned by many critics as being the only instance where Virgil makes long a final short syllable preceding a word beginning with s and another consonant. We have given ascendite, with Wagner, from one of the MSS.–38. Per omnes condunt se, &c. “(Rushing in) through all the gates, block themselves up."

41. Si qua interea fortuna fuisset. “That, in case any accident of war should occur during the interval (of his absence).”—44. Monstrat. “Urge them on." Equivalent to impellit or suadet. Heyne : “ Nam qui suadet, monstrat quid sit faciendum, et quâ ratione."

49. Thracius equus. The epithet here is merely ornamental, and equivalent, in fact, to insignis or præstans. The Thracian horses were held in high esteem by the ancients, but we can hardly suppose that Turnus had literally one of this particular kind.-51. Qui primus in hostem. Supply irruat.-52. Adtorquens. Ad here, as elsewhere, increases the force of the simple verb, “brandishing powerfully" or vigorously.”—53. Arduus. “ Mounted on his steed." Supply equo.

57. Cadra forere. Somewhat analogous to our English expression, "nestle within their camp.” An ironical expression, of course.

60. Quum fremit ad caulas.“ When he howls at the sheepfolds." Heinrich explains caulas by the “ doors” or “ openings of the fold." and supplies opilis.-63. In absentes. “ Against those whom he cannot reach.“ The sheep, being protected from his fury, are here regarded as actually absent. -Collecta fatigat edendi, &c. “The raging desire of food, contracted by long waiting, keeps goading him on.”—64. Ex longo. Supply tempore.

67. Quo via.“ What path of attack,” i. e. what mode of access.68. Aique effundat in æquum. “ And pour them forth (to the conflict) upon equal terms." The inequality of the contest at present consisted in the Trojans being defended by their ramparts. Turnus wished to bring them out to a fair and open fight. Hence in æquum is a much better reading than in æquor, as given by Heyne. The latter would imply that the camp of the Trojans was on elevated ground, and that Turnus wished to bring them down into the plain ; but the Trojan encampment was itself in the plain, not on high ground.

70. Aggeribus septam, &c. The vessels were drawn up on shore according to ancient custom. Et fluvialibus undis. “And the waters of the stream." The reference appears to be to canals or trenches dug around the vessels, and cutting off the approach of a foe.—71. Sociosque incendia, &c. “And calls for fire from his exulting followers."--76. Vulcanus, by metonymy for ignis or incendia. Supply fert from the preceding clause.

79. Prisca fides facto, &c. “The belief in the fact is (it is true) of ancient date, but the tradition has never died.”—82. Deúm genés trix Berecyntia. Cybele, to whom Ida, as well as Mount Berecyntus in Phrygia, was sacred. Consult note on vi. 785.—84. Quod tua cara parens, &c. “ What thy beloved parent asks of thee, now that (through her means) Olympus is subdued (unto thy sway).” Jupiter's mother had preserved him from Saturn; to her, therefore, as Servius remarks, he was indebted, in fact, for the possession of Olympus.

85. Pinea silda mihi, &c. “ I have a forest of pine, dear to me during many years. (In a part of that forest), on the summit of the (Idæan) mountain, once stood a grove, whither they used to bring me sacred offerings, gloomy with the dark pitch-pine and maple trees.” Heyne regards lines 86 and 87 as spurious ; but they are defended by Wagner, whose interpretation we have given. The grove covered the summit' of Ida, and in it sacrifices were offered to Cybele. The remainder of the mountain was occupied by the pine forest. The grove was composed of pitch-pine trees and maples intermingled.86. Fuit. The grove once stood there ; the trees were afterward cut down to build the fleet.-87. Trabibus. For arboribus.

88. Has. Supply arbores, from lucus, &c.-89. Anxius angit. Heyne calls this " inepta alliteratio,” and reads urguet. Wagner, on the other hand, maintains that Virgil purposely employs an alliteration here to express a stronger feeling of solicitude on the part of the goddess; and he refers to Cicero's moles molestiarum (De Orat. i. 1).

90. Atque hoc precibus, &c. “And let a parent be able to obtain

this by her entreaties.”—92. Prosit, nostris in montibus, &c. “ Let it prove a source of advantage (unto these), that they rose into life on our mountains," i. e. that they grew on Ida, a mountain sacred unto me.

93. Torquet. “Who regulates the movements of.” Consult note on vi, 798.-94. Quo fata rocas ? i. e. what change art thou striving to inake in the settled order of things ?--Aut quid petis istis ? «Or what art thou seeking for those ships of thine ?" Supply navibus.96. Fas habeant, &c. “ Enjoy an immortal privilege ? and shall Æneas go through uncertain dangers, certain himself of being saved ?"

98. Defunctæ. “ Having performed their course, Supply cursu suo.—99. Quæcunque evaserit, &c. The pronoun and verb are in the singular, but the reference is a plural one. All the ships did not reach Italy. One, the vessel of Orontes, was sunk in the storm off the coast of Africa (i. 113), and four were burned by the Trojan women in Sicily (v. 699.)—101. Mortalem eripiam formam. Supply iis omnibus.

104, Idque ratum, &c. “And gave the sign with his nod that this was ratified,” &c. With ratum supply esse.Stygii fratris. Pluto. Jove ratifies his promise with the fearful oath by the Styx, Cocytus, and other rivers of the lower world, which oath no deity dared to break with impunity.–105. Ripas. In the sense of amnes.

108. Turni injuria. “The outrage of Turnus,” i. e. the violence offered by him to the sacred ships.—Matrem. “The mother of the gods.”-110. Oculis. Supply Trojanorum.—111. Ab Aurora. “ From the East,”-112. Idæique chori. “And (in it) choral bands of the Idæan followers of the goddess." Literally, “ Idæan choruses." Alluding to the different priests of Cybele, the Corybantes, the Curetes, and the Idæi Dactyli. Figures of these were seen in the

114. Ne trepidate. “Hasten not.”—118. Puppes. The sterns, not the prows, are here mentioned, in allusion to the ancient inodé of drawing up vessels stern foremost on the shore.

120. Hinc virginece, &c. “From this same quarter as many virgin forms give themselves back to the view,” &c. Hinc refers to cequora ima.

124. Messapus. The commander of the van. Compare line 27.125. Revocat pedem. Literally," recalls his foot," i. e. his current. 127. Ultro. “ Further than this, too.” Ultro has here the force of insuper.

128. Trojanos hæc monstra petunt. “ These prodigies have for their object the Trojans.”—129. Auxilium sulitum. Turnus regards the loss of their ships as a sure proof that Jove has abandoned their cause.—129. Non tela neque ignes, &c. “They wait not for the weapons nor fires of the Rutulians," i. e. Jove by destroying their vessels, has ruined all their hopes, and they do not wait, therefore, to be stripped of their fleet by us.–131. Rerum pars altera. “One portion of the means of deliverance.” Referring to the loss of their ships.—132. Terra autem, &c. “ (The other portion), the land,” &c. - Tot millia. In apposition with gentes Italce.

138. Conjuge, i. e. Lavinia, my affianced bride. Nec solos tangit Atridas, &c. i.e. nor are the sons of Atreus (Menelaus and Agamemnon) the only ones who have felt indignation at a loved one's having been borne away.


140. Sed periisse semel satis est, &c. “But it will be said) it is sufficient atonement for them to have perished once. (Well, then), it should have been sufficient for them to have committed this offence once before, having conceived (after this) an almost total aversion towards the whole race of women.”—141. Perosos. Agreeing with the pronoun understood in the accusative before peccare.

142. Quibus hæc medii, &c. “ (They) unto whom this confidence in their interposed rampart and delays occasioned by their trenches (to a foe), a slight separation between them and death, afford courage. Have they not seen, however,” &c. Observe the harshness of construction in quibus hæc, &c., as indicative of the excited feelings of the speaker.-144. Non. In the sense of nonne.

146. With cos supply dicite.-148.' Mille carinis. Alluding to the fleet of the Greeks that sailed against Troy. Mille is here merely a round number, employed according to a well-known poetic usage.150. Tenebras et inertia furta, &c. “Let them not fear the darkness of night and the cowardly theft of the Palladium,” &c., i. e. let them not fear lest we come in the night season, like Ulysses and Diomede, and steal from them that on which their safety depends.

153. Luce, palam, certum est. “By day, face to face, are we resolved.” Supply nobis after certum est.-154. Haud sibi cum Danais, &c. “I will soon make them come to the conclusion that they have not (now) to do with Greeks, and with (mere) Pelasgic youth.” Faxo an old form for fecero, and the future perfect is here used for the simple future, in order to express haste, or rapidity of operation.Pube Pelasgá. Contemptuous, as denoting a mere band of beardless warriors.

156. Melior pars diei, i. e. the part better adapted for action.—158. Et pugnam sperate parari, i.e. remain fully assured that on the morrow a battle awaits you.

160. Flammis. “ With watch-fires."-162. Illos centeni quemque, &c. The select band consisted, therefore, of 1400 men.--164. Variantque dices. “And vary the turns in (guarding),” ;. e. take turns, &c.-165. Vertunt. “Invert," i. e. drain.

169. Et armis alta tenent. “And in arms occupy the walls.”—170. Pontes et propugnacula jungunt, i. e. they join the outworks to the main fortifications by means of stages or galleries.

171. Tela gerunt, i. e. heap up missiles so as to have them ready for action.-175. Exercetque vices, &c. “ And attend in turn, to what is to be defended by each."

176. Portæ. “Of one of the gates.”—177. Ida venatrix. “ The huntress Ida.” A nymph, the mother of Nisus ; not, as some suppose, the mountain so named, with the epithet denatrix added by enallage.

185. An sua cuique, &c. “ Or is that which one earnestly desires to be regarded as a divine inspiration ?" Literally, “or is his own desire a deity to each one ?”—186. Invadere. “To attempt.” Said, generally, of things that involve more or less of difficulty and hazard. -191. Quid dubitem. “What I am now revolving."

192, 193. Qui certa reportent. “To bear unto him the true state of our affairs.”--194. Si, tibi quæ posco, promittunt. “ If they promise what I ask for thee." Ņisus generously intends to give over all the rewards that shall be promised for the achievement unto his friend Euryalus, being content himself with the glory alone that may result.

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