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“ And (hear them), clashed together, to resound aloud.” Observe the zeugma in vident, the verb in this clause being equivalent to audiunt.

533. Quem casum portenta ferant. “What (coming) event these prodigies portend.”—Ego poscor Olympo. “I am called by heaven.” Literally, “I am asked for by Olympus.” Supply ab before Olympo. The meaning of the clause is, “ I am summoned by the gods to the conflict.” Heyne regards Olympo as the dative for ab Olympo, and gives a somewhat different explanation of the passage : “ Me Olympus poscit, me cult, respicit, h. e. ad me ostentum æris spectat, nihil est quod oos teneamini.

537. Heu quantæ miseris, &c. Æneas sees, in spirit, the overthrow of his foes.—540. Thybri pater! The battle in which 'Turnus lost his life, and the Latins were defeated, was fought in the vicinity of the Tiber. Poscant .... rumpant. Ironically,

542. Et primum Herculeis, &c. “And first he awakens the dor. mant altars with Herculean fires." Poetic, for “he awakens the slumbering fires on the altars sacred to Hercules.” By “ Herculean fires" are meant fires in honour of Hercules. Euander, according to Heyne, would seem to have worshipped Hercules as a domestic or family deity, and to have consecrated a special altar to him in his dwelling, and on this altar Æneas now rekindles the fires for a sacrifice to him as one of Euander's Penates. Another sacrifice is then offered by him to the Lar domesticus of Euander, and his more immediate Penates. Wagner, however, more correctly makes the sacrifice to Hercules to have been offered at the Ara Maxima, on which the previous oblation was being made by Euander at the time of Æneas's arrival. After this, according to the same critic, another sacrifice is made within the dwelling, unto the Lares and Penates.-543. Hester. numque Larem, &c.“ And then, with joyous feelings, approaches the Lar of the previous day's worship, and the humble Penates (of his entertainer), i. e. the Lar to whom he had made his offering on the previous day, when entering for the first time the dwelling of Euander. Some read externum, in the sense of Géviov, instead of hesternum, but without any necessity. The epithet parcos has a peculiar reference to the humble abode of the monarch.

547. Qui sese in bella sequantur. “To accompany him to the scene of warlike preparations, i. e. to Cære, and the forces assembled there, in order that he may obtain their aid. Bella strikingly depicts the martial feeling that animates the people of Cære, and their eagerness to advance against the Rutulians. Commentators manage to find a difficulty here, where none in fact exists.-549. Segnisque, &c. “And float, without any exertion on their part, down the stream." Segnes is equivalent here to sine remigio, as Servius well explains it.550. Nuntia ventura. The feminine agreeing with pars, instead of nuntii penturi.Rerumque patrisque. “Of both the condition of affairs and of his father's movements.” The remainder of the Trojans who had accompanied Æneas to the city of Euander return to the Trojan encampment, and bring the tidings to Ascanius of the affairs in hand.

552. Exsortem. “One distinguished from the rest.”. Supply equum, and consult note on v. 534.-553. Procefulgens unguibus aureis. *" AL resplendent with gilded claws." The preposition pro increases the force of the simple verb.—555. Tyrrheni ad litora regis, i.e. to Care, where Mezentius had been reigning. Some MSS. give limina, of

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which Heinsius approves. This, however, is not needed. We must bear in mind that the forces of Cære were encamped on the shore, ready to embark as soon as a fit leader could be found.-556. Matres. Mothers, alarmed for the safety of their sons, about to proceed to the war.-Propiusque periclo it timor. “And fear now borders more and more closely upon the danger itself,” i. e. they do not now fear danger merely, but they fear it as something close at hand, and imminent. Consult Wagner, ad loc.

558. Euntis. Supply filii.-559. Inexpletum lacrymans. “ Weeping in a way that would not be satisfied.” We have preferred here the reading of Heyne to inexpletus, as given by Wagner. It is certainly the more forcible and natural one of the two.-560. O mihi referat si Jupiter. “O that Jupiter would restore to me.”-561. Proeneste sub ipsâ. In Æn. vii. 670, seqq., Cæculus is called the founder of Præneste, and is numbered among the chieftains in the army of the Latins. Here, however, Euander says that he himself fought, in earlier years, under the walls of Præneste, and slew Herilius, king of that place. Cæculus, therefore, must have been a second founder of the city, or, in other words, must have rebuilt it.—564. Feronia. Compare vii. 800.-565. Terna arma movenda. “ Arms to be thrice wielded.” He had to be thrice conquered and slain.

569. Finitimo huic capiti insultans. “ Insulting this his neighbour," i. e. me, his neighbour. Literally, “insulting this neighbouring head.” Compare, as regards the force of capiti, the note on iv. 613. We have given finitimo, with Wagner, in place of finitimus, as adopted by Heyne. It is more euphonious, and sanctioned also by better MSS.—571. Urbem. Cære or Agylla.

574. Patrias preces. “A father's prayers.Patrias for paternas. -576. Venturus in unum. For conventurus.-581. Mea sera et sola coluptas, i. e. the only solace of my declining years.—582. Gravior nuntius. “More painful tidings than ordinary.” We have given neu, with Wagner, instead of the common ne. It is certainly the more spirited form here.

588. Pictis armis. “ Emblazoned armour," i. e, not only decorated with gold and silver ornaments, as Heyne remarks, but having also devices (ypapai, onuara) painted upon the shield, &c.-Conspectus. Equivalent to conspicuus, or, as others say, to conspiciendus.

589. Oceani perfusus undâ, i. e. rising from ocean.-590. Quem Venus ante alios, &c. Because it is her own star.—594. Qua proxima meta viarum. “Where is the nearest limit of their route," i. e, by the shortest route. So Wagner.—596. Quadrupedante putrem, &c. In this line, imitating the sound of cavalry in quick motion, Ennius is imitated.

597. Coritis is here the genitive of Cæres, another form of name for the city of Cære. The name of the river itself was, according to Cluver, Caretanus, corresponding to the modern Vacina. The stream flowed on the east side of the city.—599. Nemus. Merely synonymous with lucus in line 597, and standing here for lucum.-. 602. Qui primi fines aliquando, &c.“ Who once held the first possession of the Latin fields." These Pelasgi, according to the common account, settled also in Cære, and left many traces of their language and customs behind them. (Dion. Hal. i. 20.-Id. ji. 58.)–603. Tuta tenebant castra locis. “ Kept their camp defended by the situation of the place."-605. Et latis tendebat in arois, i. e. the line of encampment was extended over a wide space of country.-607. Curant. This narration is completed in the tenth book, verse 148, seqq.

610. Gelido secretum flumine. “ Apart by the cold river.” Secretum is equivalent to solum, i. e. secretum a sociis. We have given et gelido with Wagner, in place of egelido, the reading of Heyne. Egelidus is not in accordance with epic language ; and, besides, the river in question las already been styled gelidum in a previous verse.—612. Promissã. Compare line 401.

617. Deæe donis et tanto, &c. A hendiadys.-618. Explerį. Supply tuendo. “With gazing upon them.”—619. Interque manus. The smaller parts of the armour are held in his hands; the larger in his arms.-622. Sanguineam. “ Red-gleaming." Equivalent to rutilam.

-623. Inardescit. “Begins to kindle up."-624. Electro. Consult note on verse 402.—625. Et clypei non enarrabile textum. “And the workmanship of the shield too wonderful to be described in words." Cerda refers textum to the execution of the work, Heyne to the subjects unfolded on the shield; it appears, however, in fact, to have reference to both in an equal degree.

627. Haud catum ignarus, &c. “ Not ignorant of what had been foretold.”—629. Pugnataque in ordine bella. The centre of the shield represented the Mediterranean, with the battle of Actium. The remainder was divided into compartments, each devoted to some prominent period of Roman history.

630. Fecerat et viridi, &c. "(There) he had also represented the newly-delivered she-wolf reclining," &c. Fotam is here equivalent to enixam.-631. Geminos huic ubera circum, &c. The twin-boys are Romulus and Remus. The story of their having been suckled by a she-wolf is often depicted on ancient coins.-634. Mulcere alternos. The motion and successive action, observes Symmons, seemingly attributed in some instances to the figures on the shield, belong to the explanation, which sometimes mingles the future with the present. The painter or the sculptor can give only one point of action, but he who explains the painting or the sculpture will naturally illustrate its design.

635. Sine more. “Without regard to law or right.” So Wagner. -636. Cadece. The carea was that part of the circus, theatre, &c., which contained the audience or spectators. In the present instance the circus is meant, the reference being to the Circensian games. The rape of the Sabine women took place during the celebration of these games, which were then called Consulia, because in honour of Consus or Neptune.-Circensibus. Supply ludis.

637. Nooum consurgere bellum, &c. i. e. arising between the Romans, headed by Romulus, and the Sabines led on by Titus Tatius.-Consurgere. Observe the peculiar construction, addiderat consurgere, where the prose form of expression would have been et bellum subito consurgens.-638. Curibusque sederis. Cures, one of the Sabine towns, is here put for the whole nation. The epithet seceris refers to the austere and rigid manners and moral discipline of the Sabine race.

639. Idem reges. Romulus and Titus Tatius.—640. Pateras. Con. sult note on i. 739.-64). Cæsa porca. According to a Roman custom, of which Livy often makes mention. Compare xii. 170.–Porca. The masculine would be the proper form ; but the feminine is here employed in place of it by poetic usage, and also in order to avoid the less elegant masculine form porco. Compare Quintilian (viii. 3, med.), Quædam non tam ratione quam sensu indicantur, ut illud : cæsâ jungebat fædera porca. Fecit elegans fictio nominis ; quod si fuisset porco, vile erat."

642. Citæ quadrigo, &c. Alluding to the death of Mettus Fuffetius, who was torn asunder by being attached to two four-horse chariots that were driven in different directions. Niebuhr makes the more correct form of the name to have been Mettius.-643. At tu dictis, &c. “But thou, O Alban, shouldst have adhered to thy agreement," i. e. shouldst not have acted treacherously in battle towards the Romans.—645. Per siloam, &c. Commentators discover here a resemblance between the sound and sense.

646. Porsenna. There is considerable doubt about the true form of this name. Horace, in a pure iambic line (Epod. xvi. 4), gives Porsěno. Martial, alsó (Epigr. i. 22), has Porsěna, and the short penult is likewise found in Silius Italicus (vii. 391, 480 ; x. 484, 502). Niebuhr maintains that Porsěna in Martial, is a blunder on the part of the poet (Röm. Gesch. vol. i. not. 1200); but this is far from likely, seeing that the short quantity is given, also, by the two other writers just mentioned. (Consult Macauley's Lays of Anc. Rome, p. 44, seqq.) It seems better, therefore, to suppose that the original Tuscan form of the name was Porsenna, like Vibenna, Ergenna, &c.; and that this became shortened, in the ordinary pronunciation of the Romans, into Porsěna or Porsna. Both forms, therefore, might easily occur in poetry. Heyne reads Porsēna, but Servius says, “ Sane Porsenna," though the reason which the latter assigns is not very satisfactory, unum n addidit metri causa."

Jubebat. “Was ordering the Romans),"" i. e. was depicted in the act of ordering.–648. In ferrum ruebant. “ Were rushing to arms." Equivalent, as Thiel well explains it, to ruebant ut arma raperent. Compare Georg. ii. 503.-649. Iųum. Porsenna.—650. Quia. So Wagner, instead of quod, the reading of Heyne. Quod, refers to the feelings and sentiments of the speaker, and is what grammarians call subjective : quia, on the other hand, refers to what is actually taking place before the eyes, and is objective.—Cocles. The poet alludes to the legend of Horatius Cocles and the Sublician bridge.—651. Vinclis ruptis. “Her confinement being broken.” Vinclis put for custodiâ.

652. In summo custos, &c. “On the highest part (of the shield).” We have made in summo refer to the shield, not, as Heyne maintains, to the arx, or citadel. Compare in medio, verse 675. So also Wagner. -Tarpeice arcis. The Tarpeian rock formed part of the Capitoline Mount ; hence the epithet “ Tarpeian” applied by the poet to the citadel, which stood on the latter. -653. Pro templo. The preposition has here the force, not of antea, but “ in defence of.”

654. Romuleoque recens, &c. Alluding to the casa Romuli, or thatched cottage of Romulus, the primitive palace (regia) of that early king, and preserved by the Romans with great veneration. It stood on the summit of the Capitoline Mount. -Recens. In the workmanship of Vulcan, the thatched roof was wrought of gold, and presented, therefore, a fresh and new appearance to the eye. Heyne regards verse 654 as spurious, but it is ably defended by Wagner.

655. Atque hic auratis, &c. Heyne condemns the mixture of poverty and splendour in this and the previous line. But it must be borne in mind that the auratce porticus do not mean galleries really

of gold, but merely indicate that Vulcan employed this metal to depict them on the shield.—656. Gallos in limine, &c., i.e. gave warning that the Gauls were just at hand. An allusion to the well-known legend of the Capitol's having been saved from surprise by the sacred geese.

657. Tenebantque. “And were now in the act of seizing upon.” Equivalent to in eo erant ut tenerent.-658. Et dono noctis opaca. “And by the friendly aid of dusky night.” A somewhat pleonastic addition, after tenebris.

659. Aurea cæsaries ollis, &c., i. e. their hair and attire were represented in gold. The ancient writers assign yellow or ruddy locks to the Celtic race. Consult on this subject the note of Niebuhr (Röm. Gesch. vol. ii. p. 592, n. 1169.)- Aurea vestis. Servius very strangely understands this of the beard, in which he is followed by Wakefield (ad Lucret. v. 672) and others. The words refer to the Gallic sagula, mentioned immediately after, and which are represented here as golden, either because they were of a yellow ground, or, what is more probable, because the Gauls were fond of attire interwoven with gold. (Compare Sil. Ital. iv. 155.)—660. Virgatis lucent sagutis. “ They shine brightly on the view in their striped short cloaks." These were striped in different colours, like the Scotch plaid. The sagulum was a smaller kind of sagum, which last was a kind of military cloak worn by the Romans as well as other nations. The sagum was open in front, and usually fastened across the shoulders by a clasp.

Lactea colla. The Gauls were in general remarkable for fair complexions. Hence Ammianus remarks, “ Candidi pæne sunt Galli omnes(xv. 12, init.).—661. Auro innectuntur. “Are encircled with chains of gold.” The reference is to the torques, of which mention has been made in a previous note (v. 559.)- Alpina gæsa. “Alpine javelins.” The gæsum was a heavy weapon, the shaft being as thick as a man could grasp, and the iron head barbed, and of an extraordinary length compared with the shaft. The term itself is probably of Celtic origin, and was used by the Gauls wherever their ramifications extended. The Romans adopted the use of the gæsum from the Iberians.

663. Hic. “Here (in another compartment).”_Salios. Consult note on line 285.—Lupercos. The Luperci were the priests of the god Lupercus. Every year they celebrated a festival in honour of this deity, who was regarded as the god of fertility. This festival took place on the 15th of February, and during a part of it the Luperci ran, half naked, half covered with the skins of goats which they had sacrificed, through the streets of Rome.—664. Apices. The apex was a cap worn by the Flamines and Salii at Rome. The essential part of the apex, to which alone the name properly belonged, was a pointed piece of olive-wood, the base of which was surrounded with a lock of wool. This was worn on the top of the head, and was held there either by fillets only, or, as was more commonly the case, by the aid of a cap, which fitted the head, and was also fastened by means of two strings or bands. The Flamines were forbidden by law to go into public, or even into the open air, without the apex. On ancient monuments we see it round as well as conical.

664. Ancilia. Consult note on vii. 188.

665. Castæ ducebant sacra, &c., i.e. were moving along in procession to celebrate sacred rites. Servius makes the mollia pilenta to have

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