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by the fates).”—378. Labores. Referring to the labours of his forge.–379. Natis. The reference is to one in particular, namely, Paris.
381. Constitit. “He has obtained a footing."-382. Et sanctum mihi numen, &c. “And implore arms from thy divine power revered by me," i. e. worthy of all reverence in my eyes.-383. Filia Nerei. Thetis, who, according to Homer, obtained arms for Achilles from the fire-god.-384. i'ithonia conjux. “ The spouse of Tithonus." Aurora, who obtained, according to the Cyclic poets, arms for her son Memnon from Vulcan.–385. Quce moenia. “ What walled cities.”
391. Olim. “At times.”—Tonitru quum rupta corusco, &c. “When the bright, chink-like fire of the skies, having burst forth with (loud) thundering, traverses the storm-clouds with gleaming light.” Ignea rima, literally, “the fiery chink,” is extremely graphic, and we have endeavoured to preserve its force in the translation.-Rupta. Besides the idea of suddenness, this term conveys also that of a zigzag motion, according to Heinrich. I
394. Æterno devinctus amore. Imitated from Lucretius (i. 34).395. Quid causas petis ex alto. “Why dost thou seek such far-fetched arguments ?” Literally, “why seekest thou arguments from what is remote ?" i. e. from such remote instances as those of Thetis and Aurora.—396. Similis si cura fuisset, &c. “ Had a wish like this been thine,'' i. e. hadst thou wished me to do this.--398. Trojam stare. “ Troy's standing."-399. Priamumque superesse. “And Priam's surviving." According to the ancient belief, the decrees of Fate could not be altered, but they might be put off.
401. Quidquid in arte ineâ, &c. “Whatever of careful skill I can promise thee within the compass of my art.”—402. Liquidove electro. Electrum was a compound metal much esteemed by the ancients, and took its name, probably, from its resemblance to pale ainber. It was composed of silver and gold in certain proportions. According to Pliny, the proportions were four parts of gold to one of silver, but other writers mention a greater quantity of the less precious metal.-403. Quantum ignes animæque ralent. “As much as fires and breathing bellows are able to effect (all this do I promise unto thee).” Supply omne hoc tibi promitto, as referring to all that precedes, from quidquid in arte meâ, &c.—Animæ. Servius : “ Spiritus, quo fabriles inflari folles solent.” –404. Viribus indubitare tuis. “ To distrust the extent of thy influence.” Indubitare, according to Servius, was first used by Virgil.
407. Inde ubi prima quies, &c. “Then, when the first (interval of) repose had chased away slumber (from his eyes), in the mid career now of night driven away," i. e. at midnight.-409. Cui tolerare vitam impositum. “On whom the task is imposed of supporting existence.”
-409. Tenuique Minerva. “And the loom yielding but a scanty reward.” The name of the goddess employed for the art over which she presided.—411. Noctem addens operi. “Adding night to her work,” i. e. working early in the morning, before it is light.
412. Castum ut seroaret cubile, &c. Heyne : “ Ut habeat, unde vidat honeste ipsa et nati, servatâ maritalis tori pudicitiâ.”—414. Nec tempore segnior illo. “Nor at that time less industrious," i. e. rising as early, and equally industrious.
416. Insula Sicanium, &c. Homer makes the workshop of Vulcan to have been in Olympus (II. xviii. 369). Virgil, on the other hand, here selects one of the Lipari islands, named Hiera, off the northern coast of Sicily. Callimachus (H. in Dian, 46) makes Lipara the scene of the fire-god's labours, and hence Theocritus (Id. i. 133) names Vulcan Altapaios.-417. Erigitur. Referring to the mountainous character of the island.-418. Et Cyclopum excesa caminis, &c. “ And Ætnean caves eaten out by the forges of the Cyclopes,” i. e. caverns resembling those supposed to be in the bowels of Ætna, and hollowed out by the action of fire.-419. Validique incudibus ictus, &c. “And powerful blows are heard re-echoing from anvils.” Equivalent, as Servius remarks, to referentes gemitus audiuntur.
421. Stricturce Chalybum. “The (ignited) masses of iron.” Stricturce here is equivalent to uúdpoi.-Chalybum. The name of the people (Chalybes) is put for the metal for which their country was famous. - Et fornacibus ignis anhelat. A beautiful poetic expression to denote the low roar of the flames in the furnace. -422. Vulcani domus, &c. “ It is the abode of Vulcan,” &c.
423. Hoc. Old form for huc.—425. Brontesque, Stropesque, et . Pyracmon. These three names have each a meaning. The first is derived from Bpovtý, “ thunder ;" the second from oteponń, “lightning ;" the third from rūp, “ fire,” and äkuwv, “an anvil.” Hesiod (Theog. 140) and Apollodorus (i. 1, 2) call this last one, "Apyns, Arges.—426. His informatum manibus, &c. “These had in hand an unfinished thunderbolt, part being already polished off, (of the kind) which the father hurls in very great numbers upon the earth from the whole sky.”—Informatum. A technical term, applied to the work of statuaries, painters, and other artists, when in progress and still unfinished. Compare line 447.-427. Quce plurima. An imitation of the Greek. The Latin prose form of expression would be cujus generis plurima.
429. Tres imbris torti radios, &c. “ They had just added three shafts of hail, three of rain-cloud, three of gleaming fire, and (three) of the storm-winged southern blast.” The thunderbolt is here made to consist of twelve shafts or barbed darts, every three typifying some phenomenon that accompanies the thunder in the kingdom of nature. To these are then added the fearful gleamings, the loud uproar, the panic terrors, &c., that mark its path.-- Imbris torti. Wagner: “īmber tortus, h. e. constrictus et coactus in grandinem." Compare ix. 671, seqq.-Radios. Equivalent to cuspides, or the Greek åkrivas. These radii are sometimes represented as straight ; more commonly, however, they have a barbed point like a javelin, while the remaining part has a zigzag appearance, as if in imitation of a forked lightning. The number of radii, again, varies from four to twelve, and they are either made to project from the two extremities of the bolt, or from the extremities and the sides. The bolt itself is often depicted with wings.
432. İras, &c. " And the wrath of heaven with its vengeful flames.” Literally, “and angers with pursuing flames.”—Miscebant. Observe the force of the imperfect, as indicating the work on which they were employed at the time of the fire-god's coming. So also instabant and polibant.-434. Instabant. “They were urging on," i, e. were expediting as a piece of work.—Quibus ille viros, &c. An enlargement of the idea contained in the Homeric laoooóos.
435. Ægidaque horriferam. The reference is now to the breastplate of Minerva, not to the ægis as wielded by Jove.—Turbato. Equivalent to iratæ.- Arma. Observe the employment of arma, as indicating
defensive armour, the ægis being now the breastplate.—436. Squamis auroque. “With golden scales.” A hendiadys.-438. Ipsamque Gorgona. “ And the Gorgon herself,” i. e. the Gorgon's head; referring to Medusa, whose head formed a common appendage of the breastplate of Minerva. In our remarks on the ægis (verse 354), it was stated that, according to ancient mythology, the ægis worn by Jupiter was the hide of the goat Amalthea ; it must now be added, that, by the later poets and artists, the original conception of the ægis appears to have been forgotten or disregarded. They represent it, as appears from the present passage among others, as a breastplate covered with metal in the form of scales, not used to support the shield, as was done with the more ancient ægis, but extending equally on both sides, from shoulder to shoulder.
438. Desecto vertentem, &c. The eyes are here represented as actually moving in their sockets, which adds, of course, to the wondrous nature of the work. Compare Wagner, ad loc., and also what is said by the ancient poets respecting the wonderful aúróuara of Vulcan. (Hom. Il. xviii. 417, seqq.)
441. Nunc usus. “Now is there need.”_-443. At illi ocius incubuere, &c. “But they all together, and having parcelled out the work equally, bent themselves quickly (to the task).” So Wagner.—446. Chalybs.“ Iron.” Consult note on verse 421.-447. Informant. “They mark out the outline of.” The force of informo, in such cases as the present, is well explained by Forcellini, “primam et rudem alicui rei formam induco.” Compare note on verse 426.
Unum contra.“ Alone (sufficient) against.”—448. Septenosque orbibus orbes impediunt. “ And they join plates firmly to plates in sevenfold order,'' i. e. they lay plate upon plate to the number of seven, and unite them firmly together. The result is a sevenfold shield of metal plates. So Heyne.- 449. Impediunt is well explained by Wagner : * ita inter se jungunt et compingunt, ut direlli non possint."-451. Lacu. “ In the trough.” Compare Ovid, Met. ix. 170.
.... gelido ceu quondam lamina candens
Tincta lacu stridit . .. · · · · · · · · 452. Illi inter sese, &c. Observe the peculiar cadence of the line, as indicating laborious and strenuous effort.-453. In numerum. “In equal time."-Versantque. “ And keep turning again and again.” Observe the force of the frequentative.
455. Euandrum ex humili tecto, &c. From a scene of labour, noise, and bustle the reader is at once transported to another, where reigns perfect repose.--456. Et matutini colucrum, &c. The reference is particularly to the note of the swallow. Compare Anacreon (Od. xii. 8, segg.), where the bard complains of his dreams being broken by the swallow's early twittering, 'n opOpiacou owvais. Heyne asks whether the poet means the crowing of the cock !—458. Et Tyrrhena pedum circumdat, &c. The epithet Tyrrhena is here merely ornamental. Otherwise, however, by the “ Tuscan sandal ” was meant a particular kind, having a wooden sole, and fastened round the foot by leather thongs. Hence Tyrrhena vincula in the text, literally, “ Tuscan thongs.”
459. Tegecum ensem. “His Arcadian sword.” Tegeæum is equivalent here to Arcadicum, from Tegea, a city of Arcadia.—460. Demissa ab lærá, &c. “Throwing around him a leopard's skin hanging
down from his left shoulder.” The panthera of the Latins is the mos dalıç of the Greeks, and corresponds to the leopard, not the panther.
461. Limine ab alto. Markland regards alto as inconsistent with the idea of an humble mansion, and therefore proposes arto. Heyne thinks that we must either adopt Markland's emendation, or else regard alto as “paullo otiosius." "Wagner is of opinion that the epithet is merely a general one, and is here employed to indicate the threshold of a palace, however small and humble this last may be. Heinrich's explanation, however, appears to be the best, namely, that alto here refers to a threshold raised high above the ground after a rustic fashion..
463. Hospitis Ænece sedem, &c., i. e. the apartment of Æneas, and the privacy which it afforded. So Wagner. The object of the monarch was to have a private conversation with his guest on matters of high moment to the latter, and therefore requiring strict secrecy.464. Compare verse 170, seqq.-468. Licito sermone. “Unrestrained converse." Because they were now in private.
472. Pro nomine tanto. “In comparison with the distinguished name (which I enjoy with thee and thy countrymen),” i. e. in com parison with that fame which has induced you to come hither. So Heyne. Some commentators, with less propriety, refer nomine tanto to Æneas and the Trojans : “considering your distinguished name.”
-473. Hinc Tusco claudimur amni. Alluding to the Tiber, which bounded his humble realms on the west, and which is here called “ the Tuscan river,” because forming for a great part of its course the boundary of Etruria on the east and south-east.-475. Opulentaque regnis castra. “And the forces of a powerful kingdom.” Literally, 6 and a camp rendered powerful by a kingdom.” Grammarians term this an hypallage, for opulentorum regnorum castra.
478. Haud procul hinc, &.c., i. e. not far from hence stands inhabited the city of Agylla, of ancient origin. Agylla was also called Cære, and was of Pelasgic origin, having been founded at a very early period by Tyrrhenian Pelasgi.–Lydia gens. “ The Lydian nation." The Tyrrhenian Pelasgi, who settled in, and civilized Etruria, were said to have come from the coast of Lydia. The poet merely speaks here of their founding Agylla, but the reference, of course, is simply to this as one of their settlements.-481. Rex deinde Mezentius. “King Mezentius at length.” Mezentius is here called “king ;" his true title, however, was Lucumo. This last was the title applied to the hereditary chiefs who ruled over each of the twelve independent tribes of the Etrurian nation.
484. Di reservent. “May the gods have similar punishments in store.”–487. Tormenti genus. “A refinement in torture." Literally, “ a kind of torture.”—489. Infanda furenter. “ Raging past description.”-491. Ad fastigia. “To his palace-roof.” Fastigium is properly the peak of the roof, taken here for the whole.—493. Confugere. « Fled for safety." The historical infinitive put for the imperfect. Defendier. “Was defended." Historical infinitive. Old form for defendi.—495. Præsenti marte, i.e. by an immediate recourse to arms. The people of Agylla, according to Euander, were at that very time in arms, and on the point of sailing against the Etrurians to demand that Mézentius be given up.
497. Puppes. The vessels put for the crews themselves.-498. Signa ferre.' Literally, “that they bear onward the standards," i. e. advance.—499. Maonic. Mæonia was another name for Lydia among the poets. It contains, therefore, an allusion here to the alleged Lydian descent of the people of Agylla, or, rather, of the Etrurians generally, through the Pelasgic Tyrrheni.
500. Flos veterum virtusque virúm. “Flower and strength of an ancient race.” Veterum virum is equivalent to gentis antiquæ. According to Servius flus ceterum, &c., is borrowed from Ennius.—-501. Dolor. “ Indignation.”—503. Externos optate duces. “Choose foreign leaders,” i. e. a foreign leader.–506. Mandatque insignia. “And commits to me the other badges of royalty.". The reference here is to the sella eburnea, trabea, &c.—Tarchon. This form is more in accordance with the usage of Virgil than Tarcho, as given in the common text. The poet makes Greek names, having a Latin genitive, end in the nominative in on, with the single exception of Apollo. On the contrary, names of Italian origin end with him in o, as Aluro, Epulo, Hisbo, &c.—507. Succedam castris. Supply precantes ut. “ Entreating me to come to their camp," &c.
508. Tarda gelu sæclisque effoeta. “ Retarded in its movements by the chilled blood, and worn out by the long lapse of years.” Sæclis is equivalent to annis, or longo annorum cursu.—510. Natum exhortarer.“ I would exhort my son (to supply my place), were it not that he, of a mixed race by reason of a Sabine mother, derived a portion of his country from this land." The oracle required a foreign leader, and the son of Euander only fulfilled the condition on the father's side, having been born of a Sabine mother.
514. Hunc Pallanta. “My Pallas here.” Observe the force of huno in indicating gesture. The father points to his son, who is close by. --516. Et grace Martis opus. Compare the Homeric uéy' špyov "Apnos.-518. Arcadas equites. The cavalry are sent as immediate aid. The epithet Arcadas is merely ornamental. The Arcadians at home, by reason of their mountainous country, were not very strong in cavalry. The same remark may apply to the new territories of Euander in Italy, independently of their small size.—519. Pallas. Supply dabit.
522. Putabant. “ Were revolving.” We have altered the common punctuation after Achates and putabant, in accordance with the suggestion of Wagner. In translating, therefore, the words ni signum, &c., we must supply as follows : "(and they would have continued long to do so) had not, &c. In prose Latinity we would have cum in place of ni, with a semicolon or comma after Achates and putabant. — 523. Cælo aperto. “In the clear sky.” Literally, “in the open sky." So, on the other hand, clouds are said to cover the heavens.
525. Cum sonitu. '“ With a péal of thunder.” Thunder and lightning in a clear sky formed an omen of peculiar importance.-Ruere. To be coming into collision.” Put for corruere. -526. Tyrrhenusque tubæ, &c. * And the blast of the Tyrrhenian trumpet to send its deep notes through the sky.” The Tyrrheni, who brought civilization into Etruria, are also said to have been the inventors of the trumpet. Tyrrhenus tubo clangor poetically for Tyrrhence tuboe clangor.
527. Fragor increpat ingens. “A mighty crash thunders forth.” — 528. Arma inter nubem, &c. These were the arms just made by Vulcan for Æneas, and which Venus was bearing through the sky. In the clear heavens was a cloud in which they were conveyed, and hence the expression inter nubem, in the text.-529. Et pulsa tonarë.