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hence they are styled by Virgil “ genus a Pallante profectum.” With this race the god of the Tiber directs Æneas to form an alliance.52. Euandrum. More correct thân Erandrum, the common reading. Consult note on vii. 389.

53. In montibus, i. e, on the Palatine Hill.—58. Adversum amnem. “ The opposing river,” i. e. the opposing current of the river.

59. Primisque cadentibus astris. “And with the first stars that set,” i. e. and at the first dawn of day.-61. Supera. “Strive to overcome.”_63. Stringentem ripas. “Gently laving the banks.” Stringo here carries with it the idea of grazing, gently touching, gliding by, &c.—64. Cæruleus. The water of the Tiber is of a yellowish hue. Compare ix. 814. The epithet “cærulean,” however, is here applied to the god, as being a general attribute of rivers.-65. Hic mihi magna domus, &c. “ Here (in after days), a mighty home, a head (of empire) for lofty cities, arises for me." Exit has the force of exhibet." The reference is to the city of Rome, which the river-god declares is to be his “ mighty home,” because in it he is to be worshipped with peculiar honours.

66. Lacu alto. Equivalent to amnis parte altissima.—70. Sustinet. “ Supports.” A much better reading than sustulit, as given by Heyne, The latter merely refers to the taking up of water ; whereas the former implies that the water is upheld in the hand until the prayer is ended.

71. Genus amnibus unde est, &c. “Whence rivers have their origin.” He is addressing the nymphs who preside over fountains.—72. O Thybri genitor. The river-god is again regarded as advanced in years. Compare line 32.-Cum flumine sancto. The stream is here termed “sacred,” because the abode of the river-deity.—74. Quo te cumque lacus, &c. “In whatever fountains thy waters hold thee, compassionating our hardships ; from whatever spot thou comest forth most beauteous,” i. e. wherever thy fountain-head is ; wherever thou gushest forth in all thy beauty from the ground.

77. Corniger Hesperidum, &c. “Horn-bearing river, monarch of Italian waters.” The epithet corniger is given to rivers, because, in the works of ancient art, the river- gods were generally represented with either the visage or the horns of a bull, in allusion to the roar and impetuous movement of waters, especially when issuing from their parent source.—78. Et propius tua numina firmes. “And fulfil thy divine promises with more immediate aid.” Literally, “more nearly," i. e. in closer proximity with my affairs than the dream afforded. -Numina. Referring to the promise made by the river-god of conducting Æneas safely to the city of Euander, &c.-80. Armis. Arms, in the proper sense of the term, not naval equipments. Compare verse 93.

83. In litore. There is no clashing here between this and per sil. oam. The meaning is, in fact, per siloam in litore, but the poet indulges purposely in more than ordinary amplification of language in order to mark the extraordinary nature of the event.— 84. Tibi enim. “ Even to thee,” i, e. to thee, not to any other deity. Heyne makes enim have a strong asseverative force, and to be equivalent to utique. It would be more correct, however, to say that it has an assertive and restrictive force combined, and is equivalent to quidem.

86. Quam longa est. “ During its whole continuance.” Literally, " as long as it is.” Observe the use of the present here in denoting unbroken continuity.-87. Refluens. As if the current were now set

ting up the stream.-Substitit. “Subsided." Literally, “stood still.”. –89. Æquor aquis. Equivalent to æquor aquarum. Literally, “ so as to smooth over its surface with its waters."

90. Rumore secundo. “ With joyous shouts," i. e. on the part of the rowers, encouraging one another at the oar. We have adopted the punctuation of Wagner, who connects these words with what precedes, but refers them to the naval “celeusma,” which regulated the movements of the men at the oars. Heyne, on the other hand, connects the words in question with labitur uncta, &c., placing a semicolon after celerant ; a punctuation preferred also by Burgess (ad Darces. Misc. Crit. p. 446) and Wakefield. The reference will then be to the gurgling noise of the water under the prow, “ with a pleasant gurgling sound.” But, as Wagner remarks, since there is nothing very forcible in these words, they give a heavy air, if joined with it, to the line that comes after. The true mode of appending them would have been, “ Labitur uncta vadis abies rumore secundo."

91. Uncta abies. “ The well-pitched fir.” Supply pice after uncta. Borrowed from Ennius : Labitur uncta trabes." - Mirantur et unde, &c. Nothing can be more beautiful than the picture which is here afforded of armed vessels gliding amid forests, over the bosom of a placid and sequestered river, and presenting to the pacific scene, for the first time, a spectacle of warlike exhibition. — 92. Insuetum. “ Unaccustomed to the sight.”

94. Fatigant. “Weary out,” i, e. spend. They pass the whole day and night in incessant rowing.-95. Flexus.“ The bendings (of the stream)."-Variisque teguntur arboribus, &c. The banks of the river were covered with trees, whose branches hung over the stream, and beneath and through which the vessels made their way.-96. Placido æquore. “As they move along the placid surface (of the stream).”

97. Orbem here properly refers to the arching vault of the sky, and the path of the sun along the same.-99. Quæ nunc Romana potentia, &c. The humble city of Euander then occupied the Palatine Hill, which in the subsequent days of Roman power and magnificence was crowded with lofty edifices, such as the temple of the Palatine Apollo, the Palatine Library, connected with the same, &c.— 100. Tum res inopes, &c. It was, at the time of the Trojan hero's arrival, the humble kingdom of Euander.

102. Honorem. “Sacrifice.”—103. Amphitryoniadæ magno, i. e. Hercules, the reputed son of Amphitryon, but in reality the son of Jove.-105. Omnes juvenum primi. Equivalent to omnes juvenes primi, and an imitation of the Greek.–Pauperque senatus. A graphic expression, and depicting forcibly the weak sources of this humble Argive colony.-106. Ad aras.“ At the altars." The victims were accustomed to be slain near the altars, and of course the ground round about would be stained with their blood.

108. Incumbere, &c. “And that (the crews) were bending to the silent oars." The expression tacitis remis may refer either to the absence of all shouting on the part of the mariners, or to the cessation of the naval Relictis mensis. They were engaged at the moment in partaking of the sacred feast which always followed the sacrifice.110. Rumpere sacra, i. e. to interrupt the solemnity by abruptly leaving the feast. This, if done voluntarily, was regarded as an act of sacrilege ; if the result of compulsion, it became an omen of evil augury.-11í. Oboius. “To meet the new comers).”— 114. Qui

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genus ? unde domo ? “ Who are you as to race? From what country do you come ?” Domus used, as frequently, for patria. So the Greek expressions of which those in the text are an imitation : tives (katà) το γένος και πόθεν οίκοθεν.

115. Puppi ab altâ. At first the Trojans had directed the prows of their vessels towards the shore ; on coming nearer, however, they had caused the prows to swing around, and having turned the sterns of the ships to the land, they now impelled them thither by a backward movement, so that on disembarking they might, according to ancient custom, draw their vessels upon the shore stern foremost. Consult note on vi. 5.--118. Bello superbo. “By a haughty and unfeeling war.” Superbo here carries with it the blended ideas of haughty disobedience towards the oracles of the gods, and cruelty towards the unfortunate.-119. Ferte hæc. “ Bear these my words." Servius, with less propriety, refers hæc to the olive-branch.-120. Socia arma. “ Allied arms," i. e. an alliance in arms.

124. Excepitque manu, &c. “And he extended his hand, and having grasped the right hand of Æneas, kept clinging to it,” é. e. having grasped, held him tightly by his right hand. So Heyne. Compare the Homeric phrase εν τ' άρα οι φυ χειρί. The expression excepitque manu means, literally, “and received (him) with (his) hand.”

128. Et vittä сomtos, &c. “And to extend before me branches decked with the fillet (of wool).” The fillets, which were made of wool, were wrapped round the branch.– 130. Quodque ab stirpe fores, &c. The relationship was as follows: Hippodamia, daughter of Enomaus and Sterope, married Pelops, from whom the Atridæ were descended. Sterope's mother was Maia, who was herself the mother of Mercury, and from Mercury Euander was said to have sprung. According to another account, Echemus was the father of Euander, and had for wife Timandra, the sister of Helen and Clytemnestra, which last two females married the two Atridæ.-131. Mea virtus, “ The purity of my own motives.”_Sancta oracula divúm. Alluding to the revelations of the Sibyl.—132. Cognatique patres. Dardanus and Mercury, as is explained immediately after. - 133. Conjunxere me tibi, ¿. e. have filled me with the desire of becoming united unto thee in friendship. So Heyne. Et fatis egere colentem. “ And have urged me hither by the fates, (of myself) inclined (to come)." His destinies, as announced by the Sibyl, and confirmed by the god of the Tiber, concurred with his own inclinations.

135. Ut Graii perhibent. Wagner charges Virgil with having made a manifest slip in assigning these words to Æneas, a Trojan.-136. Adrehitur Teucros. “Is wafted unto the Teucri," i. e. unto Troas, where Tencer then reigned.—139. Cyllence. Mercury was born of Maia, on Mount Cyllene, in Arcadia.-Fudit. “ Brought into existence."-140. Auditis si quidquam credimus, i. e. if tradition be entitled to any credit.-142. Scindit se sanguine ab uno, i. e. branches off in two directions from one individual, ¿. e. from Atlas, through his two daughters, Electra and Maia.- Sanguine ab uno. Literally, “ from one blood," i. e. from the blood of one and the same progenitor.

143. Non legatos, neque prima, &c. “ I have not made trial of thee in the first instance, by means of ambassadors, or any artful attempts at negotiating.” With legatos supply per, from the succeeding clause, Pangere is equivalent here to figere or facere. Hence pangere alicujus tentamentum is the same as aliquem tentare, and this is equivalent here to aliquem aggredi precibus. Compare the Greek TELPÁSELV TIVÓS.


146. Gens eadem Daunia. “The same Daunian nation.” Alluding to the Rutuli, who are here called the Daunian race, from Daunus, their earlier king.-147. Nihil abfore quin mittant. “ That nothing will be wanting to their sending," i.e. to their reducing.-149. Et mare quod supra, &c. “And from their holding (beneath their sway) the sea that laves it above, and that which washes it below,” i. e. the upper and lower seas, or the Adriatic and Mare Tyrrhenum.

153. Jam dudum. “Long before he had ceased.” Literally, “ long since.”—154. Ut libens. “How gladly.”—157. Nam memini, &c. i. e. after having visited his sister at Salamis, he continued his journey and came to Arcadia, which lay to the west and south-west of that island, and in the centre of the Peloponnesus. Here Euander, at that time a yonng Arcadian prince, had an opportunity of seeing and becoming acquainted with him and Anchises. These reminiscences impart great freshness and beauty to the poem.–159. Protenus. Expresses continuity of progress. — Arcadice gelidos fines. Modern travellers represent Arcadia as still a very cold country in winter. This is natural enough for so mountainous a region. (Holland's Travels, p. 426.)

160. Vestibat. Old form for restiebat.Flore. « With down.”165. Phener. Pheneos was a city of Arcadia, and the residence at that period of Euander. Subsequently to this, and before his migration to Italy, he inhabited Pallanteum. Compare note on line 341.–166. Pharetram. Consult note on i. 315.- Lyciasque sagittas. The Lycians were famous for their skill in archery. Hence a Lycian arrow is one of the best of its kind.-167. Chlamydem. Consult note on iv. 137.–168. Frenaque bina. Consult note on iii. 542.

169. Ergo et, quam petitis, &c. “Therefore, both the right hand which you seek, is (now) joined by me in friendly league (with you).” Mihi, by a Græcism, for a me.-171. Opibus. 'Warlike supplies in general, not merely troops, as Servius explains it.—173. Farentes. « With willing minds." A tacit allusion to the well-known formula, fatete linguis,by which those who were present at a sacrifice were enjoined to keep a religious silence as far as any ill-omened expressions were concerned. Æneas and his followers are not, of course, required to keep absolute silence, but only to join in the celebration with good feelings, and to abstain from marring its effect by any remark of an inauspicious or ill-omened character.

175. Sublata. They had been removed on the approach of the Trojan vessels.—176. Ipse. “He himself.” Emphatic. King Euander, as the chief personage present. -177. Præcipuum. “ In particular.” More literally, “ as the principal one (of his guests).” -178. Solio acerno. Poetic, for ad solium acernum.-180. Viscera tosta. “ The roasted flesh.” Viscera for carnes.—18), Dona, &c. i. e. the gifts of Ceres, on which labour had been bestowed in order to render them fit for the use of man. Poetical periphrasis for “ bread.Onerant canistris. Literally, “they load in baskets," i. e. they load baskets with, &c.—183. Perpetui tergo bodis, &c. “On the chine and expiatory entrails of an entire ox.” The chine, vürov, tergum, was presented at the table of the principal persons. Its Homeric epithet, dinverés (Il. vii. 312), seems here meant to be expressed by perpetui, as if the poet had said perpetuo tergo.Lustralibus. So called because accustomed to be burned on the altar as part of the sin offering, or lustratio. It must be borne in mind, how. ever, that Virgil, in using this epithet, follows the custom of later

ages, since in Homeric times the entrails, as here represented, were served up at table.

184. Postquam exemta fames, &c. A close imitation of the Homeric line, aútdp Énei móolog kai įdntúog ég špov ŠVTO.—185. Non hæc solemnia, &c. “No empty superstition, and one ignorant of the ancient gods, hath imposed on us these solemn rites, this accustomed banquet," &c.—187. Veterum ignara deorum. A superstition abandoning the good old path of early worship.—189. Serdati facimus. “We do (all this) because preserved." - Meritosque notamus honores. And renew (well) merited honours." The feast was an annual one in honour of Hercules, for having delivered them from Cacus. The fable of Cacus and Hercules was one of Italian origin, and was frequently handled by the Roman poets. On the present occasion, the episode relating to it may, as Heinrich remarks, appear to some to be spun out to too great a length; the poet, however, has an excuse in its being a domestic legend, and one of great renown.

190. Saxis suspensam hanc rupem. “ This rock suspended on crags." He points to a large mass of stone, on the summit of a neighbouring height, resting on broken fragments of rock, and connected with the mountain by means of these alone, the main body of the supporting rock having been thrown down, and these supports alone left standing. So Forbiger.-191. Disjectce procul ut moles, &c. “ (Observe) how the masses of stone have been scattered to a distance all around, and (how) the mountain habitation stands desolate.”—Montis domus. The cave of Cacus on the mountain-top. The rocky masses that guarded the entrance have been torn away, and the interior stands all deserted to the view.

194. Semihominis Caci, &c. “ The dire form of the but half-human Cacus." He was of gigantic size, half human, half savage beast.— 200. Aliquando ætas.“ Time at length.” Ætas here implies a long previous continuance of trouble.

202. Tergemini nece, &c. Hercules now came from Spain, bringing with him the oxen of Geryon, after having slain their master himself, 6 of triple form,” in the island of Erythea, which lay in the Sinus Gaditanus, or Bay of Cadiz.–203. Hắc agebat. Supply viâ.-205. Ne quid, &c. “That nothing of wickedness or of fraud might be undevised or unattempted.Inausum, as Wagner remarks, here refers to a design or intent; intractatum, to a design or intent carried into execution. There is, therefore, nothing tautological in this passage.—207. A stabulis. Referring here to the pastures in which they had laid themselves down for the night.-208. Avertit. “ He abstracts.”

209. Ne qua forent pedibus, &c. “That there might be no (sure) indications from the direct marks of their feet.”—210. Versisque viarum, &c. “ And hurried along with the tracks of their route turned in an opposite direction)," i. e. in an opposite direction to that in which they had been dragged.—212. Quærenti. Supply Alcidæ or Herculi. Some read quærentem, others quærentes, depending at once on ferebant. According to our text, ferebant, “led," has se understood. Wakefield considers the whole line spurious, and Heyne observes that it might as well be away.

213. Moveret. A metaphor borrowed from military operations, as, for example, the breaking up of a camp, castra movere.--216. Et colles clamore relinqui. “ And the hills were getting left behind (by them) with loud cries.” Burmann gives a different and much less natural

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