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here, as Servius remarks, to raptim adducit.726. Massica. «The Massic regions," i. e. the country around Mount Massicus. Supply loca.-727. Aurunci patres. “ The Auruncan fathers.” The Aurunci here meant dwelt in Campania, on the other side of the Liris, where the town of Suessa Aurunca stood. On this side of the Liris dwelt other Aurunci, from whom Turnus obtained auxiliaries.-727. Sidicinaque juxta cquora. “And the adjacent plains of the Sidicini."

728. Cales. Accusative plural.- Amnisque cadosi, &c. “(With him came) also they who border on the Vulturnus,” &c. As these are to be referred, along with the others, to “mille rapit populos," we should expect the accusitive accolam, and in like manner, soon after, Saticulum. As, however, the nominative is employed in both instances, we must resort to some such ellipsis as cum eo veniunt. So in Æschylus (Pers. 33, seqq.), ällove do uéyaç kai modu péjeuwv Neilos érteteve Lovolo kávns, .... 'Apoáuns, .... 'Aplóuapoos.

730. Teretes sunt aclydes illis arma. “ They have for weapons tapering darts." The aclys, as appears from the account of Virgil, was a species of dart; not, as some say, a kind of club with projecting knobs. The peculiarity of this weapon appears to have consisted in its having a leathern thong attached to it; and the design of this contrivance probably was, that, after it had been thrown to a distance, it might be drawn back again. It certainly was not a Roman weapon. It is always represented as used by foreign nations, and as distinguishing them from Greeks and Romans.—731. Hæc lento aptare flagello. “ To fit these with a pliant strap.” Flagello is equivalent to amento.

732. Lepas cotra tegit, &c. “A targe protects their left arms : (they have short crooked swords for close conflict." With enses supply sunt illis. Cætra. A small round shield, made of the hide of a quadruped. From the accounts given by ancient writers, and from the distinct assertion of Tacitus (Agric., 36) that it was used by the Britons, we may with confidence identify the cætra with the target of the Scottish Highlanders, of which many specimens of considerable antiquity are still in existence.

Falcati enses. From various passages in ancient writers, it has been inferred that the ensis falcatus was a weapon of the most remote antiquity ; that it was girt like a dagger upon the waist ; that it was held in the hand by a short hilt; and that, as it was in fact a dagger, or sharp-pointed blade, with a proper falx projecting from one side, it was thrust into the flesh up to this lateral curvature. It bore a close resemblance to the falx cinitoria, or pruning-knife for vines.

735. Teleboúm Capreas, &c. The Teleboans originally occupied the islands called Taphic, between Leucadia and the coast of Acarnania. From these they afterward wandered forth and settled in the island of Capreæ, and on the adjacent coast of Campania.-740. Et quos maliferre, &c. Abella appears to have been situated on an eminence. The epithet malifera would seem to have been applied to it by no other writer.—741. The cateia is supposed to have resembled the aclys. (Consult note on v. 730.) It probably had its name from cutting, and, if so, the Welsh terms catai,“ a weapon," cateia, “ to cut or mangle," and catan, “ to fight,” are nearly allied to it.

743. Peltce. Consult note on i. 490.- Æreus ensis. Consult note on i. 448, as regards the composition of the æs of the ancients.

746. Horrida præcipue cui gens, &c. “Whose nation is the Æquiculan, singularly rough, and accustomed to much hunting in the woods, with a rugged soil.”—747. Æquicula. The poet alludes to the

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Æqui or Æquiculi, who dwelt on both sides of the river Anio, and whose chief city was the obscure one of Nersæ.—749. Vivere rapto. “ To live by plunder.”

750. Marruvia de gente. The Marruvii here meant were a branch of the Marsi, and their chief city, Marruvium, lay on the eastern shore of the lake Fucinus.—751. Fronde et felici olidã. A hendiadys, for fronde felicis olioce. Consult note on vi. 230. The olive garland is here worn as the badge of a priest.—754. Cantu manuque.“ By song, and by the hand,” i.e. by the application of the hand. This art is still practised in India, according to travellers.

756. Dardanice cuspidis, &c. He fell by the spear of Æneas. Consult x. 543, seqq. -757. In vulnera. “For healing wounds.” Equivalent to ad vulnera sananda.759. Nemus Angitiæ, Angitia was the sister of Circe. Her grove lay near the lake Fucinus, in the territory of the Marsi.

761. Ibat et Hippolyti, &c. Construe, Et Virbius, pulcherrima proles Hippolyti, ibat bello. The dative bello is equivalent to ad bellum.762. Virbius. This was also the name given to Hippolytus himself after he had been brought back to life; being derived, according to the ancient mythologists, from vir and bis, i.e. qui vir bis fuit. Wagner considers it very surprising that both father and son should have borne the same name, a circumstance so contrary to the custom of remote antiquity, and he therefore suspects that there is some error here, either on the part of Virgil, or the authorities whom he has followed. He thinks, moreover, that the cause of the error is to be found in the expression Aricia mater. This form of words, on comparing it with Populonia mater, x, 172, he makes equivalent merely to Aricia patria ; but they who did not understand its true import, took mater in the literal sense of “mother," and therefore imagined a second Virbius as a son of the Hippolytus who, under the name of Virbius, was translated to the skies.

Insignem. “ Conspicuous in arms." So Wagner.-763. Egerice lucis. The fountain and grove of Egeria, here meant, were near the city of Aricia. There was another fountain of the same nymph, con. nected with the legend of Numa, near the Porta Capena of Rome.Humentia circum litora. Referring to the shores of the lake Fucinus. -764. Pinguis ubi et placabilis, &c. “Where (stands) an altar of Diana rich (with frequent sacrifices) and easy to be appeased," i. e. a rich altar of Diana easy to be appeased. Placabilis implies that the altar does not require here, as elsewhere, human victims. Hence, also, it is pinguis, crowned with many a victim, since otherwise, had human sacrifices been offered upon it, the horrid nature of the rite would have made the ceremony a comparatively infrequent one. Consult Wagner's very able critical note, in opposition to the remarks of Heyne.

765. Norercæ. Phædra, wife of Theseus.—766. Patriasque explérit, &c. “And had sated, with his life's blood, a father's vengeance." -767. Turbatis distractus equis. He was dragged over the ground by them until life became extinct.—709. Pæoniis revocatum herbis. “Recalled to life by medical herbs.” Pæoniis from IIacúv, the physician of the gods, though they were applied in this case by Æsculapius.- Amore Dianæ. Hippolytus had devoted himself entirely to the service of Diana.

772. Repertorem medicinæ, &c. Alluding to Æsculapius, the son of Apollo, and who restored Hippolytus to life. Jupiter punished him

for this by striking him with a thunderbolt and hurling him to the shades. Apollo, on this, slew the Cyclopes who had forged the thunderbolt, and was, in consequence, banished for a season from the skies.

776. Ubi. “That there.”-Ignobilis æcum exigeret. “He might pass his days in unnoticed retirement.” Heyne : “ Ignobilis, in bonam partem, utpote in secessu et solitudine, placide adeo et tranquille.779. Litore currum, &c. Markland very ingeniously conjectures, Litora circum Heu juvenem, &c. What offends him in the common reading is the construction currum et juvenem effundere. The truth is, however, that we have a zeugma here which Markland failed to perceive: “ they overturned the chariot and dashed out the youth upon the shore," the verb effundo carrying with it also the meaning of ederto.-781. Haud secius. “ Not the less on that account,” i.e. though horses were excluded from these groves.

784. Vertitur. « Moves vigorously.”—-785. Triplici crinita juba. “All hairy with a triple crest.” Consult note on i. 468.-786. Ætnæos, i. e. like those of Ætna.-789. Sublatis cornibus Io, i.e. a representation of Io changed into a heifer.—791. Argumentum ingens. “A memorable subject."--Et custos virginis, &c. Along with the transformed lo there was represented on the shield the many-eyed Argus, appointed by Juno as the keeper and the watcher of the heifer. In the back-ground also was depicted the river-god Inachus, the father of 10.—792. Colatâque amnem. The urn was raised in relief from the shield, and was itself adorned with work in relief.

793. Nimbus peditum. So Homer, I. iv. 274 : vépos ECTETO TELõv. 794. Densentur. From denseo, -ēre.--Argivaque pubes, i. e. the youth of Ardea, which was said to have been an Argive colony. Consult note on line 372.—795. Sicani. The Sicani occupied a portion of central Italy before their migration to Sicily. Compare xi. 317. The reference in the text appears to be to a portion of this ancient race who had settled on the Tiber, in the territories of the Rutuli.796. Sucrunce acies. A name given, probably, to a portion of the Ardeatæ, or people of Ardea.- Picti scuta Labici.“ The Labici with painted bucklers.” Literally, “painted as to their bucklers.” The poet assigns them painted shields, probably in accordance with some old tradition.

797. Numica. Consult note on line 150.—799. Circæum jugum. “ Circe's Mount.” Afterwards called Promontorium Circæum. Consult note on vii. 10.-Queis Jupiter Anxurus, &c. “ The fields over which Jupiter Anxurus presides." The full expression would be, arta, queis arris Jupiter, &c. The country here meant is the territory of Terracina, a city which took the name of Anxur from Jupiter Anxurus, who was worshipped there. Consult Niebuhr, Rom. Hist. ii. 463, Cambridge transl.-800. Feronia. The grove of this goddess was three miles from Anxur. Here also she had a temple.—801. Saturæ palus. Near Circæi, and forming part of the famous Pontine marshes.-802. Ufens. This river flowed through the Pontine marshes. · 803. Camilla. Virgil, in imitation of Homer, introduces a female warrior into his poem. In Homer it is the Amazon Penthesilea ; in Virgil, Camilla. She leads a squadron of Volscian cavalry, and is accompanied also by four female combatants, Lavinia, Tulla, Tarpeia, and Acca. Compare xi. 656, 665, &c.—804. Florentes ære.“ Armed in resplendent brass. Consult note on i. 449. Florentes equivalent to splendentes.-805. Calathis. The calathus was properly the basket in which women placed their work, and especially the materials for spinning.

806. Sed prælia virgo, &c. “But, though a virgin, (she was inured) to the hardships of war.” Supply assueta est.-807. Cursuque pedum prævertere centos, &c. Camilla was remarkable for swiftness of foot, à quality which Virgil here describes in hyperbolical language.-809. Nec læsisset. Equivalent to nec læsura esset.

814. Ut regius ostro, &c. “(To see) how regal rank veils her polished shoulders with the purple.” She wore a purple chlamys, or cloak, in token of her regal origin.—815. Fibula. Heyne understands this, not of a clasp, but a pin.

816. Lyciam pharetram. These were of the best kind.-Ipsa. “She herself.” Wagner makes this equivalent in fact to trunco corporis, or tergo, the humeri and crinis having each been previously mentioned, and ipsa, therefore, standing in opposition to them.-817. Pastoralem myrtum. “A pastoral myrtle-spear,” i. e. a spear made out of the wood of the myrtle, the tree from which the shepherds were accustomed to form their crooks.

BOOK EIGHTH.

1. Ut belli signum, &c. Virgil makes Turnus display a standard from the Laurentine citadel as the signal of war. This was, in fact, a Roman custom, which is here ascribed, by a poetic anachronism, to an earlier people. On any sudden emergency two standards were displayed from the Roman Capitol: one red, to summon the infantry; and the other blue, for the cavalry.—Laurenti. Latinus had retired from the helm of state, and Turnus, having the feelings of the people on his side, was virtually at the head of affairs.

3. Concussit. “ Had aroused.”-Impulit arma. “ Had given an impulse to the war.” Some translate this, “had clashed together his arms,” i, e. shield and spear; of which Heyne, however, disapproves as too harsh.-4. Turbati animi. “ The minds of all were thrown into deep excitement.”—6. Messapus. Compare vii. 691.Ufens, vii. 745.7. Mezentius, vii. 647, seqq.-8. Latos castant cultoribus agros. “Lay the wide-spread fields bare of cultivators." They withdrew the cultivators of the soil in order to fill the ranks of their respective armies. By thus depopulating the country they in fact lay it waste, vastant.

9. Diomedis urbem. Argyripa. Diomede had settled in Lower Italy, after his return from Troy.-10. Consistere. “ Are obtaining a firm footing.”

16. Ipsi. “To Diomede himself.” They wish to be understood that Æneas will, at a proper opportunity, turn his arms, in all probability, against Diomede likewise, not only on account of his present power, but also by reason of former enmity. The fruitless result of this embassy, however, appears in xi. 226, seqq.

18. Talia. “Such things were passing." Supply gerebantur.Quce. Equivalent, at the beginning of a clause, to hæc.-20. Atque

animum nunc huc, &c. These two lines have already appeared, iv. 285, 286.-22. Sicut aquo tremulum, &c. “ As when the tremulous light reflected from the sun, or the image of the radiant moon, in brazen caldrons of water,” &c. This comparison is borrowed and heightened from Apollonius Rhodius, iii. 754, who applies it to the case of Medea, when she is represented as trembling at the danger to which Jason was soon to be exposed. The principal force of the comparison lies in tremulum and omnia peroolitat late loca, as well as jamque sub auras, &c. The thoughts of Aneas are as little capable of fixing themselves and remaining stationary even for a moment, as the dancing beam of light reflected from the water.

Labris. The lips or edge of the caldron taken for the entire vessel. -23. Sole. The image of the sun in the water. So also, imagine Lunc.—24. Omnia loca. The different parts of the room or apartment in which the caldrons are supposed to be placed.-25. Laquearia. Consult note on i. 726.

28. In ripā. “On the bank (of the Tiber).”—30. Seramque dedit per membra, &c. What is peculiar to sleep, namely, its spreading itself over the limbs, is here ascribed to the one who is enjoying sleep.-31. Deus ipse loci, Tiberinus. The god of the Tiber is here at the same time a local deity.-32. Senior. The river-gods were generally represented in works of art as advanced in years.-33. Eum tenuis glauco, &c. “A vestment of hempen cloth, fine of texture, enwrapped his form with its sea-green covering, and a shady reed-crown covered his locks," i. e. around his middle he wore a covering of the colour of the water, &c. Consult note on line 64.

37. Recehis nobis. In allusion to the fabled Italian origin of Dardanus. Troy is brought back to the land whence it sprang.- Æternaque Pergama seroas. Because a second Ilium is to be founded in Latium.-38. Exspectate. Because predicted by oracles.--39. Ne absiste. “ Desist not (from thy lofty undertaking).”_40. Tumor omnis et iræ, &c. “All the swelling anger of the gods has subsided.” Literally, “has yielded,” i. e. to the fates. Tumor et irce put, by a species of hendiadys, for tumens ira.

42. Vana hæc fingere somnum, i. e. that what is now presented to thee is merely the vain creation of dreamy sleep.-43. Litoreis ingens, &c. The river-god here repeats what Helenus had already predicted (iii. 390, seqq.).—47. Ex quo ter denis redeuntibus annis. « In thrice ten revolving years from which period,” i. e. from the time of finding the animal and her young.–48. Člari cognominis. “Of illustrious name.” Referring to Alba, which, according to the poet, who follows here some early tradition, derived its name from the white sow found on the spot by Æneas. It took its name more probably, however, from the chalk deposits in its neighbourhood. 50. Quã ratione quod instat, &c. “In what way thou mayest victoriously accomplish what now claims thy attention.”

51. Arcades his oris, &c. The god now gives most singular directions, and yet in full accordance with what the Sibyl predicted (vi. 97), namely, a union between the Trojans and a Grecian race. According to an old tradition, Euander, a Pelasgic chief, came, about sixty years after the fall of Troy, from Arcadia, where he had inhabited a city named Pallanteum, and settled in Italy on the eastern side of the Tiber, where he founded a city, called also Pallanteum, on the Palatine Hill, as it was subsequently termed. He and his Arcadian followers claimed descent from Pallas, son of Lycaon, and

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