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-372. Mediæque Mycena. Mycenæ, the earlier capital of Argolis, is here put first for that country itself, and then for the whole of Greece. Acrisius, father of Danaë, reigned in Argos. Observe in this passage the reasoning of Amata. The oracle requires a son-in-law from a foreign nation. Every nation, however, is a foreign one that is free from the Latin sway. Turnus, therefore, as prince of the Rutuli, answers the condition of the oracle ; and besides, to make assurance doubly sure, the family of Turnus can trace back its origin to the very heart of Greece, namely, the land of Argolis.
374. Lapsum. Supply est.-—376. Ingentibus excita monstris. “Troubled in mind by horrid images.” Heyne : Monstra sunt terrores et phantasmata furentis animo objecta.”—377. Sine more furit lymphata. “ Wrought up to phrensy, she rages wildly.”—378. Turbo. “A whiptop.” The Greek ρόμβος or βέμβιξ. Observe the peculiar aptness of the comparison between sine more furit and curcatis fertur spatiis, the maddening venom of the serpent, and the powerful impulse of the lash ; between magno in gyro and immensam per urbem, the wonder of the youthful throng, and the astonishment of the inhabitants of Laurentum at the wild movements of their queen.
381. Curvatis spatiis. “In circling courses.” A term borrowed from the Roman races. Consult note on v. 316.-Stupet inscia supra, &c. “ The inexperienced and beardless throng stand over in silent amazement."-382. Buxum. The material out of which these articles were commonly made. So Persius, “buxum torquere flagello." (Sat. ii. 51.)-383. Dant animos plage. “ They lend their souls to the blow." Heyne, very strangely, rejects this explanation, and refers the words of the text to the top itself, making plagce the nominative, and supplying turbini after animos, “the blows impart a more rapid motion to it." Very forced.
385. Simulato numine Bacchi.“ Under the pretence of celebrating the orgies of Bacchus.”—386. Majus nefas. “A more appalling deed.” Alluding to her having performed in this way the worship of Bacchus, in order to suit her own private ends.—Majorem furorem. “ A wild career of phrensy.”—388. Tædasque moretur. “And may delay the nuptial torches." Referring to the torches of the marriage train which conducted the bride to her husband's dwelling. Compare note on iv. 18. Schrader suggests tædaste, supposing the meaning of the text to be this, namely, that she may either break off the match entirely, or else may delay it for some time. Wagner, however, shows tædasque to be the true reading, since Amata hoped that, by delaying, she might prevent the marriage altogether.
389. Euoë Bacche! fremens. “Shouting forth (from time to time), All hail ! O Bacchus ! Euoë, in Greek” evoi, was the common cry of the Bacchantes while celebrating the orgies of Bacchus. The origin of the term is disputed. Hermann (ad Soph. Trach. 218) makes it to have been originally a Doric imperative, evoi, afterward employed as an interjection, with its accentuation altered to a circumflex on the last syllable. This, however, is opposed by Giese (Æol. Dial. p. 313). Lehrs, on the other hand, writes the word with an aspirate on the last syllable. (De stud. Arist. Hom. p. 387.) With regard to the Latin form of the word, we have adopted Eugé instead of the common Ecoë, on the suggestion of Wagner. The objection to Evoë is, that the first syllable is short (Heyne, ad Æn. xi. 31), which also forms an argument in favour of Euander, Euadne, &c., where the common text has Ecander, Eradne, &c.
390. Etenim molles tibi, &c. “For that she assumes the soft thyrsi for thee, that she moves around thee in the dance, that she nurtures for thee her consecrated locks." These words apply to Lavinia, and are spoken of her by Amata ; only we have them in what is called the oratio obliqua, in place of their being uttered directly by the mother. Some editions remove the full stop after crinem, and connect these lines with Fama rolat; but this is far inferior. Amata consecrates her daughter to Bacchus, by promising that she shall bear his thyrsus, join in the dances around his shrine, and cherish her hair, now sacred to him, that it may float in his orgies. The consecrating the hair to some particular god was an act of devotion not unusual in the times of remote antiquity. Long hair was especially necessary for those who celebrated the mysteries of Bacchus, as in these frantic orgies it was thrown about in the wildest disorder.
Thyrsos. The thyrsus was a pole carried by Bacchus, and by Satyrs, Mänades, and others who engaged in Bacchic festivities and rites. It was sometimes terminated by the apple of the pine, or fircone, that tree being dedicated to Bacchus in consequence of the use of the turpentine that flowed from it, and also of its cones, in making wine. The monuments of ancient art, however, most commonly exhibit, instead of the pine-apple, a bunch of vine or ivy leaves, with grapes or berries, arranged into the form of a cone. Very frequently, also, a white fillet was tied to the pole just below the head.
392. Fama volat, i. e. the rumour of this conduct on the part of the queen, flies forth over the land.-393. Nora tecta, i. e, the recesses of the forests and mountains.-394. Deseruere domos. “They have abandoned their homes.” Observe the beautiful use of the perfect in denoting rapidity of motion. The action is already performed, ere the poet can well describe it.
396. Pampineasque gerunt, &c. " And arrayed in fawn-skins, wield spears decked in vine-leaves.” The skins here meant are the nebrides (veppides), or fawn-skins. Skins of this kind were worn originally by hunters and others, as an appropriate part of their dress. They were afterward attributed to Bacchus, and were, consequently, assumed by his votaries in the processions and ceremonies which they observed in honour of him. The works of ancient art often show it as worn not only by male and female bacchanals, but also by Pans and Satyrs. It was commonly put on in the same manner as the ægis or goat-skin, by tying the two fore-legs over the right shoulder, so as to allow the body of the skin to cover the left side of the wearer. On the present occasion, however, the skin appears to have enveloped the person, and to have been secured by a girdle.
397. Flagrantem pinum. “A blazing pine-torch," i. e, a natural torch, formed of a pine-branch, as distinguished from torches of more artificial construction. Consult note on vi. 224.-398. Canit hymenaeos. Amata, by this conduct, observes Valpy, shows her insanity : in mar. riage processions lighted torches were usually carried.-399. Tortum. The neuter of the adjective taken as an adverb. So the Greek deivóv. --401. Piis refers to the feeling of devoted loyalty which they are supposed to have towards their queen.-402. Si juris materni, &c. “ if any concern for a mother's right fills you with pain,” i. e. for the right which a mother should ever enjoy of being heard as to the marriage of a daughter.
407. Vertisse. « To have thrown into confusion.”-408. Fuscis alis. The Furies are here represented as winged deities. They occur as such elsewhere also, and, in particular, on what are termed Etrurian vases.-409. Audacis Rutuli. Turnus.-410. Acrisioneïs. Put for Argicis. Formed from the Greek 'AKPIOLÚVELOS, which last comes from Axploiwv, another form for 'Arpioios, the name of Danaë's father, who was king of Argos.
411, Locus Ardea quondam, &c. “ The place of old was called Ardea by our forefathers; and Ardea now remains an illustrious name ; but its fortune has departed. Literally, “has been.” The common reading in this place, remarks Symmons, is Ardua, as the original name of the city, altered, by the innovation of time, into Ardea. I am persuaded, with Heyne, that the sole name intended by Virgil was Ardea, and I cannot discover, with Trapp, any difficulty in the construction of the passage. In the time of Virgil the city of Turnus was in ruins. The common reading gives an improbable etymology of the name from a modern Latin word, and rather perplexes the sentence. The more likely derivation of the term was from ardea, “ a heron,” which was a bird of augury. Another interpretation of the passage regards avis as the nominative case in apposition with Ardea, and compels, of course, a very different translation, namely, “ the place was called Ardea, a bird." To be rejected it needs only to be exposed.
414. Mediam quietem. “ Mid repose,” i. e. the repose of the midnight hour.–418. Vitta. The “fillet" was the peculiar badge of priests, priestesses, and all who offered sacrifice.-Tum ramum innectit olivce. * Then she binds around (her head) a branch of olive," i. e. an olive crown. In Virgil, olive crowns are used for a double purpose : to decorate victors, and to fit a person for the performance of sacred rites ; for this tree was regarded as peculiarly auspicious, and a symbol of peace. It forms, therefore, on the present occasion, part of the costume of the pretended priestess. (Compare Wagner, ad Georg. iii. 21.)
419. Fit Calybe, Junonis, &c. “She becomes Calybe, the aged priestess of Juno, and her temple," i. e. of the temple of Juno. The construction is anus sacerdos Junonis templique. The mention of Juno is here very appropriate. This goddess, of course, favoured the interests of Turnus ; and, besides, she had a temple at Ardea.
422. Transcribi. “ To be transferred to."-423. Et quæsitas sanguine dotes. “And the dowry purchased with thy blood," i. e. the blood of thee and thy subjects. Turnus must be supposed to have aided Latinus in his wars. Compare line 426.—425. I nunc, ingratis, &c. i. e. go now, expose thyself to fresh dangers for those who deride thee, by having disappointed thy fondest hopes, and who will again recompense these dangers with the blackest ingratitude.–426. Tege pace Latinos. The Latins, in their wars with the Tyrrheni, had received aid from Turnus, and by this means had obtained peace.
427. Hæc adeo. “These very things.” Wagner considers adeo untranslateable here ; remarking, “ Interdum adeo ita ponitur, ut non habeamus, quod in vernaculo sermone ei respondeat, solaque soni vocisque intentione a nobis exprimi possit, ut An. vii. 427, Hæc adeo tibi me," &c. (Quæst. Virg. xxvi. 3.)- 429. Et armari pubein, &c. “ And with feelings eager for the conflict, make preparations for thy youth to be armed and marched forth from (thy city) gates.” Join lætus in arma, which becomes equivalent to alacer ad arma capienda.
430. Et Phrygios, &c. Construe, et exure Phrygios duces, qui consedere pulchro flumine, pictasque carinas.-431. Pictasque carinas. The ships of the ancients were adorned with painting at both the bow and stern. The former especially was ornamented on both sides with figures, which were either painted upon the sides or laid in.-433. Dicto parere. “ To observe his promise.”
436. Classes indectas, &c. “ The intelligence that a fleet has been wafted into the waters of the Tiber, &c. We have recalled undam, the reading of the common text, instead of adopting aldeo, as given by Heyne. The weight of MS. authority, according to Wagner, is in favour of the former.–438. Ne tantos mihi finge metus. “Conjure not up for me so great causes of alarm.”—440. Victa situ, cerique effoeta. “Overcome by dotage, and worn out as regards the (power of distinguishing the) truth.” Effoeta. A metaphor taken from exhausted ground.
441. Ět arma regum inter, &c. “ And deludes (thee), a prophetess (of ill), with groundless alarm, amid the warlike movements of kings." Heyne makes catem equivalent to ædituam," a temple-keeper.” With Wagner, we regard the word as analogous, in some degree, to the Greek karóuavtiv, but with a strong tinge of irony.-443. Cura tibi. “ Thy province is.”_444. Quis put for quibus.—Gerant. So Wagner, as more forcible than gerent, the reading of Heyne and others. The latter critic, moreover, regards the words quis bella gerenda as spurious, but Wagner defends them.
448. Tantaque se facies aperit. “ So horrid a shape discloses itself to the view." "Tanta carries with it here not only the idea of something appalling to the sight, but also a visage and shape larger than the human.–451. Verberaque insonuit. “And sounded her lash.” The Furies are generally represented with a scourge, with which to punish the wicked in Tartarus. It probably was supposed to resemble the whip used for punishing slaves, which was a dreadful instrument, knotted with bones or heavy indented circles of bronze, or terminated by hooks, in which latter case it was aptly denominated a scorpion. Hence we sometimes read of the scorpion-lash of the Furies.
454. Respice ad hæc. “ Look well at what thou now seest," i. e. look well, and recognise my real character.—456. Et atro lumine, &c. This darting of the torch into the bosom of the warrior is merely symbolical of the Fury's breathing into him a mad desire of warfare.
-460. Arma amens fremit. “He madly cries aloud for arms." Equivalent to arma fremens petit.---462. Ira super. “Anger, above all," i. e. more than any other feeling.-Magno celuti quum flamma, &c. “As when a flame of twigs is applied, with a loud crackling," &c.-464. Aquaï. Governed by amnis. The common text has aquce vis. Consult Heyne's critical note. Aquaï is the old form for aquæ.
*467. Pollutá pace. “Now that friendly relations are violated," 2. e. by the king's having resolved to wed his daughter unto another. -470. Se satis ambobus, &c. “That he is coming, a match for both parties, as well Trojans as Latins.” Venire is much more emphatic than esse would have been.-471. Divosque in cota vocavit. Equivalent to deosque invocavit cotis.—474. Hunc claris dextera factis. “A third, his right hand, with its illustrious exploits." The poet here enumerates the different incitements to war, as arising from the personal qualities of the leader.
478. Insidiis cursuque, &c. “Was hunting the wild creatures by snares and open chase."-479. Cocytia virgo. The Cocytus was one of the rivers of the lower world, the quarter wheuce the Fury came.
485. Parent. The present for the past tense, in order to impart animation to the narrative.
487. Assuetum imperiis, &c. “ (The animal), accustomed to her commands, their sister Silvia was wont to deck with her utmost care," &c. Observe the use of the imperfect to denote an habitual act.–490. Menscque assuetus herili, i. e. accustomed to be fed from the table of his master.—492. Ipse. “Of his own accord."-Serâ quamuis nocte. “However late at night.”
494. Fluvio cum forte secundo, &c. “ As he chanced to be floating down with the stream, and from time to time allayed the heat upon the verdant bank.” Heyne renders deflueret as equivalent to defluxisset, and makes the stag to have been roused after he had floated down the stream, and when he was now reclining on the grassy bank. Wagner very correctly opposes this, and takes the meaning to be, that the stag was cooling itself, partly by floating with the current, and partly by reclining every now and then on the bank of the river.
497. Curoo cornu. “From his bended bow.” The bow is here called cornu because it was sometimes made out of this material. Homer speaks of a bow made out of the long horns of a species of wild goat, fitted to one another at the base, and fastened together by means of a ring of gold (xpvoen kopuvn. Il. iv. 105, seqq.)._-498. Nec dextro erranti, &c. “ Nor was a god wanting unto his right hand, that might otherwise have missed.” Deus is here to be taken in a general sense. Servius very unnecessarily refers the term to Alecto, comparing it with the Greek Deos.- Erranti. Wagner thinks that this may also be understood of Ascanius, following with his eye and bended bow, or, in other words, with his right hand, the movements of the stag as it kept shunning him and attempting to escape in different directions successively.
503. Lacertos. The whole arm is here meant. Strictly speaking, the term lacertus means the arm from the elbow to the shoulder; and brachium from the wrist to the elbow. This is the correct distinction, and different from that laid down by most lexicographers. (Crombie, Gymnas. vol. ii. p. 115, seqq.)-505. Pestis aspera. “ The fierce destroyer,” i. e. Alecto.—506. Improvisi. “With unexpected celerity.” The Fury, still lurking in the woods, urges them on, so that they came with unexpected suddenness, as if they hardly needed the call of the maiden. - Torre obusto. “With a brand burned to a point."
509. Quadrifidam quercum, &c., i. e. happening, at the time, to be cleaving an oak with wedges, he, as soon as he heard the summons, caught up the axe, and, inspired with sudden fury, converted it into a weapon of war.-511. E speculis. “From her place of observation." -512. Stabuli. “Of the rustic dwelling.”—513. Pastorale signum. The custom then prevailed, as now, of summoning the inhabitants of the neighbouring country with a horn, when their presence was suddenly needed.-514. Intendit. “ Strains.” Wakefield maintains (ad Lucret. vi. 346) that the true reading here is incendit; and Wagner states that he would adopt it in the text, if it had more manuscript authority in its favour.
516. Trivice lacus. “The Lake of Diana.” It was near the town of Aricia, and is now called Lago di Nemi. It is not far from the village of Gensano, according to M. Villenave, and about three leagues from the site of ancient Laurentum.-517. Sulfureâ albus aqua.