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line 22) : “Troius Æneas tua nos ad limina misit.” There is certainly some negligence here on the part of the poet, for in the regular course of the sentence, dat ought to refer to Apollo. It is probable, therefore, that this part of the speech was found in an unfinished state by Tucca and Varius, and would have been revised had the life of Virgil been spared.-243. Fortunce paroa prioris munera. “ (Some) humble gifts, (memorials) of former fortune.”—245. Hoc auro. “From this golden bowl.” The first present consists of a golden patera for libations. Consult note on i. 729.-246. Hoc Priami gestamen erat. “ This was borne by Priam.” With these words we must suppose that Ilioneus delivers the sceptre to Latinus ; and yet at the same time gestamen must carry with it a general allusion to the wearing of royal insignia, for it applies also in some degree to both tiaras and vestes. So we would say in our idiom, “ this was borne by Priam, this was worn by him, and also this,” presenting at the same time the three gifts in succession.
247. Tiaras. The tiara here meant was the same with the Phrygian bonnet, formed with lappets to be tied under the chin, and dyed purple. It was made of a strong and stiff material, and was of a conical form, though bent forward and downward.
248. Iliadumque labor, vestes. “And (these royal) robes, the work of Trojan females,” i. e. embroidered by them. Compare the Greek, έργα γυναίκων.
249. Defixa Latinus obtutu, &c. Observe the gradation in this picture. We have first the countenance directed downward ; then the look fixed on the ground; and lastly the rolling eye expressive of deep and earnest thought.—251. Purpura picta. “ The embroidered purple.” Referring to the Iliadum labor restes.-252. Sceptra Priameča. Plural of excellence. The sceptre of Priam, with all its interesting associations.—253. Quantum in connubio natoe, &c. “ As much as he muses on the nuptials and bridal couch.of his daughter.” Connubio thalamoque form here a kind of poetic pleonasm. Compare ii. 571 : “ Armentalis equce mammis et lacte ferino.”—255. Hunc illum fatis, &c. “ That this was that one, come from a foreign land, who was por'tended by the fates as his son-in-law, and was called into his kingdom with authority equal to his own," i. e. was called to share his kingdom.
259. The term incepta refers to the union of his daughter Lavinia with Æneas; and augurium to the prophecy of Faunus.-262. Divitis uber agri, &c. “The fertility of a rich soil, or wealth such as that of Troy.—266. Pars mihi pacis erit, &c., i. e. it shall be in my eyes no small advance towards peace and friendship to have once grasped the hand of your king, Æneas.-Tyranni. This term is used here in its old and good signification, as equivalent to rex. Compare the Greek usage in the case of τύραννος.
268. Gentis nostræ. Referring to the Italian nation generally.269. Patrio ex adyto sortes. “Oracular responses from my father's shrine.” Referring to the oracle of Faunus.-270. Generos. Plural of excellence. “A powerful son-in-law.”--272. Hunc illum poscere fata, &c. “I both think that this is that one whom the fates demand, 'and, if my mind augurs aught of the truth, I take him (unto me as such).” Opto, as Heyne remarks, can here, from the nature of the context, have no other meaning but that of eligo or amplector, or generum probo.
276. Ordine. “In order," i. e. one after another, without passing
by any individual.277. Instratos ostro alipedes, &c. “Wing.footed coursers overspread with purple and embroidered housings," i. e. with embroidered purple housings. Alipedes, a figurative expression to denote great swiftness. They appeared to fly rather than to run.
-Tapetis. The same as ephippia. They were sometimes rendered more ornamental by the addition of fringes.
278. By monilia are here meant chains resembling those called torques. Consult note on v. 559. Monile otherwise means a neckJace.—279. Tecti auro fuloum, &c. “Profusely decked with gold, they champ the yellow gold beneath their teeth," i. e. the bits are also golden. The bit was commonly made of several pieces, and flexible, so as not to hurt the horse's mouth. When, however, the steed was intractable, it was taught submission by the use of a bit which was armed with protuberances resembling wolves' teeth, and hence called lupatum (scil. frænum).
280. Geminosque jugales. “And a pair of steeds yoked to it.” Jugalis properly means “ fit for the yoke,” i. e. broken in to draw a chariot or other vehicle.-281. Spirantes naribus ignem. In figurative allusion to their descent from the steeds of the Sun. The coursers that drew the chariot of the sun were with the ancient poets the type of all that was spirited and excellent in steeds.—282. Illorum de gente, &c. “Of the race of those which the inventive Circe caused to be produced without the knowledge of her sire (the sun.god), a spurious breed, from a substituted mare,” i. e. the steeds in question were begotten by one of the horses of the sun, without the knowledge of that deity, upon an ordinary mare sent surreptitiously by Circe, the daughter of Phoebus. -Dædala. Equivalent to sollers or ingeniosa. The same epithet is applied by Ennius to Minerva.—283. Patri furata. Literally, “ having stolen from her sire," i. e. having done the thing by stealth as far as her parent was concerned.-Nothos. Where the father is known, the term nothus is applied to an illegitimate child; where unknown, spurius.
284. Talibus Æneadæ, &c. “ After such gifts and words on the part of Latinus," &c. Observe the peculiar usage of the ablative here. It is the same, in fact, as talibus donis a Latino acceptis rerbisque dictis.
286. Inachiis ab Argis. “From Inachian Argos.” So called from Inachus, who was said to have founded it. Argos was one of Juno's favourite cities, and she must be supposed to be passing from it here in order to visit some other cherished spot, perhaps Carthage.—287. Aurasque indecta tenebat. “And, borne onward (in her car), was holding possession of the regions of air," i. e, and was moving along through the air in her chariot.-288. Et ex æthere longè, &c. “When from afar, out of the sky, even from the Sicilian Pachynus, she espied in the distance,” &c. Juno at the time was passing through that part of the heavens which lay directly above the Sicilian promontory of Pachynus. From this elevated point she espied Latium in the distance, and marked the scenes that were passing there.
291. Fixa. “Transfixed.”—293. Fatis contrario nostris, &c. The fate of Juno is, that she cannot prevent the fate allotted to the Trojans.-294. Num Sigeïs occumbere campis, &c. “Could they fall on the Sigæan plains,” &c., i. e. have they not fallen on the plains of Troy? have they not been dragged into captivity ? have they not been wrapped in the very flames that consumed their city ? and have they not, despite all this, made their way in safety through the midst of armies and flames? This passage is imitated from Ennius : “Quæ neque Dardaneis campeis potuere perire, | Nec, cum capta, capi ; nec, cum combusta, cremari.”-Sigeis campis. A general name for the plains around Troy, derived from the promontory of Sigeum. Consult note on ii, 312.
297. At credo, mea numina, &c. The train of thought is as follows: But probably they have thus escaped in consequence of my divine power being completely exhausted in punishing them, or because my hatred is now completely sated ! why, in very truth, I have been constantly pursuing them ; I have chased them over every sea : I have opposed myself unto them everywhere ; and it has done no good whatever. The clause from at, credo, &c., to quievi, is, as will be perceived, bitterly ironical.-299. Quinetiam patriâ, &c. “Nay, I have even dared with hostile spirit to pursue them," &c.
302. Quid Syrtes, &c. Compare i. 146 ; iii. 555, &c.—303. Profuit. When several substantives, partly singular and partly plural, come together, the poets are fond of making the verb agree with the last of the singular nouns.-304. Securi pelagi atque mei. “Regardless of the ocean and of me."
Mars perdere gentem, &c. Servius gives us the explanation of this legend. `Pirithoüs, monarch of the Lapithæ, had forgotten Mars in liis invitation to all the gods, and also to the Centaurs, to be present at his marriage with Hippodamia. The god of war, in consequence, caused the quarrel to arise between the Centaurs and Lapithæ, which ended in an open and bloody conflict. The expression perdere gentem, &c., must either be regarded as poetical exaggeration, since, according to the common account, the Lapithæ proved victorious over the Centaurs, or else Virgil follows some other version of the fable.-305. Lapithúm. Contracted for Lapitharum.
Concessit in iras, &c. Alluding to the story of Eneus, and his neg. lect of Diana in not inviting her to the celebration of his harvesthome feast. This brought about the famous Calydonian boar-hunt, and the war between the Curetes and Ætolians, in the course of which the city of Calydon suffered much, and was nearly taken by the foe. Consult Anthon's Class. Dict. s. 0. Eneus and Meleager.-307. Quod scelus aut Lapithas, &c.“ Either the Lapithæ, or Calydon deserving what so severe a punishment ?" An imitation of Greek construction, where two separate clauses are blended into one. Thus the full form of expression will be, ob quod scelus aut Lapithas tantam poenam, aut Calydona merentem ? Hence scelus in the text becomes equivalent to sceleris poenam, or to poenam itself.-Merentem. Observe the participle here in the singular number, and agreeing with Calydona, although Lapithas precedes.
309. Potui. “ Could endure.” Equivalent, in some degree, to sustinui. Heyne : “ Sustinui : semel in eum locum me demisi ut omnia auderem.” Servius makes infclix equivalent to nocens or irata. But this appears forced.-Quce memet in omnia certi. “Who have turned myself to all expedients," i. e. have had recourse to, &c.—311. Quod usquam est, i. e. whatever divine power there may be anywhere, even in the world below.–312. Acheronta. “ The gods below.” Acheron, the river of the lower world, taken for the deities that bear sway there.
313. Dabitur. Supply mihi.-314. Immota conjux. “Unalterably his spouse.” Immota, to be rendered as an adverb, though agreeing, in fact, with conjux.-315. Trahere. “ To protract."-318. Dotabere, i. e. thy dowry shall be paid in.-Pronuba. “ As the goddess who is to preside over thy nuptials." Bellona, the goddess of war, will here take the place of Juno herself. Consult note on iv. 166.
319. Nec face tantum, &c. “Nor did the daughter of Cisseus alone, pregnant with a torch, give birth to nuptial fires ; her own offspring, too, shall prove the same to Venus, and a second Paris, and a fire-brand deadly to Troy again rising from its fall.”—320. Cisseïs. Hecuba, the daughter of Cisseus and wife of Priam. She dreamed that she was delivered of a blazing torch, and her dream was accomplished in her bringing forth Paris, who kindled the war which destroyed his country.-321. Quin idem Veneri, &c. Æneas, also, is to prove a funeral torch for the fortunes of his followers.- Paris alter. Æneas is to prove a second Paris, in not only bringing ruin on his remaining countrymen, but in making a woman (Lavinia) the cause of the conflict.-322. Recidira. Consult note on iv. 344.
323. Terras petivit. She now alters the course of her chariot, and descends to earth.-326. Crimina noxia. All crimes are, in truth, more or less harmful ; still, however, the poet here adds the epithet noxia, for the purpose of showing that the desire of harming others was peculiarly innate in this goddess.—Cordi. “ Are a source of delight." Supply sunt.
°327. Sorores. Her sisters were Megæra and Tisiphone. All three were daughter of Acheron and Night.-329. Tam sæcæ facies. The Furies generally were accustomed to assume different shapes for terrifying and punishing the wicked.-Tot pullulat atra colubris. The Furies were commonly represented with snakes instead of tresses sprouting forth from their heads.
* 331. Hunc mihi da proprium, &c. “Grant me this labour (that is) peculiarly thine own," i. e. that accords so well with thy peculiar attributes, and comes so naturally within thy province.—333. Ambire. “To circumvent." In vulgar English phrase, “ to get around.”— 334. Obsidere. “ To get possession of.” From obsido.-336. Tu verbera tectis, &c. Wagner refers verbera, not to inflictions of punishment, but to domestic strife and collisions; and funereas faces to the bloodshed consequent on these. This is also the explanation given by Donatus.—337. Nomina mille. Alluding to the different forms which she assumed, from time to time, for the purpose of making mischief, and the different appellations which she in consequence received.
338. Foecundum concute pectus.“ Raysack thy fruitful bosom," i. e. thy bosom fruitful in mischief.339. Compositam. “ That has been concluded.”- Crimina belli. “ The deeds of violence that give rise to war.” Crimina is much stronger than causas would have been.
341. Exin. “ Instantly.” On the commands of the superior gods no reply, but instant obedience was given.—Gorgoneïs infecta venenis. “ Steeped in Gorgonian poisons." The reference appears to be to the snakes that formed her tresses, like those that encircled the head of Medusa.–342. Tyranni. For regis. See note on line 266.-343. Tacitum. Servius takes this as equivalent to tacite. It is better, however, to connect it at once in construction with limen. The threshold of Amata's apartment becomes a silent one, in allusion to the deep-seated care to which she is a prey. Amata was the wife of Latinus, and sister to Venilia the mother of Turnus, and was desirous of bringing about the union between her daughter Lavinia and Turnus.-345. Coquebant. “ Kept disquieting.” So Heyne...
346. Huic. “At her.” Equivalent to in hanc, but with the additional idea of " for her harm.”--348. Quo furibunda domum, &c. “ In order that, transported to fury by the monster,” &c.—349. Ille. Referring to the serpent.—Et lævia pectora. “ And over her polished breast.” Heyne: “Lævia epitheton egregie delectum, ut serpentis lubricum lapsum adjuvet.”—350. Volvitur attactu nullo, &c. “ Rolls on with imperceptible touch, and escapes the observation of the raging queen"-351. Fit tortile collo, &c. The snake becomes a torques, or twisted ornament of gold around her neck. Consult note on v. 559.–352. Fit longee tonia vitto. “It becomes the band that forms the long fillet.” The allusion is to a fillet, encircling her tresses and hanging down long behind.
354. Lues. The corrupting effect of the serpent's breath, and the venom with which it comes loaded is termed “humid,” or “ damp,” the breath itself being humid.–355. Pertentat. A well-selected term. The serpent is only, as yet, operating from without. The verb, therefore, is of milder import than occupat would have been
359. Exsulibusne datur, &c. “ Is Lavinia, 0 (thou her) father, to be given to a Trojan exile to wed ?" Observe the force of the plural in exsulibus Teucris, as indicating strong contempt : “a mere Trojan exile," “ a needy wanderer from Troy.” Observe, also, the peculiar force of the present in datur : “ Is Lavinia being given," i. e. is she about to be given.—36). Primo aquilone. The north wind would be favourable for a departure from Italy, the south wind unfavourable. Aquilo is, strictly speaking, the north-east wind, though here taken generaily for the north.-362. Prædo. “A mere robber.” We have separated perfidus from prædo by a comma, as Wagner has done, which makes the latter term more forcible.
363. At non sic Phrygius, &c. “Now does not the Phrygian shepherd in this same way effect an entrance into Lacedæmon, and has he not (in this same way) borne off," &c. Wakefield makes penetrat the aorist, by contraction for penetracit, “ did he not effect an entrance." This, however, is quite unnecessary. The present tense is used to give animation to the passage, as if the subject were still fresh in the remembrance of the speaker, and had but recently occurred.-Phrygius pastor. Paris, in allusion to his early mode of life on Mount Ida.
365. Quid tua sancta fides ? “What becomes of thy plighted faith ?” i. e. plighted to Turnus, in having promised him the hand of thy daughter.-Quid cura antiqua tuorum ? " What of the regard which thou hast all along had for thy people ?” Observe the peculiar force of antiqua, as indicating that which has been existing for a long time back, but which now begins to cease. Two ideas are therefore blended here.-366. Consanguineo Turno. “To thy kinsman Turnus." His mother, Venilia, was the sister of Amata, the speaker.
367. Si gener externâ, &c. “ If a son-in-law from a foreign race is sought (by thee) for the Latins," i. e. to rule over the Latins ; to take part with thee in the government of Latium. Compare line 256, “ Portendi generum, paribusque in regna vocari auspiciis," and xi. 472, “ generumque adscioerit urbi.”—368. Idque sedet. “And if this determination be a settled one.”—370. Dicere. “Mean.”—371. Et Turno, si prima, &c.“ And if the first origin of his family be traced back, Turnus has Inachus and Acrisius for his progenitors, and the heart of Greece (for his native home).” Turnus claimed to be descended from Danaë, daughter of Acrisius. Compare note on line 410.