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“I recollect." Supply memoriâ.- Anchises fatorum, &c. There is some difficulty here. Anchises had not foretold this occurrence, but the Harpy Celæno, unless we suppose that it formed part of the conversation between the father and son in the world below. It is more than probable, as Heyne thinks, that the fable of the Harpies was interwoven into the poem by Virgil after its completion, and that the hand of death prevented him from adapting other parts of his work to that episode.
125. Accisis dapibus. “ Thy provisions being expended.”—126. It is better to make sperare depend in construction on memento, than to regard it as the infinitive for the imperative.—128. Illa fames. “ That hunger of which he spoke.”—129. Exitiis. “To our afflictions.” Equivalent to ærumnis. Tissot charges Virgil here with inadvertence. How could one who had heard the Sibyl speak of fierce and bloody conflicts still remaining to be encountered in Italy, imagine that his troubles were soon to have an end ?
131. Quce loca, &c. "What places are these ?”—132. Diversa, “ Different routes.” Supply itinera or loca.-133. Pateras is here more poetic than vinum.-134. Et vina reponite mensis. “And replace the wine on the tables," i. e. and renew the banquet. Heyne makes reponite equivalent merely to apponite ; in which, however, he is refuted by Wagner, whom we have followed.-140. Duplices parentes. Alluding to his two parents : Venus among the gods, Anchises in the regions below. .
141. Clarus. “In a serene sky.” Thunder in a serene sky was regarded as a good omen.-143. Manu quatiens. The rapid movement of the cloud is compared to a thunderbolt brandished by the father of the gods.
144. Diditur. “Is spread.” A Lucretian term, which many of the copyįsts have corrupted into dicitur and deditur.-147. Vina coronant. Consult note on i. 724.
149. Urbem. The city of Laurentum.—150, Diversi. “ Taking different routes.” Compare line 132.—Hæc fontis stagna, &c. “They learn) that these are the standing waters of the Numician fountain." Supply resciscunt, implied in erplorant, this latter verb being here equivalent to explorant animo et comperiunt. Heyne makes the “ Numician fountain" and its “ stagna," as here alluded to, identical with the river Numicius, near Lavinium. Wagner, however, shows this to be incorrect. The Numicius of Virgil is always spoken of by him in such a way as to show that it was in the immediate vicinity of the Tiber, whereas the Lavinian Numicius was fifteen Roman miles distant from that stream. The stagna fontis Numicî, therefore, would seem rather to correspond to the modern Stagno di Lecante. According to this view of the case, the Numicius here meant is the stream connecting the lake or pool with the sea, and by the stagna fontis Numicî are meant the waters proceeding from the springs or sources of the river, and which spread themselves over the adjacent territory.
152. Ordine ab omni. “From every rank.” Donatus says, ex ornni multitudine;" but Servius, more correctly, “ ex omni qualitate dignitatum : quod apud Romanos in legatione mittendâ hodieque sercatur.”153. Augusta ad moenia regis. Laurentum, the capital of Latinus.Oratores. “Ambassadors.” — 154. Ramis velatos Palladis omnes. “ Bearing all fillet-decked branches of olive.” Literally, “all bedecked with branches of olive." Suppliants were accustomed to carry
branches of olive (a tree sacred to Minerva, and the symbol of peace), with fillets of fine wool or other materials appended thereto; wool, however, was commonly preferred. These branches being carried in the hand, and the fillets or vitto hanging down over the hands of the bearers, the expression manus velato, “hands covered or veiled,” arose among the poets, and hence, also, the term velamenta became applied to the “rami vittati ” themselves. Compare the Greek expression in the Edipus Tyrannus of Sophocles (line 3), irrnpious kládololV ÉĞEOTEMuévoi, and the Greek usage in the case of the verb orégeodai.
157. Ipse. Æneas.-Moenia. The place here indicated is said to have been afterward Troja and Castrum Troja. (Heyne, Excurs. 3, ad Lib. vii.) The position of the camp may be ascertained from the plan given in Wagner's edition, vol. iii. p. 415. It fronted the sea, between which and it a plain intervened. Its right rested on the Tiber, where the fleet lay; its left on the “stagna fontis Nurnici.” In the rear was marshy ground, between the Tiber and the stagna.-158. Moliturque locum. “ And builds upon the spot." Equivalent to tectaque in loco molitur.—Primasque in litore sedes. “ And (this) his first settlement on the shore.” Heyne explains primas by“ in primâ litoris parte," but he is refuted by Wagner. . 161. Judenes. “The warriors." Applied generally to the “ centum oratores."-163. Exercentur equis. Virgil, who always loves to flatter the national pride of the Romans, ascribes here a high antiquity to the exercises of the Roman youth in the Campus Martius.--Domitantque in pulcere currus. “And break the car-bearing steeds in the dusty plain.”—165. Cursuque ictuque lacessunt. “And challenge one another in the race, and in pugilistic encounter.” Ictu here is generally supposed to refer to archery and hurling the javelin ; and Servius explains it by jaculatione. But mention has already been made of the bow and javelin; we have therefore referred it to exercises in pugilism,
167. Ingentes viros. “That men of lofty port.” Ingentes is here merely ornamental. Every thing connected with the heroic age, or with heroic races, is of lofty bearing, and exceeds ordinary bounds. -169. Medius. « Surrounded by his court."
172. Horrendum, &c. “Awe-inspiring by reason of its (sacred) woods, and the religious veneration of early days.” This building stood on the Acropolis of Laurentum, and, as was customary in the case of temples, and often of palaces, was encompassed by a sacred grove or wood.-171. Laurentis Regia Pici. This structure was different from the palace of Latinus, the reigning monarch, and which has already been mentioned (line 59). ,
173. Fasces. The fasces, or badges of Roman consular authority, are taken for the emblems of kingly power. The Romans derived the fasces from Vetulonia, a city of Etruria ; and they would seem to have been common to several of the early nations of Italy. As to lower the fasces was deemed a mark of respect from an inferior to a superior magistrate, so here “to raise " them is a type of kingly sway. Consult, as regards the fasces, note on vi. 818.-174. Omen. A custom sanctioned by the ordinances of religion, and deemed, consequently, of propitious influence. Its observance, it was thought, · would ensure a recurrence of the prosperity of previous reigns. So Heyne.
Hoc illis curia templum. “ This hallowed structure was a senate
house unto them.” The building is called templum, not because it was actually one, but from its venerable character, and the religious associations connected with it. The idea in the text is a Roman one, the curice being all sacred structures.-175. Ariete. Put for any victim.—176. Perpetuis mensis. “At the long tables.” Perpetuis here is a much stronger epithet than longis, and conveys the idea of table joining table in long succession.
177. Ex ordine. In the order in which the persons represented had succeeded to each other.-178. Antiqua e cedro. “Of ancient cedar.” The poet carefully observes propriety even in relation to the material employed, statues of wood being earlier than those of stone.—179. Vitisator. “ The vine-planter," i. e. the first planter of the vine in Italy. This term is borrowed from the old poet Accius, in whose fragments it occurs (ap. Macrob. v. 3).-Curoam servans, &c. “ Having a curved pruning-knife at the base of his statue," i. e. preserving in the pruning-knife, which lay at the base of his statue, a memorial of his introduction of the vine. The statue of Sabinus, if an ancient one, as is here stated, would be shaped like one of the class termed Hermæ, that is, it would consist of a human head, placed on an oblong and erect block of wood, tapering off below, and having no arms. Virgil here assigns to Sabinus, in the falx or pruning-knife, what was commonly regarded as a badge of Saturn. Very probably he had some early Italian legend in view. Some commentators, very incorrectly, join curoam servans sub imagine falcem with .Saturnusque senex.
181. Vestibulo. The vestibulum did not properly form part of the house among the Romans, but was a vacant space before the door, forming a court, which was surrounded on three sides by the house, and was open on the fourth to the street. Ab origine. “From the origin of the race.”
183. In postibus. The Donaria offered to the gods were suspended not only from the antc, but likewise from the door-posts and lintels of their temples ; as well as of palaces, which, like the present, partook of the sanctity of temples.—185. Cristoe capitum. “Helmetcrests.” Consult note on i. 468.-Et portarum ingentia claustra. “ And massive bars of city-gates.”—186. Rostra. Consult note on i. 35.
187. Ipse Quirinali lituo, &c. “ (There) Picus himself, tamer of steeds, sat with his Quirinal augur's-wand, and attired in his short and girt up trabea, while with his left hand he wielded a sacred shield.” Quirinali lituo is the ablative of manner, and requires no ellipsis of the preposition cum to be supplied. Neither is there any necessity of our supposing a zeugma in succinctus, or of supplying some such form as instructus. Consult note on iv. 517. Quirinali is generally explained as referring to Romulus, who, in a later age, received the epithet of Quirinus, after his apotheosis, and is said to have been skilled in augury. This is all very unsatisfactory, if not positively incorrect. It is better to refer it to the attributes and worship of Janus, who bore the name of Quirinus (the defendant and combatant by way of excellence) long before the time of Romulus.Lituo. For the shape of the lituus, consult note on i. 392.
Paroâ succinctus trabea. The trabea was a toga ornamented with purple horizontal stripes (trabes). Servius mentions three kinds of trabea : one wholly of purple, which was sacred to the gods; another of purple and white ; and another of purple and saffron, which belonged to augurs. The purple and white trabea was a royal robe, and is the one referred to in the text. It was worn by the Latin and early Roman kings, and is especially assigned by the poets to Romulus. It was also worn by the consuls in public solemnities, such as opening the temple of Janus. (Compare line 612.)—188. Succinctus. Referring to the old-fashioned mode of wearing the toga, sometimes called the cinctus Gabinus, by which mode it was girded up and made shorter. It consisted in forming a part of the toga itself into a girdle, by drawing its outer edge round the body, and tying it in a knot in front.
Ancile. The sacred shield carried by the Salii. According to the ancient authorities, it was made of bronze, and its form was oval, but with the two sides receding inward with an even curvature, and so as to make it broader at the ends than in the middle. The original ancile was said to have fallen from the skies in the time of Numa. To secure its preservation, Numa ordered eleven other shields to be made exactly like it. These twelve ancilia were kept in the temple of Mars Gradivus, and were taken from it only once a year, on the kalends of March. The feast of the god was then observed during several days; when the Salii, or priests of Mars, twelve in number, carried the sacred shields about the city, singing songs in praise of Mars, Numa, and Mamurius Veturius, who made the eleven. They at the same time performed a dance, in which they struck the shields with rods, so as to keep time with their voices and with the movements of the dance.
189. Equum domitor. In imitation of the Homeric in tódamos.Picus. He was changed into a bird called picus, after his own name (a species of woodpecker), having purple plumage, and a yellow ring around its neck. The woodpecker, into which he was thus transformed, was of great use in augury, in which art this king excelled ; and this gives us the key to the whole fable.
Conjux. Equivalent here to amans.—190. Versam renenis. “ Changed hy her magic herbs.” Compare Ovid, in relating this same legend : “Si non eranuit omnis Herbaruin virtus.” (Met. xiv. 356.)
196. Auditi, i. e. already well known to fame.-197. Aut cujus egentes. “Or (yourselves) in need of what."-203. Saturni gentem, i. e, the race among whom Saturn once dwelt.—204. Haud vinclo nec legibus, &c. “ Just neither from constraint,” i. e. living in conformity with the pattern of justice and piety established by Saturn in the Golden Age.
205. Fama est obscurior annis. So many years have gone by that the tradition has become an obscure one, and the knowledge of it is confined to only a few old men of the Auruncan nation. The Aurunci belonged to the stem of the Aborigines.-206. His agris. Referring to Italy generally, since Dardanus did not come from Latium, but Etruria. (Compare iii. 167, seqq.)–207. Penetrârit. Observe the employment of the subjunctive in expressing a tradition.—208. Threzciamque Samon. Dardanus, on leaving Italy, passed first into Samothrace, and thence into Asia Minor.-209. Hinc illum Corythi, &c. Dardanus, having become deified after death, is honoured with a throne in the skies and an altar on earth.- Corythi. Consult note on iii. 170.
212. Ilioneus. He was the speaker, also, it may be remembered, in the first interview of the Trojans with Dido. (Compare i. 521.) 215. Nec sidus regione viæ, &c., i, e. nor has any error in the obser
vation of the stars, nor any mistake as regards the coast, led us out of our true course.--217. Quce maxima quondam, &c. “Which the sun, as he journeyed from the extremity of the heavens, used once to behold as most powerful.” The expression extremo Olympo refers to the very extremity of the eastern horizon, over which the sun was supposed to climb with his chariot at the commencement of his daily course. Hence the meaning of the text is simply this, “a kingdom once most powerful in the East."
222. Quanta per Idæos, &c. “How violent a tempest, poured. forth from the cruel Mycenæ, has traversed the Idæan plains ; by what destinies impelled the respective continents of Europe and Asia have come into collision ; he hath heard, both if the extremity of earth reinoves any one (from the rest of his species) by means of the encircling Ocean; and if the zone of the scorching sun, outspread between the four other zones, separates any one (from the abodes of men).”
223. Tempestas. Alluding to the Trojan war, and the invasion of Asia by the Greeks, headed by a prince of the royal house of Mycenæ.225. Tellus extrema. The poet probably had in view some such spot as “ Ultima Thule,” though the express mention of it by name would have been unpoetical in this place. --Refuso Oceano. The reference is to the Ocean encircling some remote island, and appearing to be poured back into itself. So Wagner.—227. Plaga solis iniqui. Literally, “the region of the intemperate sun.” The too intense heat of the sun is here indicated by an epithet implying unfairness of apportionment. The ancients believed the torrid zone to be unfit for human habitation on account of the excessive heat; and they assigned it vast tracts of arid sand, which separated it from the other zones. Hence the peculiar force of extenta. The four other zones are the two frigid and the two temperate,
228. Diluvio ex illo. “ After that deluge (of calamity).” The term diluvio keeps up the idea implied in tempestas (line 223).—229. Dis sedem exiguam, &c. They ask a resting-place for their national deities, since, wherever the statues of these are allowed to remain, there they themselves will find a home.—Litusque innocuum, &c. “And a tract of shore without injury to any one."
235. Sive fide, &c. “ Whether any one has made trial of it in plighted friendship,” &c.—Fide. In amity ; to which the right hand of Æneas was pledged.—241. Huc repetit, &c. “ Hither Apollo recalls us, and urges us on.” Commentators find a difficulty here in assigning a nominative to repetit, when no such difficulty ought to exist. "The allusion to Apollo is perfectly plain. Compare, moreover, iii. 94, seqq., and iv. 345, seqq. The pointing of the common text is decidedly erroneous, namely, a comma after ortus, and a semicolon after repetit. This would make the verb repetit refer to Dardanus, and spoil the sense. Equally incorrect is it to understand Æneas as a nominative.-242. Fontis vada sacra Numici. Consult note on line 150. In the neighbourhood of this piece of water the ancient Latins would seem to have worshipped one of their national divinities, whom the Romans, at a later day, confounded with Jupiter Indiges, or the deified Æneas, this warrior having been fabled to have fallen in battle on the banks of a river named Numicius. Hence the epithet 6 sacred” applied to the stream mentioned in the text. (Compare Heyne, Excurs. iii. ad lib. 7.) 243. Dat. Referring to Æneas, and recalling our attention to