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with Pyrrhus.-Drusosque. M. Livius Salinator Drusus, distinguished for his warlike services in the second Punic contest; and M. Livius Drusus, tribune of the commons in the time of the Gracchi. The Drusi were an illustrious branch of the Claudian house, and to it belonged Tiberius, and Livia, the wife of Augustus. One of the sons of Livia, the brother of Tiberius, distinguished himself by his victories over the Germans.
Sævumque securi Torquatum. Alluding to Titus Manlius Torquatus, a Roman commander, who put his son to death for disobedience of orders.--825. Et referentem signa Camillum, i. e. recovering the standards lost in the battle with the Gauls at the river Allia. Camillus defeated the Gallic invaders of his country, and compelled them to raise the siege of the Capitol.
826. Illiæ autem. “But those (souls) yonder.” Alluding to Julius Cæsar and Pompey.”—Paribus in armis. Said of the two as being both Romans, and arrayed in Roman arms. Compare Georgics, i. 490.-827. Concordes animæ nunc, &c. “Souls now in union, and (to remain so) as long as they are covered with the shades of night.” Cæsar and Pompey were at first in friendly relations with each other, and the poet makes this friendship also to have characterized their souls in Elysium. Personal ambition subsequently made them the bitterest foes, and brought unnumbered evils on their common country.-Nocte. It seems strange to talk of the shades of night in Elysium, when the poet has just informed us that this abode of the good is illumined by a sun of its own. In popular belief, however, the lower world is always supposed to be enveloped in gloom, and it is to this belief that the poet here sacrifices a more accurate phraseology.
830. Aggeribus sccer Alpinis, &c. “The father-in-law descending from the Alpine barriers and the heights of Monccus ; the son-inlaw furnished with the opposing forces of the East.” The father-inlaw is Julius Cæsar; the son-in-law, Pompey, who married Julia, the daughter of the former. By the “ aggeres Alpini ” are meant the Alps; by the arx Monceci, a promontory formed by the Maritime Alps, where they project into the Sinus Ligusticus, or Gulf of Genoa. On the promontory was a temple of Hercules Monæcus, and near it a harbour, now Monaco. According to Virgil, Cæsar passed into Italy by crossing the Alps near this promontory. This, however, was not true, since he followed a different route, and the poet, there. fore, would merely seem to have mentioned the arx Monaci by a kind of poetic license, that he might connect the name of Hercules with that of Julius Cæsar.—831. Adversis Eois. Pompey drew the principal part of his forces from the eastern provinces, or, more accurately speaking, those lying immediately to the east of Italy, in the number of which, therefore, Greece would be included.
832. Ne, pueri, ne tanta, &c. “Do not, my children, do not make wars, so fierce as these, familiar objects to your minds.” Grammarians call this an hypallage, for ne tantis animos assuescite bellis. There is no need whatever of having recourse to such a view of the matter, which would only weaken the force of the peculiar construction in which the poet here indulges. Virgil imitates, in this passage, Homer (Il. vii. 279), where the aged herald Idæus exclaims to Hector and Ajax when engaged in single combat, μηκέτι παϊδε φίλω πολεμίζετε undè páxeodov.-833. Neu patrice validas, &c. The alliteration in this line is remarkable, as if the poet intended by the very sound of the words to express abhorrence at the deed.
834. Tuque prior, &c. Addressed to the spirit of Cæsar. Why an appeal should be made to the elemency of this leader is explained by the words genus qui ducis Olympo. Mercy forms a conspicuous attribute of the Divine nature, and ought, therefore, to characterize all who derive their origin from so exalted a source.-Genus qui ducis Olympo. The order of descent here alluded to will be as follows: 1. Anchises, the spouse of Venus : 2. Æneas : 3. Ascanius or Iulus : 4. The Gens Julia, to which Cæsar belonged. Hence we see why Anchises, immediately after, calls him sanguis meus,“ my own blood," i. e. my own direct descendant.
836. Ille triumphatâ, &c. “ That one shall as victor, in triumplı over Corinth,” &c. Literally, “ Corinth being triumphed over.” The allusion is to Mummius, the destroyer of Corinth.-Capitolia ad alta. The triumphal procession, after moving through different parts of the city, always passed up the Via Sacra to the Capitol, where a solemn sacrifice was offered to Jupiter.- 837. Cæsis insignis Achivis. Virgil, as will readily appear, does not follow any certain order in his historical allusions. He would seem to have mentioned Mummius in this passage, not because he was in any respect more conspicuous than others of the Roman commanders, but because the name of this general affords the poet an opportunity of alluding to the overthrow of the Achivi, since Mummius, by the overthrow of Corinth, broke up the Achæan league. To the ears of a Trojan, this triumph over the descendants of his country's bitterest foes, by one of his own posterity, would be peculiarly pleasing.
838. Eruet ille Argos, &c. Alluding, in all probability, to L. Æmilius Paullus, the conqueror of Perses, the last king of Macedonia. With the subjugation of this kingdom all Greece fell under the Roman sway. Hence the poet says, in strong language, of this commander, Eruet ille Argos, Agamemnoniasque Mycenas, in place of totam Græciam subiget. Consult note on i. 284.-839. Æaciden. Referring to Perses, a descendant of Æacus through Achilles. The royal line of Macedonia claimed descent from Achilles through Phthia, the mother of Philip III., and not through Olympias, as some incorrectly maintain.—Genus armipotentis Achillei. “Of the lineage of Achilles, mighty in arms." The allusions here are marked by singular propriety. The very descendant of the terrible Achilles is to fall beneath the prowess of Rome, the martial daughter of Troy.-840. Aros Troja. “His ancestors of Troy.” For acos Trojanos.—Templa et temerata Minervce. For et temeratum templum Minerræ. Alluding to the violation of Minerva's temple by the brutality of Ajax, son of Oileus. Observe here the employment of the plural to depict more forcibly the horrid nature of the deed.
841. Magne Cato. Cato the Censor, not Cato of Utica. The position of the name, in the vicinity of those of Cossus and the Gracchi, plainly shows that Virgil alludes to the elder Cato.- Tacitum. “Unmentioned.”-Cosse. Aulus Cornelius Cossus, famed for having been one of the very small number who, in the course of Roman history, offered up the spolia opima. The spolia opima were those which one commander took from the commander opposed to him, or, to quote Livy (iv. 20), “quce dux duci detraxit.” Romulus offered the first; Cossus the second (A.U.C. 317); and M. Marcellus (A.U.C. 532), the third. There were no other instances besides these.
842. Gracchi genus. “ The race of Gracchus," i. e. Sempronius Gracchus, and his two sons Tiberius and Caius. The poet, however, would seem to allude more especially to the father, who distinguished himself in the second Punic war.—Geminos Scipiadas. “The two Scipios.” Scipio Africanus the Elder, and the Younger. Carthage was conquered by the one, destroyed by the other.—843. Cladem Libyce. “The scourge of Africa."- Parooque potentem Fabricium. “And Fabricius, powerful with feeble means." Generally thought to contain an allusion to the story of Pyrrhus's having fruitlessly attempted to bribe him. It would seem, however, to refer rather to the great influence enjoyed by him in the state, notwithstanding his poverty. So Muenscher. (Obs. in Virg. Æn. p. 27.)
844. Vel te sulco Serrane serentem. “ Or thee, Serranus, sowing in furrow.” Alluding, not to Cincinnatus, as some suppose, but to C. Atilius Serranus, who was found thus employed when intelligence was brought unto him of his having been elected to the consulship. Pliny says that he obtained the cognomen of Serranus from this circumstance: “Serentem invenerunt dati honores Serranum, unde cognomen.” (H. N. xviii. 4.) Virgil appears to follow this account, improbable though it is, by perpetrating what would be called at the present day a play on the name.
854. Quo fessum rapitis, Fabii ? “Whither, ye Fabii, do ye hurry me, exhausted ?" i. e. with difficulty following the lengthened glories of your line.—Tu Maximus ille es, &c. “Thou art that Maximus, (greatest of the name), who alone,” &c. Alluding to the celebrated Q. Fabius Maximus, surnamed Cunctator, who saved his country by his wise delay in the contest with Hannibal. The term Maximus requires here a double translation : first, as a mere proper name; and secondly, as indicating the pre-eminence to which the individual in question was entitled among the other members of the line. Here, again, Virgil would appear to be playing on the name.-846. Unus qui nobis, &c. This line is borrowed from Ennius.—Rem. “Our state.” Equivalent to rempublicam.
847. Excudent alii, &c.“ Others, I do indeed believe, will mould more naturally the breathing brass ; they will draw forth living features from the marble.” The allusion here is to the Greeks, who were the acknowledged masters of the Romans in the arts and sciences, in eloquence and literature.-Spirantia æra. Statues of bronze, so skilfully wrought that they seem to breathe and live.—848. Vicos de marmore vultus. Marble statues that appear instinct with animation.
-849. Coelique meatus describent, &c. “And will describe with the (astronomer's) rod the movements in the heavens,” &c.
851. Regere imperio populos. “To rule the nations with authority.” The Roman is to yield the palm to the Greek in arts, sciences, and literature; his own scene of action is to be the battle-field, where he is to be without a competitor ; and his true and only employment is to reduce all nations beneath his sway.-852. Pacisque imponere morem. “And to impose the terms of peace.”
854. Mirantibus. “ To his wondering auditors.” Æneas and the Sibyl.—855. Aspice ut insignis, &c. M. Claudius Marcellus, the celebrated antagonist of Hannibal. The name and praises of this leader naturally serve to introduce, a few lines further on, the mention of the young Marcellus, the nephew of Augustus.-Spoliis opimis. Marcellus was the last of the three individuals mentioned in Roman
history as having offered up the spolia opima. He slew Viridomarus, a king of the Galli Insubres.
857. Hic rem Romanam, &c. “ This one shall steady the Roman state.”—Tumultu. Alluding to the inroad of the Galli Insubres and their allies. Bellum is a much weaker term than tumultus. The latter indicates some sudden and violent interruption of the public tranquillity, exciting wide-spread alarm, and was specially employed by the Latin writers to designate a war in Italy, or an invasion by the Gauls. (Consult Cic. Phil. viii. 1.)—858. Eques. “ As a mounted leader.” Poetically for dux, and yet containing, at the same time, a reference to the exploit of Marcellus in defeating Viridomarus, this having been a battle of cavalry.-Rebellem. The Galli Insubres had made war anew after a peace had been concluded with them.
839. Tertiaque arma, &c. Alluding to the spolia opima, and his having been the third who offered them up.-Quirino. Romulus. There is a difficulty here. The spolia opima, according to the institution of Romulus, were to be offered up to Jupiter Feretrius. Either, therefore, the religious feelings of a later age connected Romulus with Jove in this very rare consecration, or else we must seek a key to the difficulty in the remark of Servius, who states that, by a law of Numa, spolia opima of the first class were to be consecrated to Jove; of the second, to Mars; and of the third, to Quirinus or Romulus. The opima spolia of the first class were those taken when a pitched battle had been fought. Now, as the contest between Marcellus and the Gauls was not one of this kind, we may in this way · account for the arms of the Gallic king being consecrated to Romulus. (Consult Heyne, ad loc.)
860. Una, i. e, in company with the elder Marcellus.-86). Egrea gium forma jurenem, &c. The allusion is to the young Marcellus, the son of Octavia, sister of Augustus, and, consequently, nephew of that emperor. Augustus gave him his daughter Julia in marriage, and intended him for his successor ; but he died at the eariy age of eighteen, universally regretted on account of the excellence of his private character. Augustus had frequently entreated Virgil to be allowed a perusal of the Æneid while the composition of the poem was going on, and the latter had as often, through modesty, declined. Prevailed on, at length, however, by these importunities, the poet recited to him the sixth book, in presence of Octavia, the mother of young Marcellus, a short time after the decease of the latter. In prospect, very probably, of this recitation, he had inserted the beautiful eulogium which we are here considering, and in which he alludes to the premature death of the beloved youth. But he had skilfully suppressed the name of Marcellus till he came to the line “ Tu Marcellus eris," &c., when the widowed mother swooned away. No one can even now, at this late day, read them unmoved. Virgil is said to have received from the afflicted parent 10,000 sesterces (dena sestertia) for each verse of this celebrated passage. As the eulogium properly commences at () nate! ingentem, &c. (line 868), and terminates at munere, in the 886th line, this would make the whole sum received by the poet near 87000.
862. Sed frons læta parum, &c. “But his brow was little joyous, and his eyes wore a dejected expression.” These symptoms are here meant to be prophetic of an early death.—863. Virum. The elder Marcellus.—865. Quis strepitus circa comitum. “What a bustle of
companions (there is) around him !” This indicates his great popularity.—Quantum instar in ipso! “What nobleness of mien in himself?” So Heyne. Compare the remark of Ernesti (Clao. Cic. s. v.): “ Instar semper aliquam magnitudinem indicat apud-optimos scriptores." The ordinary interpretation is as follows: “How great a sikeness (there is) in him to the other)!" i. e. to the elder Marcellus.—866. Nox atra. Night is here typical of death.
868. Ne quære, i. e. seek not to become acquainted with.--869. Ultra, i. e. beyond a mere showing of him to the world.--870. Esse, equivalent to videre.—871. With visa supply esset.--Hæc dona. Thé plural of excellence, the allusion being to Marcellus : “this most valued gift.” Compare the explanation of Nöhden: “Marcellus Romanis donatus.—Propria. Peculiarly and always yours. Equivalent to perpetua.
872. Quantos ille virúm, &c. The allusion is to the Campus Martius, near Rome, where the funeral obsequies of the young Marcellus were celebrated.-874. Funera. “Funeral rites.”—Cum tumulum, &c. The remains of the young prince were deposited in the splendid mausoleum of Augustus on the banks of the Tiber. This mausoleum had been erected by that emperor A.U.C. 726, in his sixth consulship. -875. Nec puer Iliacâ, &c.Neither shall any youth of the Trojan race raise the Latin fathers so high in hope," &c. i. e. excite such high hopes in the Roman nation. The common form of expression would be in tantam spem tollet aoos. Valpy makes spe an old form of the genitive here for spei, and governed by tantum. This, however, is quite unnecessary : spe is here the simple ablative. Compare the Greek élniowv én aipelv.
878. Heu pietas ? &c. i. e. what piety shall be his ! what integrity like that of the good old times of yore !—880. Seu cum pedes iret, &c. i. e. either when advancing to the conflict on foot or on horseback.882. Si qua fata aspera, &c. “If in any way thou canst break through the rigid decrees of fate, thou shalt be a Marcellus," i. e. thou shalt prove thyself a worthy scion of that noble stock. Consult note on line 860.
883. Manibus plenis. “By handfuls.”—884. Purpureos spargam flores, &c. The ancients were accustomed on certain days, to crown the tombs of the dead with flowers.-Spargam. Observe the force of the subjunctive in this verb, and also in accumulem and fungar. The construction is in imitation of the Greek. Consult Matthiæ, G. G. $ 518, and Elmsley, ad Eurip. Med. 1242. Some editors supply ut, but without any necessity or propriety.--Animamque nepotis, &c. An elegant poetic construction, for hæc dona accumulem in animam nepotis.
887. Aëris in campis latis, i.e. the fields where dwell airy, shadowy forms. Heyne, offended by this rather unusual form of expression, inteprets aër in the sense of darkness, like the Homeric ảng. But this is only exchanging one difficulty for another, since the regions of Elysium at least are illumined by their own sun, and not involved in gloom.
893. Sunt geminæ Somni porta. This fiction is borrowed from the nineteenth book of Homer's Odyssey, line 562, segg. and probably was of still earlier origin.—894. Cornea. With our improvements in the arts, observes Valpy, horn seems a rude material; but the inventor of the fable knew none more transparent, of which he could imagine gates to be composed.— Veris umbris. « Unto true visions of the night," i. e. true dreams. Among the several reasons, observes a