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soon after.-747. Auraï. old form of the genitive for auræ. Ignis auro appears to be nothing more than spiritus ille igneus.
748. Ubi mille rotam rolcere, &c. "When they have completed the circle of a thousand years." Literally, “ when they have caused the wheel (of time) to revolve during a thousand years." Rota taken figuratively for orbis, or the Greek kúkloc.-749. Deus ecocat. “A deity calls forth," i. e. they are influenced by some secret and divine power to pass out from Elysium, &c. Deus is here to be taken generally, and is somewhat analogous to the Greek ở daiuwv. 750. Scilicet immemores, &c. “ In order, namely, that, forgetful (of the past), they may revisit the vaulted realms above," i. e. the upper world. Convexa is here specially applied to the arched surface of the upper world, forming the vaulted roof of the world below.Immemores. Referring to the oblivious effect produced by the draught of Lethe.
753. Sonantem. “Buzzing.” Compare the Odyssey (xxiv. 5), rai dè rpísovoal ČTOVT0.–754. Tumulum. “A rising ground.”—755. Adtersos legere. “ To survey them as they passed opposite to him.”
757. Itala de gente, i. e. of the new stock that sprang from the union of Æneas with Lavinia, the daughter of Latinus.—758. Nostrumque in nomen iturus. “And destined to succeed to our name.” Anchises now enters upon a rapid sketch of early Latin history, then passes off to Roman affairs, enumerates some of the most eminent men of that nation, and closes the brilliant catalogue with a beautiful allusion to the untimely death of the young Marcellus.
760. Ille, vides, &c. “Yonder youth, thou seest (whom I mean), who leans upon the headless spear, occupies by destiny the places nearest to the light (of day),” i. e. he is the first of thy Italian descendants that shall see the light. Observe the peculiar construction in lucis loca, so that proxima lucis loca will mean literally “ the nearest places of light.”—Pura hastâ. A spear without any iron head, not intended, of course, for battle, but merely as a badge of sovereignty, and answering the purpose of a sceptre. Among the Romans of a later day, a spear of this kind was bestowed as a reward by generals upon their soldiers, more especially for saving the life of a citizen.—762. Italo commixtus sanguine. His mother Lavinia was an Italian princess.—763. Albanum nomen. Silvius became a common cognomen for the kings of Alba, after the time of the first Silvius. So Livy remarks.
Tua postuma proles, &c.“ Thy posthumous offspring, whom, too late for thee, advanced in years, thy wife Lavinia shall bring forth in the woods,” &c. Some commentators make postuma here equivalent to postrema, and explain it by “ youngest” or “ latest.” For they consider postuma, in the sense of “ posthumous," as inconsistent with tibi longceco, &c. This way of rendering, however, is objectionable on many accounts. In the first place, postuma for postrema is not recognized by any writer of pure Latinity. Secondly. Silvius is actually said to have been a posthumous child. Thirdly. Even if we admit this interpretation of postuma for postrema, a difficulty arises between educet and tibi longæco, since, according to the legend quoted by Servius from Cato, Lavinia fled to the woods after the death of Aneas, through fear of Ascanius. She certainly would not have done this had Æneas been living, even though he were advanced in years. We have, therefore, given postuma its ordinary meaning, and connected tibi longceco with serum, the idea intended to be conveyed being simply this : that Silvius, as born after his father's death, was the too tardy offspring of advanced years, his parent not having lived to behold him.
765. Educet silvis. Compare a similar usage of the verb in line 780. Silvius derived his name, according to this account, from the circumstance of his having been born in the woods (in silvis).—766. Unde. “From whom.” Equivalent to a quo. Silvius reigned after Ascanius, and became the parent stock of the royal line of Alba.
767. Proximus ille, &c. “That next one (is) Procas ; and (that is) Capys, and (that) Numitor, and (that one he) who shall represent thee in name, Silvius Æneas." Proximus does not denote the next in the order of reigning, but merely the one who happens at the moment to be standing nearest to Silvius. Procas was the twelfth in the line of Alban kings, Capys the sixth, and Numitor the thirteenth. Procas is called "the glory of the Trojan race” or stem, because he was the father of Numitor and Amulius, and the grandfather of Rhea Silvia, the mother of Romulus.—769.-Pariter pietate cel armis egregius.“ Alike renowned, whether for piety or arms." Heyne makes vel conjunctive, which Wagner very properly denies. Pietate tel armis is nothing more than sive pietatem sive fortitudinem spectes.—770. Si unquam regnandam, &c. Án historical allusion on the part of the poet. Æneas Silvius was for a long time kept out of the throne of Alba by his guardian, and only ascended it at the age of fifty-two years. Still, however, he reigned thirty-one years.
771. Quantas vires. “What manly vigour.” Strength of body is here regarded as the sure concomitant of an heroic spirit.-772. At qui umbrata gerunt, &c. The monarchs thus far named were conspicuous for warlike achievements; they who are now alluded to in general terms are famed for the arts of peace and as the founders of cities. We have adopted the reading of Heyne and others, namely, at qui, instead of the common atque, notwithstanding the very ingenious arguments of Wagner in support of the latter. -Civili quercu. The civic crown was the peculiar symbol of peace, and of everything connected with the preservation of existence. It is here worn by the founders of cities, and among the Romans was bestowed on him who had saved the life of a citizen in battle. The crown was composed of oak leaves, because, says Servius, by the fruit of the oak, in early times, human life was sustained.
773. Nomentum. Supply condent, which verb may be easily inferred from imponent, in the succeeding line. The places mentioned in the text were all Alban colonies. According to Dionysius of Halicarnassus (3. 31), Alba Longa sent out thirty colonies into different parts of Latium and the adjacent country.--775. Castrum Inui. “ The fortress of Inuus." After verse 774, the following line is found in some editions : Laude pudicitiæ celebres, addentque superbos; but it does not appear in any of the earlier ones, nor in any S., and is said to have been composed by a Milanese lawyer named Lampugnani, who inserted it into the text.
777. Quin et ato comitem, &c. The common reading is addet, which the commentators, following Servius, refer to Romulus's restoring the crown to his grandfather Numitor, and reigning conjointly with him. This, however, appears rather forced. We have substituted, therefore, addit, as given by one of the MSS. The meaning will then be, that the shade of Romulus, as seen by Anchises and Æneas, overtakes and moves onward along with the shade of Numitor.—Macortius. Because the son of Mars.—778. Assuraci sanguinis. The same as Trojani sanguinis. Consult note on i. 284.
779. Geminæ cristæ. "The warlike character of Romulus is indicated by his shade's appearing in full array for battle, even to the double crest. Compare the Greek digalov and Sidogov.-780. Suo jam signat honore. “Already marks him out with his own peculiar honour," i. e. with tokens and emblems of his subsequent deification, an honour peculiarly his (Romulus's) own. Suo honore, therefore (erroneously referred to Jupiter), is equivalent to “ qui ei destinatus est.”—781. Hujus auspiciis. Referring to him as its founder.—783. Septemque una, &c. Referring to the seven hills on which Rome was built.
784. Berecyntia mater. “ The Berecyntian mother.” Referring to Cybele, called Berecyntia (Bepekvyria), from Mount Berecyntus in Phrygia, where she was particularly worshipped.—785. Turrita. “ Turret-crowned.” Cybele was the goddess of nature or of the earth, and hence her crown of towers is a type of the earth.-786. Lota Deúm partu. Cybele was the fabled mother of the gods.Complexa. “ Embracing," i. e. having. Equivalent to habens.—787. Supera alta tenentes. “Occupying the lofty mansions above." Supply loca, and compare the Homeric υπέρτατα δώματ' έχοντες. *789. Hic Cæsar. “Here (is) Cæsar." Alluding to Julius Cæsar. 790. Magnum coli ventura, &c., i.e. destined to come forth into the light of day.—792. Augustus Cæsar. This name is now applied by the poet to his imperial patron for the first time. It was assumed by him A.U.C. 727. By bringing him into immediate opposition with Romulus, Virgil prevents any parallel being drawn between the merits which he is pleased so poetically to ascribe to Augustus, and those of any other Roman.—Dici genus. “ The descendant of á god.” The same in effect as Diri Julii Cæsaris filius. Augustus was the adopted son of Julius Cæsar, having previously been his nephew.- Aurea condet sæcula, &c. “Who shall again establish the golden age in Latium.” It was established before him by Saturn. The allusion in the text is to the universal peace which Augustus established in the Roman world.
794. Super et Garamantas, &c. The preposition super has here the force of ultra. The Garamantes were a tribe in the interior of Africa, over whom some successes had been obtained by L. Cornelius Balbus. The mention of the Indi, on the other hand, refers to the arrival of an embassy from two kings of India (called, by Strabo, Porus and Pandion) unto Augustus when in Syria.—795. Jacet extra sidera tellus, &c. “That land lies,” &c. The reference is not to the country of either the Garamantes or the Indi, but to the land lying beyond these, in the remote south or south-east, unto which Augustus is to carry the glory of the Roman arms. Virgil probably had in view the country of Æthiopia, since this region had been partially overrun by the Roman troops under C. Petronius, in retaliation for an inroad made by the Æthiopians into Egypt under their queen Candace.—Sidera. The constellations of the zodiac are really meant. —796. Anni solisque vias. The path along which the sun is supposed to move in describing the circuit of the year ; an amplification of the idea contained in sidera.
797. Hujus in adventum, &c. “ Through dread of the coming of this one,” &c. The flattery here bestowed on Augustus accorded
well with his own superstitious feelings. The basis of the compliment appears in Suetonius (Vit. Aug. 94), where it is stated that a few months before the birth of Augustus, a prodigy occurred at Rome, by which it was indicated that “Nature was bringing forth a king for the Roman people.”—798. Caspia regna. Alluding in particular to the Parthians, whose territories to the north bordered on the southern shores of the Caspian. The alarm here ascribed to them contains an indirect allusion to one of the most glorious events of the reign of Augustus, his compelling, namely, the Parthians, by the terror of his name, to restore the standards taken by them on the overthrow of Crassus.—799. Mæotia tellus. “ The Mæotic land,” i. e. the Scythian tribes around the Palus Mæotis.--800. Septemgemini Nili. “ Of the sevenfold Nile.” Alluding to its seven mouths.-Turbant. 6. Are filled with alarm.” Supply sese. This poetic trouble of the mouths of the Nile is an allusion to the alarm that pervaded Egypt, when about to fall under the power of Augustus after the battle of Actium.
801. Nec vero Alcides, &c. According to the poet, neither Hercules nor Bacchus traversed so large a portion of earth as is that over which the glory and the arms of Augustus are destined to extend.—802. Fixerit æripedem licet, &c.“ Although he pierced the brazen-footed hind." This was the hind with brazen hoofs and golden horns, and which was so celebrated for its speed. Hercules was occupied a whole year in continually pursuing it.-Fixerit. Some commentators make a difficulty here. According to the common account, Hercules had to bring the animal alive to Eurystheus, and yet he is represented in the text as having transfixed it with an arrow. Servius, therefore, explains fixerit by statuerit, “he stopped," but this is extremely harsh ; and besides, Apollodorus expressly says, Totaúoac ovvéßala (ii. 5, 3). A partial wounding, in order to arrest the speed of the animal, appears to be out of the question ; since the arrows were all dipped in the venom of Hydra, and sure to prove mortal even in the case of a slight injury. The only way to solve the difficuly is by supposing that Virgil followed some other than the common account.
Aut Erymanthi. Alluding to the capture of the Erymanthian boar. -803. Et Lernam, &c. The destruction of the Hydra.
804. Nec qui pampineis, &c. Alluding to the expedition of Bacchus (Liber) into India and the remote East. The movements of this deity, on the occasion here referred to, were far more marvellous in reality than any of the warlike exploits of Augustus. Accompanied by Silenus, mounted on an ass, and followed by a train of Satyrs and Bacchants, he achieved the conquest of India without a blow. Virgil, however, contents himself here with merely representing the god in a chariot drawn by tigers, the reins covered with vine-leaves, and descending from Mount Meros, on which he has just founded the city of Nysa.–Pampineis. “ Covered with the leaves of the vine.”Juga flectit. “ Turns (or bends) the yoke,” i. e. directs the movements of the animals yoked to his car.—806. Et dubitamus adhuc, &c. The verb is in the plural, Anchises speaking of himself as well as his son ; but the latter alone is in reality meant.- Virtutem extendere factis. “ To extend our glory by our exploits.” So Servius.
808. Qui procul ille autem. The spirit of Numa Pompilius, the second king of the Romans, now appears in the distance. Qui for quis.-- Ramis insignis olivce. The olive was an emblem of peace, and
is here worn by Numa as a legislator and the founder of the Roman religion.—809. Sacra. “ The sacred utensils.”—Nosco crines, &c. “ I begin to discern.” Observe the peculiar force of nosco, and how well it harmonizes with the idea implied in procul. The spirit of Numa is first seen in the distance, and is then merely conspicuous for the olive crown which it wears; but, as it draws nearer, Anchises begins to recognise the individual features of the king.-- Incanaque menta. The gray locks and beard of Numa indicate that he was to reign to an advanced age.
811. Curibus parvis, &c. Cures was the native place of Numa, and a small town of the Sabines. The magnum imperium was Rome."
812. Cui deinde subibit, &c. Construe, cui deinde Tullus subibit, qui rumpet, &c.—813. Otia. “ The long repose,” i. e. the long repose enjoyed during the peaceful reign of Numa.—814. Tullus. Tullus Hostilius, the third king of Rome.—Triumphis. More graphic than bellis would have been.--815. Jactantior Ancus. “ The too vainglorious Ancus.” According to the account given by Servius from Pomponius Sabinus, Ancus, before his accession to the throne, was dissatisfied that Tullus should hold what he conceived to be of right his own, he being the grandson of Numa, a circumstance of which he used to boast, and therefore threw himself on the favour of the people, and determined to destroy the reigning monarch and all his family. This, however, can hardly be the true account. Niebuhr gives a better solution of the matter as follows: In the old poems Ancus bore the epithet of “the good ;” and as he is related to have parcelled out conquered lands among the people, this may have been the ground of the epi. thet. This same circumstance may, on the other hand, have induced the more aristocratic Virgil, from an ignorance of his true motives, to charge him with vanity and courting popular favour.
817. Tarquinios reges. “The monarchs of the Tarquinian line." Referring to Priscus and Superbus. No mention, it will be perceived, is made of Servius Tullius, the sixth king of Rome.-Animamque superbam, &c. Brutus is here called “the avenger," as having avenged both the wrongs of Lucretia and the cause of freedom.-818. Fascesque receptos. The fasces are here the badge of the highest authority, which passed from the hands of the kings into those of the consuls.-819. Sæcasque secures. Each bundle of fasces contained at first an axe, the fasces or rods for scourging, and the axe for beheading. The axes are here called “unrelenting,” because by them his own sons were beheaded.--820. Natosque pater, &c. When the two sons of Brutus were found guilty of plotting against the state, the father, as consul, not only ordered them to be put to death, but himself looked on and saw the sentence put into execution.- Nora bella moventes, i. e. conspiring for the restoration of the Tarquins.
822. Infelix! utcunque, &c. “Unhappy (parent)! in whatever light posterity shall regard these deeds, (still with thee) love of country shall conquer (the feelings of a father),” &c. It would seem from this, that in Virgil's time, at least, there was a difference of opinion with regard to this startling deed.-- Minores. Supply natu. -823. Laudum. The praises of the good, and of all, in fact, who value country above every other consideration.
824. Decios. The two Decii, father and son, who devoted themselves for their country, the former in a war with the Latins, the latter in one with the Etrurians and Gauls. There was a third Decius, who imitated this heroic conduct of his ancestors in the war