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moment), and not to be remedied (afterward) by retracing one's steps, rendered of no avail (all) the marks of the way.” Heyne well observes, that this description of the labyrinth is a kind of labyrinth in itself.

Altâ. An epithet applied to Crete, from Ida and its other mountains.-Labyrinthus. A name given by the ancients to a species of structure, full of intricate passages and windings, so that, when once entered, it was next to impossible for an individual to extricate himself without the assistance of a guide. One of the most famous of these was that in Crete.-589. Parietibus. To be pronounced, in scanning, as a word of four syllables : Par-yetibus. Cæcis. Cutting off the view entirely, so that one could form no idea whatever of the length or direction of the path.- Ancipitem dolum. Equivalent to iter dolosum.

590. Sequendi put for sequendi viam, or simply procedendi.-591. Falleret. Observe the force of the subjunctive, * frustrated," or “ rendered of no avail," as is said.

592. Haud aliter Teuorúm nati, &c. “ Just so the sons of the Trojans ride through and cross each other's path.” Literally, “ impede in their (onward) course one another's career.”—593. Texuntque fugas et proelia ludo. “And with intricate movements represent flights and battles in sport.” Observe the peculiar force of texunt here, as in line 589. The metaphor is borrowed from the interlacing threads of a web.-594. Delphinum similes. “ Like dolphins," i. e. to the movements and habits of dolphins. Similis takes the dative of external resemblance, but the genitive of resemblance in nature, habit, or internal constitution. Delphinum, genitive plural of delphin.-595. Carpathium Libycumque secant. Supply pelagus. The Carpathian Sea lay to the north-east of Crete, in the vicinity of the island of Carpathus ; the Libyan Sea, between Crete and the coast of Africa. Hence the poet describes the dolphins as passing rapidly from the Carpathian into the neighbouring Libyan Sea, and again, with equal rapidity, from the Libyan into the Carpathian. Hence the peculiar propriety of the epithets Carpathium and Libycum; and hence, too, the conjunction que is by no means to be taken as a disjunctive, re, as some commentators fancy.-Luduntque per undas. These words do not appear in some MSS.

597. Longam Albam. “ Alba Longa.”—598. Retulit. “ Removed.” -599. Ipsé. Supply celebracerat. So, again, with pubes.—600. With suos supply pueros.-601. Patrium honorem. “This honoured institution of our fathers.”-602. Trojaque nunc pueri, &c. And the sport is now called Troy, the boys (themselves) are called the Trojan band.” Equivalent to ludicrum illud nunc dicitur Troja, pueri id ludentes dicuntur Trojanum agmen. The verb with which pueri agrees is therefore understood. Thiel, following the punctuation of Jahn, who merely places a final stop at the end of the line, with no intermediate commas, translates : « And this Trojan band of the boy (Ascanius) is still called Troy.

603. Hâc celebrata tenus, &c. “Thus far were the games celebrated in honour of his deified father.” By tmesis, for hâc tenus celebrata, &c.-604. Fortuna fidem mutata nocavit. “ Fortune, having become changed, altered her faith.” Fortune is personified as a friend on whom Eneas had relied for favour and protection. She now changes sides, alters her faith, and proves treacherous.—The historical ground for the narrative which follows, respecting the burning of some of the Trojan ships, may be seen in Dionysius of Halicarnassus (i. 52). Compare Heyne's sixth Excursus to the present book.

605. Dum variis referunt, &c. “While they are celebrating the solemn rites at the tomb (of Anchises) with various sports.” Literaliy, “ while they are rendering," i. e. to the shade of Anchises.—607. Ventosque aspirat eunti. “And breathes (favouring) winds upon her as she goes," i. e. to waft her on her way.—608. Multa movens. “ Meditating many schemes in mind.”

609. Illa ..... virgo. “She, the maiden.” The pronoun ille is often, like the Homeric ő and aútós, so placed in the early part of a sentence as to indicate obscurely the subject, which is itself brought in after an interval of some words. Wagner, Qucest. Virg. xxi. 7.Per mille coloribus arcum. “Along her bow of a thousand hues.” The bow is here her pathway from heaven to earth.-613. Secretce. According to ancient custom, women were not allowed to be spectators at the games. Hence secretae, literally, “separated (from the men),” secretve a viris.-Actâ. From åktń (Æolic äkta), derived from äyw,“ to break," and denoting the place where the billows break. “ The beach.”

615. Aspectabant. “Were gazing earnestly upon.” Observe the force of the frequentative.- Heu! tot vada fessis, &c. “Ah! (to think) that so many shoals, so much of ocean remains for us wearied, was the one common cry of all.”-617. Urbem. “A fixed abode.” Equivalent to sedem certam.Pelagi laborem. “ The hardships of the deep."

619. Et faciemque dece, &c. “And lays aside both the look and the attire of a goddess." Vestem refers here to the flowing robes of a being of the other world, which, in the case of Iris, were of rain. bow hue. Compare what is said of Venus (i. 404): “pedes vestis defluxit ad imos."-620. Ismarii conjux, &c. “ The aged wife of the "Thracian Doryclus.” Heinsius, on the authority of some good MSS., reads Tmnarii, as indicating a native of Epirus, Tmarus or Tomarus being a mountain of Epirus, at the foot of which stood Dodona. As, however, Beroë is afterward called “ Rhoeteia," i. e. Trojana, Ouwens and Ruhnken give the preference to Ismarii, the reading of Servius and the common text.—621. Cui genus, et quondam, &c, “Who once had rank (from family), and reputation, and offspring." Observe the elegant use of the subjunctive in fuissent, assigning, as it were, the reason why Iris had assumed the form of this female ; so that we may, in fact, render the clause," because she once had rank, &c.

23. Quas non manus, &c. “ In that no Grecian hand dragged you to death in war,” &c. Observe, again, the force of the subjunctive in traxerit, assigning the reason for their being deserving of pity.–626. Jam vertitur. “ Is now passing away.”—627. Cum freta, cum terras, &c. “ Since we are borne along, having traversed seas, having traversed every land, having passed so many inhospitable rocks, and beneath so many stars." -Saxa. The lonely and barren rocks of ocean.—628. Sidera. So Wagner. The different constellations by which their long wanderings over the deep were affected, either for good or for evil. Some commentators make it signify “ tempests ;" others, “ regions” in different latitudes. Both of these appear unsatisfactory.- 629. Fugientem. “Ever fleeing from us."

631, Quis prohibet, &c. “Who prevents our erecting walls ?" Jacere muros, equivalent to ponere or exstruere muros, the leading idea being borrowed from the well-known plırase, jacere fundamenta.-We

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have given quis, with Wagner, instead of quid, with Heyne. The former accords better with what immediately precedes: “Hic Erycis finis fraterni,” &c., and is the same as saying, “nemo igitur prohibebit.”

633. Trojæ. “Those of Troy.”—634. Hectoreos is equivalent to Trojanos, as indicating rivers to which a Trojan colony shall give names derived from their native land.

638. Jam tempus agit res. “ The occasion now impels the deed," i. e. the present opportunity is so favourable a one as of itself to prompt the design. Heyne and others read agi res, which they explain by agendæ rei; but the common reading appears more forcible and natural.

639. Nec tantis mora prodigiis. “Nor let there be any delay unto portents so manifest as these,” i. e. which point out so plainly what we are to do. She refers to the things seen by her in the dream. With mora supply sit.- En quatuor aro Neptuno. A sacrifice appears to have been offered to Neptune before the games commenced, probably to obtain a favourable voyage, and the brands were still burning on the altars. But why four altars ? Servius gives two answers to this question, neither of which is very satisfactory : either, namely, the commanders of the four ships erected each one before entering on the race; or else Cloanthus reared all four, in fulfilment of his vow (line 233, seqq.).—640. Animumque. “And courage for the attempt.”

642. Procul connixa coruscat. “Having exerted all her strength, she brandishes and hurls it from afar.” Coruscat conveys with it the idea of a gleaming brand, kindled into a bright blaze by being rapidly whirled around before it is thrown. Corusco, though usually neuter, is here employed in an active sense,

646. Non Beroë vobis. “This is not Beroë that you have here.”Rhoeteïa. Equivalent to Trojana, from Rhæteum, a promontory of Troas, on the shore of the Hellespont.-647. Divini signa decoris. “ The marks of divine beauty.” Decor denotes in fact all that constitutes the outward grace and becomingness of divinity, and embraces the ardentes oculi, the spiritus, the cultus, &c.—648. Ardentesque oculos. Trapp conveys the meaning of this very happily : “ the lightning of her eyes.”—Qui spiritus illi. “What' heavenly dignity is hers." Some, with less propriety, refer spiritus to the ambrosial perfume that marked the presence of a divinity.

650. Dudum. “Not long since.”—652. Nec inferret. “And could not pay.Inferre here properly conveys the idea of burning offerings or tokens of honour at one's tomb.

654. Oculis malignis. “ With lowering looks.”—656. Præsentis terræ. Sicily.--Vocantia regna, Italy.-658. Ingentemque fuga secuit, &c. i. e. formed a mighty bow as she cleaved the air in her flight. The bow was her pathway in descending from the skies, and she now returns on the same. Secuit arcum, therefore, is the same as secando aëra fecit arcum, or, incessit per arcum.

659. Monstris. “At the mighty prodigy.” Observe the force of the plural.-660. Focis penetralibus. “From the inmost hearths (of the adjacent dwellings).” So Heyne. The fire on the altar was not sufficient for their purposes.—661. Spoliant aras. “Rifle the altars,” is e. take what brands were thereon, as also the garlands and boughs with which they were adorned.-662. Furit immissis, &c. “The fire rages with loosened reins,” i. e. with violence. A metaphor borrowed

from the fierce rapidity of coursers, when no longer checked by the rein.-Vulcanus. Put for ignis, by metonymy.-663. Pictas abiete puppes. « The painted sterns of fir.” Abiete to be pronounced, in scanning, as ab-yete.

664. Cuneosque theatri, i. e. the seats of the verdant enclosure where the games were witnessed. The poet applies a term here (cuneos) which properly suited, rather, a building erected for exhibitions. The seats were so divided, by passages diverging upward from a common centre, as to form compartments resembling wedges, or cones with the top cut off.—665. Incensas naces. “ The tidings that the ships have been set on fire.”Ipsi. The assemblage at the games.—666. Respiciunt. “See behind them in the distance)." Equivalent to a tergo conspiciunt.

668. Sic. “ Accoutred as he was.”—669. Castra. Referring to the naval encaipment, or the place where the ships were drawn up.670. Iste. “Is this of yours ?” Observe the force of iste, as the pronoun of the second person.—671. Miseræ cides. “My wretched countrywomen.”—672. V estras spes uritis. With your ships you consume all your hopes, for without them you cannot reach Italy.

673. Inanem. As now for the moment ceasing to be a covering for his head.- 674. Quâ ludo indutus. “ Wearing which in sport.”

676. Diversa litora. For diversas litoris partes. 677. Sicubi. “ Wherever there are any." Literally, “if there be such anywhere."

678. Piget incepti, &c. “ They loathe the deed (but a moment before) begun, as well as the light of day.”-679. Excussaque pectore, &c. Juno, the cause of their fury, was dislodged from their breasts; in allusion to the prophesying priestesses, who recovered themselves when they had dislodged the spirit by which they had been possessed.

681. Udo sub robore, &c. “ The oakum keeps burning beneath the wetted timber, vomiting forth the slow-rolling smoke ; while the lingering fire preys upon the ships, and the destroying element descends throughout the whole frame of the vessel.”—Udo. Wetted by the hands of those who strive to conquer the fire.-Virit. A beautiful expression, for ignem alit.—683. Est. From ědo, “ to consume,” &c.

685. Humeris abscindere cestein. A sign of extreme distress common to the Greeks, Romans, and most of the Oriental nations.- 687. Si nondum exosus, &c. “If thou dost not yet hate the Trojans to a man.” Literally, “if thou art not yet one hating the Trojans to a man.” Supply es with exosus, which last, though passive in form, is here active in meaning. So solitus sum, from soleo.—688. Pietas antiqua. “ Thy former compassion.”

691. Quod superest. “What now alone remains," i. e. to fill up the measure of misfortune. Compare xii. 643, “Id rebus defuit unum." -694. Sine more. “ Violently." Literally, “in an unusual manner.” -695. Ardua terrarum. “The mountains.” Supply loca.-697. Super. “From above.” Put for desuper.Madescunt. “Begin to be soaked through.” Sēmiusta, in scanning, is to be pronounced sēmusta, dropping the i, or else sēm-yusta.—698. Vapor. Put again for ignis.

702. Versans. “ Deliberating within himself.”—703. Oblitus fatorum. “Forgetful of the fates," i. e. of the realms promised to him by the fates in Italy, Meierotto doubts whether, on this occasion, Æneas does not also forget himself. Such lamentations and despair would better suit a female. The excuse is, that he may have perceived that the women's fury was divinely inspired, and may have suspected that their husbands partook of the same sentiments.-Italasne capesseret oras. “Or whether he should attempt to reach the Italian shores."

704. Tum senior Nautes. We learn from Dionysius of Halicarnassus (vi. 69), and also from Servius, that there was a Nautian family among the Romans which derived its origin from Nautes, or Nautias, a priest of Minerva. This Nautes, the same, probably, with the one mentioned in the text, had saved, it was said, the Palladium from the sack of Troy, and was, therefore, intrusted with the care of it by Æneas. The Nautian family still enjoyed this privilege in the reign of Augustus.

Unum. “In an especial degree.” Equivalent to præcipue. Compare note on ii. 426.—705. Multâ arte. “For his great skill (in prophecy).”—706. Hæc responsa dabat, &c. “Gave forth these responses, (declaring) as well what the mighty wrath of the gods portended, as what the settled order of the fates required.” The wrath of the gods was seen in the burning of the ships; the settled order of the fates required, in common with this wrath, that all the Trojans should not reach Italy, but that some should be left behind in the island of Sicily.—708. Isque. This serves to continue the sentence, which had been partially interrupted at vel quæ, &c.

710. Quidquid erit, &c. “Whatever shall befall us.” Compare Horace Od. xxiv. 1, 19): “Levius fit patientia, quidquid corrigere est nefas.”—711. Divince stirpis. Acestes was of “divine origin," since he was the son of the river-god Crimisus ; and he was also one of the descendants of Dardanus, who derived his origin from Jupiter.

713. Amissis superant qui navibus. “ Those who are now superfluous from the loss of the ships," i. e. the crews of the four ships that were burned.Et quos pertæsum. “And those who are tired of.” Supply est.—718. Urbem appellabunt, &c. “ They shall call the city Acesta by a permitted name," i. e. giving it that name with the permission of Acestes. This is the city known in after days under the name of Ægesta or Segesta.

721. Bigis subrecta. “Borne slowly onward in her two-horse chariot.”——722. Facies. The mere apparition, or tidwlov, of Anchises ; for the soul of the deceased hero was in the Elysian fields.

725. Iliacis exercite fatis, i. e. who, in the destruction of Troy, and thy subsequent wanderings, hast been severely tried by the will of heaven.—728. Quce nunc pulcherrima. “Which now, most excellent of their kind.”

735. Colo. I dwell amid.” Last vowel preserved from elision by the cæsural pause. This descent of Æneas to the lower world has been already predicted by Helenus (iii. 441).—Casta Sibylla, i. e. a virgin prophetess.—736. Nigrarum pecudum. Victims of a black colour were accustomed to be offered to the gods of the lower world.

738. Torquet medios Nox humida, &c. Night, having ascended to the meridian in her chariot, is now beginning to move along her downward course. Compare note on ii. 9.–739. Et me scous, &c. According to the popular belief that ghosts disappear at early dawn. -Sovus. Because he compels the shades to return to the gloom of the lower world.

744. By the penetralia Vestve are here meant the Penates in the shrine of Vesta.—745. Farre. See note on ü. 133.- Acerrâ. In making Æneas burn incense, Virgil follows the custom of his own time rather than historic verity. Incense, according to Pliny, was unknown in heroic times.

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