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winged thunderbolt.” Literally, “the wings of the thunderbolt." So we say in English," the winged lightning.”
320. Longo sed proximus intervallo." But next by a long interval," i. e, a long space intervening.–321. Spatio post deinde relicto, &c. “ Then, a space being left after (this one).” Literally, “a space being left behind;" post being, in fact, an adverb here.—323. Quo deinde sub ipso. “And then close after him.” Literally, "close after which same one.” Observe here the peculiar force of sub. 324. a
“And now, pressing on his shoulder, he rubs heel against heel.” A graphic description of a well-contested race. Helymus is only one step in advance of Diores, who runs closely by his side, and seems to lean or press on one of Helymus's shoulders; the foremost foot, moreover, of Diores is close on a line with the hindmost foot of Helymus, and grazes it, as it were : calu calcem terit, “ heel rubs against heel.”
325. Spatia et si plura supersint, &c.“ And had more stages of the course remained, he would, in all likelihood, having glided ahead, have passed (the other), or would have left (the race) a doubtful one.” The Latin employs the present tense, supersint, transeat, relinquat, as describing an action passing before the eyes at the tinie. Our English idiom requires the past tense. Observe, also, the use of the subjunctive here to mark a highly probable result.—Spatia plura. The spatia here were only two in number.
327. Spatio extremo. “In the last stage,” i: e. near the termination of the second spatium, and, of course, near the end of the race itself.-Sub ipsam finem adventabunt. « They were rapidly drawing near to the very end (of the race)." Heyne considers the race merely a single one, namely, from the starting-place to the meta, the party that reached the meta first being, as he thinks, the conqueror. We follow the idea of Wagner, who makes the race a double one; so that the term finem will mark the starting-place, to which the racers return after doubling the meta.
329. Ut. Equivalent, here, to ubi. So Catullus, xi. 3; “ Litus ut longe resonante Foâ tunditur unda.--330. Super. For superne.
331. Jam dictor ovans, i, e. already exulting as if now victorious.. Vestigia presso haud tenuit, &c. “ Kept not his steps, slipping (from under him),” &c.-332. Titubata. For titubantia. A bold use of the past participle passive of an intransitive verb for the present participle.
334. Amorum. Observe the force of the plural, as denoting the reciprocal affection of two friends.-335. Per lubrica. “ On the slippery place." Supply loca.-336. Ille autem. Salius.—Jacuit. We would naturally expect the present here, but the perfect expresses better the celerity of his fall.–Recolutus. “ Rolled backward."-337. Munere. “ Through the kind aid."-338. Prima tenet. “Holds the first place," i. e. is foremost in the race. Supply loca.
340. Hic totum cavece, &c. “ Hereupon, Salius fills the whole assembly of the spacious pit, and the front seats of the fathers, with loud outcries.” Cavea properly indicates the whole body of seats in the Roman theatre that were occupied by the commonalty. The equites sat in front of these, and the senate in front of the equites. Hence prima ora patrum, literally, “the foremost faces of the fathers." -343. Faror. “ Popular favour.”—Lacrymæque decoræ. “And his becoming tears." He begs with tears that the victory may not be taken from him and given to another.-344. Gratior et pulchro, &c. “ And merit coming forth more lovely to the view in a beauteous form." Heyne makes teniens equivalent to quos est. This, however, is not correct.
345. Qui subiit palmæ, &c. “ Who succeeded to a prize, and came in for the last reward in vain." The first three were each of them to have a prize (compare line 308); so that Diores, who was next to Helymus, was entitled to the last prize only in case Salius should be set aside, and Euryalus be allowed to have the first.
349. Pueri. “ Young warriors."-Et palmam mocet, &e. “And no one moves the prize from its order, i. e. and no one disturbs the order in which the prizes have been gained.-Palmam. This refers not to the main prize, but to the one which each has obtained in order.-350. Me liceat casus, &c. “Let it be allowed me, (however), to commiserate the hard lot of a friend who has not merited his misfortune.” Me the accusative before miserari. Some MSS. however, read mi in the dative, contracted for mihi, and depending on liceat.
352. Villis onerosum, &c. The furs of lions and other wild beasts were worn in ancient times by persons of distinction, and the claws used sometimes to be gilt, for ornament and show.-355. Laude. “ By my merit," i. e. in point of merit.—356. Ni me quce Salium, &c. “ Had not (the same) hostile fortune borne me (away from it), that did Salius."
359. Didymaonis artes. “The skilful workmanship of Didymaon.” Observe the force of the plural in artes, i. e. in the construction of which he exhausted all the resources of his art. Of Didymaon as an artist nothing is known. The name is probably an imaginary one.360. Neptuni sacro, &c. “ Taken down by the Greeks from the sacred door-post of Neptune.” The reference appears to be to some votive shield, Trojan, of course, which had been carried off by the Greeks in the sack of Troy, but had come back again into the hands of Æneas, through Helenus, who had given them this, among other presents, at parting. Forbiger and Thiel, however, make Danais here not the ablative, but the dative of disadvantage, and suppose the shield to have been a Grecian one, taken by Æneas himself from some Grecian temple in the course of his wanderings.
362. Et dona peregit. “And he had gone through with the prizes," i. e. with the distribution of them.-363. By animus præsens is here meant a cool and ready spirit to meet any sudden emergency in the conflict.-364. Et evinctis attollat, &c. “And let him raise on high his arins, the palms of his hands being bound (with the cestus).” See note on line 69.-366. Velatum auro, &c. “ Decked with gold and fillets," i. e, having the horns gilded, and fillets around the brow, It was customary to adorn the oxen with fillets, and to gild their horns, both when they were designed for sacrifice, and also when they were to be given away as rewards of merit.
368. Effert ora. “ Displays his visage."-370. Paridem. Even Hector is represented as inferior to Paris at the cestus.—371. Quo maximus occubat Hector. “Where the mighty Hector lies.” According to Dares Phrygius, whose statement, however, is pure fable, there svas a truce for two months between the Trojan and Grecian armies after the death of Hector ; and during this time funeral games were celebrated by the former at Hector's tomb. At these games Virgil represents Dares as present, and victorious with the cestus.
372. Qui se Bebryciâ veniens, &c. “Who, as coming from the Bebrycian nation of Amyeus, was wont to boast thereof." Equivalent to qui se venientem ferebat. The Bebrycians, the primitive settlers of Bithynia, were famous for their skill in boxing. Amycus was one of their ancient kings, and was slain in a boxing-match by Pollux. The meaning, therefore, merely is, that Butes boasted of his belonging to a nation famed for pugilism, or, in other words, of his own acquaintance with the art. Some make gente refer to descent from Amycus; but this is inferior.
376. Alterna. “ One after the other.”—379. Adire. “To encounter.”-Manibusque inducere cestus. “And to draw the cestus on his hands.”
380. Excedere palma. “ Withdrew from the prize,” ¿. e. yielded it to him without a contest.-384. Quce finis standi ?“ What end shall there be of my standing here ?" Observe the feminine gender in finis, and compare ii. 554.-384. Quo me decet, &c. “How long is it fitting that I should be detained ?" For quousque me decet teneri. The term decet is stronger here than oportet, as indicating what is fitting and right.
385. Ducere dona jube. “Order me to lead away the prizes." He stands ready with his hand on the horn of the steer, waiting for the order to lead it away as his own.- Ore fremebant.“ Raised a loud cry (of assent).”—386. Reddique viro, &c. “And expressed the wish that the promised (prizes) be given to the man.” Jubeo has here its primitive meaning, “ to desire," “ to express one's wish," as opposed to retare, « to forbid.” Compare Crombie's Gymnasium, vol. i.
387. Gradis. Commonly rendered “aged," and regarded as an epithet of Acestes. Heyne, however, gives it the force of an adverb, graciter, and connects it with castigat, “ heavily chides." Wagner and Jacobs are both in favour of this latter interpretation, and it certainly ought to be preferred to the other.–388. Consederat, the pluperfect in the sense of the imperfect.
389. Frustra. “ In vain,” i. e. if now thou remainest inactive, and dost allow this boaster to triumph.-391. Ubi nunc nobis, &c. “Where now for us is that divine hero, (that) Eryx, to no purpose called thy instructor (in pugilistic art)?” Nobis used by a colloquial idiom of the Latin, and hardly translatable in our tongue. It is almost the same as saying, “ Where are we now to look for that fame of thine as a pugilist, derived from Eryx, thine illustrious instructor in the art ?" Eryx, son of Venus, was famous for his pugilistic skill; and from this, as well as from his origin on the mother's side, he is here called deus ille. He was the instructor of Entellus in the art of boxing.-392. Ubi fama per omnem, &c. “Where is that fame of thine spread throughout the whole of Sicily ?" i. e. thy fame as a pugilist.—393. Spolia. The trophies won by him in pugilistic encounters.
394. Ille sub hæc. “To these things the other instantly replies." Observe the peculiar force of sub with the accusative, as indicating quickness of time.-395. Pulsa. “ Driven from my bosom."-Sed enim gelidus, &c. “ But (I hesitate from another cause), for my chilled blood flows in dull current,” &c.
399. Haud equidem pretio, &c. i. e. I would have engaged in this encounter without caring for a prize.
402. Quibus acer Eryx, &c. *“ With which the impetuous Eryx was wont to engage in close conflict, and with the stiff hide (of these) to brace his arms." Ferre manum in prælia is nothing more than manum conserere ; and so, again, intendere brachia tergo is merely
equivalent to induere cestum.—403. Duroque tergo. Supply eorum. Tergo for tergore.
404. Tantorum ingentia septem, &c. “Seven huge thongs of such thick ox-hides stiffened (on the view), with lead and iron sewed in." -408. Longeque recusat. “And standing afar off, refuses to fight," i. e, shrinks back and declines the conflict. Servius, who is followed by Heyne, makes longe equivalent merely to valde; but by this explanation half the force of the term is lost. The word is meant to be a graphic one, and we have translated it accordingly. The same idea is adopted by Voss : “ Mehr noch staunt selbst Dares sie an, der ferne zurückstürzt."
408. Observe the zeugma in versat, which verb, when connected with pondus, has the force of examinat, or explorat. Æneas first ascertains the weight of the gauntlets, by lifting them from the ground : and then he tries their fitness for pugilistic encounters by wielding them to and fro. Heyne understands by vinclorum volumina the thongs by which the cestus was attached to the arm ; but Wagner, with more propriety, makes these words mean the thongs and cestus both included, for the whole cestus was nothing, in fact, but one long thong.
409. Senior. “ The aged (Entellus).”—410. Quid, si quis cestus, &c. “ What, if any one (of you) had seen the gauntlets and arms of Hercules himself ?" i.e. the gauntlets with which Hercules himself was wont to arm his hands.-411. Tristem. Alluding to the conflict between Hercules and Eryx, in which Eryx lost his life.
412. Germanus tuus. Addressed to Aneas. Eryx was born of the same mother with Æneas, namely, the goddess Venus ; hence he is here styled the germanus of the Trojan hero. According to Varro, germanus meant originally a brother by the same mother, but of a different father, so that it is here used in its primitivo sense. More commonly, however, those are called germani who are the offspring of the same father and mother.-414. His. “With these,” i. e. having his hands bound with these. His ego suetus. “ With these I myself was accustomed to contend).” Supply pugnare.—415. Æmula necdum, &c., i. e. nor had old age as yet scattered gray hairs over my temples.
418. Idque pio sedet Ænece, &c. “And if this (determination) remains fixed unto the pious Æneas."- Probat auctor Acestes. “If Acestes, the adviser (of this combat), approve."
419. Erycis tibi terga remitto. “I'lay aside for thee the hides of Eryx,” i, e. the cestus of Eryx. Tibi the dative of advantage.—421. Duplicem amictum. “His double garment.” Servius makes this the same with the abolla, a woollen cloak which was probably only a varied form of the pallium.
422. Lacertus, as Crombie has shown, means the upper part of the arm, from the elbow to the shoulder. This is the most muscular portion of the arm, and is therefore employed here to carry with it the idea of strength. Not unfrequently, the word is used to denote strength itself; as in Horace (Ep. ii. 2, 47): “ Cæsaris Augusti non responsura lacertis.” –423. Ecuit. “ Laid bare.” Supply deste.
426. Constitit in digitos arrectus. “Stood erect on tiptoe.” This was done, both in order to plant a blow with more effect, by throwing forward the weight of the body, and to avoid a blow with more ease by springing back.-Digitos. Supply pedum.-428. Retro longe ab ictu. In order to avoid the coming or threatened blow of the antagonist.-429. Pugnamque lacessunt. “And provoke the fight." Equivalent to the modern pugilistic term,“ sparring.” The expression is a figurative one, borrowed from the movements of a pitched battle, where the two armies commonly begin the attack by slight skirmishes, until martial fury is completely aroused.
430. Ille. Dares.-431. Membris et mole ralens. “Powerful in limbs and buik," i. e. in bulky limbs. Hendiadys, for mole membrorum.—431. Sed tarda trementi, &c. “But his enfeebled knees totter unto him trembling (beneath the weight of years).” Consult Metrical Index.
433. Vulnera equivalent here to ictus. — 435. Errat crebra. “ Wanders rapidly." Literally, crebra agrees with manus, “ the frequent hand wanders.”
437. Stat graris. “Stands firm.”—438. Corpore tela modo, &c. “Only with his body and watchful eyes he avoids the (coming) blows.” Entellus does not change his position, but avoids the blows aimed at him partly by parrying, and partly by the inclination of his body.—Tela. Figuratively applied to the blows that come thick and fast, like so many missiles.-Exit. A gladiatorial term, equivalent to eritat.
439. Ille. “The other.” Dares.—Molibus. “With machines of war.” Equivalent to machinis.-442. Et variis, &c. “And fruitlessly presses on in various assaults.”- Arte. By employing all the expedients which the art of war suggests. So Dares tries every pugilistic art against his antagonist.
443. Insurgens. “ Rising on tiptoe.”_444. A vertice. " Downward.”—446. Ultro equivalent here to non prostratus ab adversario.
460. Consurgunt studiis. “ Arise in a body, with eager feelings ;" the Trojans rejoicing at the success of their champion, the Sicilians sympathizing with the misfortune of the other.-452. At humo attollit. By the laws of the combat, if one of the parties fell, his antagonist was not to take advantage thereof, but to allow him to rise again and renew the encounter.
455. Conscia virtus, for virtutis conscientia. “A consciousness of prowess.” 456. Æquore toto. “Over the whole lists."-457. Nunc ille sinistra. “Now in like manner with his left.” The usage of the pronoun ille here is peculiar to the Greek and Latin idiom, and is regarded as a great elegance. It serves to render the clause more graphic and vivid. Commonly rendered “in like manner," or
458. Quam multa grandine, &c. “ With as much hail as the storm-clouds rattle on the house-tops, with so many thick-coming blows does the hero in rapid succession batter and drive Dares about the field.”
463. Fessum imports here much more than lassum, and conveys the idea of one worn out and fast sinking beneath the onset of another. 466. Non vires alias, &c. “Dost thou not perceive far other strength (than what thou didst expect to encounter), and adverse deities," i. e, and the fortune of the fight completely changed.—467. Cede déo. “ Yield to the god,” i. e. that favours thy antagonist.Dixitque et diremit. “He both said and (at the same moment) put an end to," &c.
468. Fidi æquales. “His faithful companions." The idea is well expressed by Trapp : “His mates, officious to their vanquished friend,” i. e. showing their attachment by kind offices, and faithful to him in his misfortune.-469. Jactantemque utroque caput. “ And