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205. Concusso cautes. “ The cliffs were shaken (with the blow)." This is only saying, in other words, that the galley received a violent shock, since action is equal to reaction.-Murice. This term properly means a species of shell-fish, here, however, a sharp point of rock on a level with the water, or a kind of coral-formation.--206. Pependit. The prow striking and fixing itself on the rocks, appeared, as it rose from the water, to hang from them, the motion of the water swaying the body of the vessel to and fro.
207. Consurgunt. “Arise in a body.”—Morantur. “Strive to force her back.” Å nautical term. Servius explains it by “retro agunt.” -208. Ferratasque trudes, &c. “They bring out both iron-shod stakes,” &c. We have preferred trudes, with Heinsius and Wagner, to the common form sudes. The former is found in several good MSS., and though the verb trudo, from which it is derived, has a long penult, still this can form no valid objection. On the other hand, the sudes merely had their ends burned to a point, and were never shod with iron.
211. Agmine remorum celeri. “With a quick and regular movement of his oars.” The oars keep time like an army on its march.-Ventisque vocatis. “And the winds being invoked to his aid," i. e. and having hoisted sail.—212. Prona petit maria, &c. “Seek the prone sea (in unobstructed course), and runs along the open deep." "The sea, as it lies before him free from any obstructions, is compared to a smooth and shelving plain, that will carry him onward with accelerated progress.
213. Spelunca. “From her covert.”—214. By pumex is here meant a rock resembling pumice, from the many coverts or lurkingplaces eaten into it.-Nidi. The reference is, in fact, to the tenants of the nest, or her young ones, and hence the employment of the epithet dulces, and also of the plural number-215. Plausumque exterrita, &c. “ And, scared from her abode, gives forth a loud flapping with her wings.”--217. Radit iter liquidum. “She skims along her liquid way." This is all true to nature. The bird, when she begins her flight, makes a loud flapping, but presently she glides along 80 quietly as not to appear to move her pinions at all. The first agitation of the galley, occasioned by the increased exertions of the rowers, with her subsequent smooth progress through the open sea, could not have been more happily illustrated. Observe in line 217 the beautiful effect of the dactylic rhythm in representing the celerity of the wild dove's flight.
218. Fuga secat ultima æquora. “ Cleaves in her flight the furthest portion of the sea,” i. e. that part of the sea which lay around the meta, and marked, of course, the limit of departure from the startingplace, after reaching which, the vessels had to double the meta and return.
220. Deserit. “He leaves behind.”- Alto. This epithet does not imply that the rock in question was of any great height in itself. It is almost a repetition of the saxa procurrentia mentioned in line 204.
221. Brevibusque cadis. “And amid the scantily-covered shallows." These lay around the rock, and were covered with hardly any water at all. Jacobs makes them to have been mere sand-flats.-222. Discentem currere. “Trying to run on.” Alluding to Menetes.
225. Ipso in fine. “ At the very end of the race." The prize was to be won by the vessel which, after passing around the meta, returned first to port. Cloanthus, having doubled the goal, is now near the harbour, and, of course, “ ipso in fine.”—226. Quem petit. “Him he makes fór.” Quem, equivalent to illum.- Urguet. “Presses closely upon.”—227. Cunctique sequentem, &c., i. e. urge on Mnestheus, as he presses closely upon Cloanthus.
229. Hi proprium decus, &c. “ These are indignant should they not retain their own glory, and the honour (already) in their grasp." Hi, Cloanthus and his crew. They consider the victory (honorem) as now fairly their own, and are indignant at the idea of having it wrested from them at the very close of the contest.-231. Hos sucCessus alit, &c. “Those success feeds (with fresh hopes); they are able (to conquer) because they seem to be able,” i. e. their recent success supports the crew of Mnestheus in the fresh exertions which they now make; victory seems easy of attainment, because they have confidence in themselves.
233. Palmas ponto tendens, &c. The usual gesture in praying to a deity of ocean. . According to Servius, palmas utrasque is the antique form for palmam utramque.—234. Divosque in vota vocásset. “And invoked the gods unto his vows," i. e. to listen to his vows.
236. Lotus ego, poti reus, &c. “With joy will I, bound to a fulfilment of my vow, place for you," &c. A person is said to be reus ooti who has undertaken a vow on a certain condition ; and when that condition is fulfilled, then he is damnatus coti, or potis, i. e, the gods sentence or order him to fulfil his vow.-238. Porriciam. An old religious term, which the copyists have sometimes corrupted into proiiciam. The latter, however, is an ill-omened term, since it sometimes carries with it the idea of contemning or neglecting, and would therefore, of course, not be employed.-Liquentia. Heyne regards this as a mere ornamental epithet, in the sense of “liquid.” Trapp gives it the meaning of limpid, clear, or pure. Heyne is to be preferred. Liquentia from liquo, -ěre, not from liqueo, -ēre.
240. Phorcus, or Phorcys (ópkos, bópkus), was a sea-deity, the son of Pontus and Terra, and brother of Nereus. The Tritons and other inferior deities of the ocean composed his train. Consult line 823.-Panopea. One of the chiefs of the Nereïds.
241. Pater. An appellation given in general to all divinities.Portunus. Called also Portumnus. According to Varro, he was the god of harbours. By the Greeks he was termed Palæmon, and also Melicertes.—Euntem impulit. “ Impelled the vessel on her way."243. Et portu se condidit alto. Poetically for intravit portum. Observe the use of the perfect condidit) to indicate a rapid act; and compare iv. 582.
244. Cunctis ex more vocatis, i. e. all the spectators being called together by a herald, according to the custom prevalent at such games.—246. Declarat. “ Proclaims." We have here an imitation of the custom followed at the great games of Greece, where the victor was always proclaimed by the voice of a herald.
247. Muneraque in nades, &c. “And, as presents for the ships, he gives to choose three young steers each, and wine in abundance, and a great talent of silver to bear away.” This permission to choose was given to the crews of the three vessels which had returned to harbour, and had borne, in fact, the fatigues of the race, The ship of Sergestus came in too late for the distribution. Observe the poetic idiom in optare and ferre. The prose form would be optandos and ferendum.-Magnum. A mere ornamental epithet here. On other occasions, by the “great” talent is meant the Attic silver
talent, as compared with the smaller or , Sicilian talent, which last was much used by the Greeks of Sicily and Italy.
249. Addit. “He confers.”—250. Quam plurima circum, &c., i, e. two borders of broad purple ran around the garment in waving lines. These borders were not attached to the cloak, but were woven with it. -251. Mæandro. The Mæander was a river of Asia Minor, forming the common boundary between Caria and Lydia. It was remarkable for the winding nature of its course, and hence the name was used metaphorically for any winding whatsoever.-Meliboea. The shellfish which yielded the purple dye were said to be found near an island bearing this name at the mouth of the River Orontes in Syria. They were also obtained at a sea-port town of Thessaly, likewise called Melibea.
252. Intextusque puer, &c. “And the royal boy, on leafy Ida, interwoven (there).” The cloak was adorned with a representation of the story of Ganymede, which was interwoven into it with threads of gold.-254. Quem præpes sublimem, &c. The boy is first represented hunting; the scene then changes, and in another quarter is seen the young prince just caught up by the eagle, who is soaring away with him to the skies. Observe how beautifully the perfect (rapuit) is here employed.-255. Armiger. The eagle was sacred to Jove, and is frequently represented as bearing his thunderbolts. Pliny, enumerating such things as are proof against thunder, mentions the eagle, and assigns this as the reason why that bird is called Jove's armour-bearer.
256. Longavi custodes. “The aged keepers," i. e. they to whom the care of the young prince has been confided.—257. Sævit in auras. “ Rages to the air.” The dogs are represented as looking up, and baying at the eagle as it soars away with their young master.
In explaining this passage respecting the abduction of Ganymede, we have supposed the representation on the cloak to refer to two distinct portions of time. This certainly accords best with the words of the text. Heyne, however, thinks that it does not relate to any thing actually appearing on the cloak, but merely denotes that Ganymede was carried off while hunting. Wagner, on the other hand, insists that Virgil nods here!
258. Virtute. “In point of merit.”—259. Huic hamis, &c. “To this warrior he gives to possess, as an ornament, and a defence in arms, a coat of mail composed of polished rings, hooked into one another, and (these arranged) in a triple tissue of gold.” Consult iii. 467.-262. Habere. The prose form would be habendam.
260. Demoleo. The ablative from Demoleus, in Greek Anuólews. The name of one of the Greeks who warred against Troy.-265. Demoleus cursu, &c. An indirect method of celebrating the valour of Æneas; for if Demoleus was able to drive whole squadrons of the Trojans before him, how great a hero must he be who slew the conqueror of these numerous squadrons.
266. Tertia dona, &c. “ He makes two caldrons of brass, and cups of silver finished with workmanlike skill, and embossed with ornaments, the third presents," i. e. presents to him who came in third.-267. Cymbia. The cymbium was a cup resembling a boat or cymba, being oblong and narrow.
268. Opibusque superbi. “And elated with their presents.”—269. Puniceis tæniis. “ With scarlet ribands." In verse 110, mention is
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figures, &c., in a kind of basso relievo, punched out from behind, and sculptured on the front with small chisels and gravers. The handle of the battle-axe was adorned in the present case with this kind of work.–Ferre. Poetic for ferendam.
308. Omnibus hic erit, &c., i. e. this honour shall be alike to all. Præmia. “Special rewards," i. e. other and special prizes.—309. Flava. “ Yellow.” The under part of the leaf is of a paler colour than the upper. - 310. Phaleris insignem. “ Adorned with trappings." The pha. lerce were ornaments attached to the harness of horses, especially about the head, and were often worn as pendants, so as to produce a terrific effect when shaken by the rapid motions of the steed. They were bestowed upon horsemen by the Roman commanders as a reward of bravery and merit. The proper form of the phalera seems to have been a boss, disc, or crescent of metal, and the plural is most commonly employed in speaking of these appendages, as they were generally given in pairs. The phalerce were worn also by men. Compare ix. 359, 458.
311. Amazoniam pharetram, i. e. a quiver of the same form with those used by the Amazons.-312. Threïciis. A mere ornamental epithet, to denote the excellence of the arrows, the Thracians being famous for their skill in archery and the excellence of their equipments.-Lato quam circum, &c., i. e. a broad belt adorned with figures and ornaments of gold. This belt was secured in front by a clasp decorated with a long, oval-shaped gem, tapering off at either end. 314. Argolica. Put for Græcâ."
316. Corripiunt spatia, &c. “They dash forth upon the course, and leave the threshold of the race behind.” Literally, “they seize upon the course ;" a bold figure, borrowed from the movements of those who make a grasp at any thing, or plunge forward to seize it. The eager competitors here rush forward each to seize upon the course, or to make it their own by reaching the end of the race first.
-Spatia. The race was a double one, that is, the competitors ran from the starting-point to the meta, and back again to the place of commencing. Hence the use of the plural, spatia, to denote the whole course both ways. In chariot-races, the contending partics had to run seven times around the spina circi, a low wall in the middle of the circus ; and here, again, the term spatia was applied to all these seven combined.
317. Nimbus, the storm-cloud, taken here for the storm itself. Voss : “Rasch wie die Wetter gestürzt."-—317. Simul ultima signant. 6 They mark the furthest (places of the course with their eyes).” The full form of expression would be, “signant ultima loca oculis." They keep their eyes fixed on the goal, or meta, not because this is the termination of the race, but because they have here to bend round in their course and run back to the point of starting. He who should reach the meta first and turn shortest round it, would have a decided advantage over the rest. The foot-race is precisely like the ship-race.
318. Omnia corpora. Equivalent, merely, to omnes. The use of corpora, however, points to physical exertions.-319. Emicat. “Shoots forth.”' Literally, “ gleams forth (on the view).” A beautifully-expressive term, applied to the movements of a bódy passing so rapidly before the view as to seem to flash upon it.-Fulminis alis. "The