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herself twice. This, however, appears to be at variance with ferro collapsam in line 663.-662. Et nostro secum, &c., i e. and from my mournful end take a mournful omen for himself.

663. Ferro collapsam. “Fallen on the steel.”—668. Tecta fremunt. 6. The dwellings ring."-669. Ruat. “ Were falling."

672. Exanimis. « Breathless with astonishment.”-673. Foedans. “Disfiguring.”_674. Per medios. “ Through the midst of the throng." 675. Hoc illud, gerinana, fuit, &c. “Was this it, O my own sister? didst thou aim at deceiving (even) me?” i. e. was this, then, thy design ? wast thou all the time trying to deceive me?—679. Idem ambas ferro, &c. “ The same pang, and the same hour, would have borne us both away by the aid of the sword.”

680. Struxi. Supply rogum.—682. Extinxti. By syncope for extinxisti.- Patresque Sidonios, i. e, the nobles that form the senate of thy new city. The term patres is used in accordance with Roman usage.—683. Date, vulnera, &c. “Give me it, I will wash her wounds with water.” The punctuation of Wagner, which makes date govern aquam or lymphas understood. According to the old pointing, date vulnera lymphis, abluam, an enallage was supposed to prevail, these words being put, it was said, for date lymphas culneribus. This is harsh.

684. Et extremus si quis, &c. “And if any last breath still hovers around, I will catch it with my lips.” Virgil is thought to be alluding here to a ceremony practised by both Greeks and Romans. When the person was expiring, the nearest relative applied the mouth to his, and received his last breath.—685. Eraserat. “She ascended.” Observe the rapidity of action indicated by the pluperfect.—687. Atque siccabat. « And kept trying to stanch.” Observe the force of the imperfect in denoting continued action.

689. Infixum stridet, &c. “ The wound inflicted beneath her breast emits a bubbling noise,” i. e. the blood gushes forth with gurgling sound.—691. Alto quæsivit, &c. “ Sought for the light of day in the lofty heavens, and groaned when it was found.” Her eyes now swimming in death, and becoming enveloped in darkness, strive to take in once more the light of day, but with difficulty collect the rays of the sunlight; the exertion is succeeded by a groan.

693. Longum dolorem. “Her prolonged suffering."-695. Quce luctantem, &c.“ To release the struggling spirit, and loosen the tie that bound it to the body.” Literally, “and loosen the limbs bound unto it.”-696. Fato. « By fate,” i. e, by a natural death, at the end of the prescribed term of existence.—Meritâ nec morte. “Nor by a death that she deserved,” i. e. as a punishment for some crime committed by her.-697. Ante diem. “ Before her time.” Before her appointed day.

698. Nondum illi flavum, &c. The ancients had an idea that no one could die until Proserpina, either in person or by Atropos her minister, had cut off a lock of hair from the head. This lock was regarded as a kind of first-fruits of consecration to Pluto ; much in the same way as the hair, which they used to crop from the head of the victim before sacrifice, was reckoned the first offering to the god.-699. Stygioque caput damnaverat Orco. “And consigned her person to Stygian Pluto.”

701. Mille trahens, &c. “ Drawing through the heavens a thousand various hues from the opposite sun."-702. Hunc, &c. “ This lock I, being ordered so to do, bear away sacred to Pluto.”—703. Isto corpore. “ From that frame of thine.” Observe the peculiar force of iste, as the pronoun of the second person.—704. Omnis et una, &c. “ And, at the same time, all the vital heat passed away,” &c. She breathed forth her life, and that life passed away into air. This is a much simpler explanation than to refer to the doctrine of the “anima mundi,or, with others, to the belief that the vital principle, after death, mingled with the elements.


1. Interea medium, &c. “Meanwhile, Æneas, in direct course, (for Italy), was now fairly on his route with the fleet." Servius correctly explains interea as follows: Æneas set sail at early dawn, and during the whole day, while Dido's mournful fate is being con- . summated, he makes but little progress with his fleet, on account of light winds. As evening comes on, he is still in sight of Carthage, and sees the walls and buildings of the city lighted up in the distance by the flames of the funeral pile of Dido, it being customary with the ancients to burn the bodies of the dead at night, and gather their remains on the ensuing morning.

Medium iter does not mean, as Heyne thinks, “the deep ;” neither does it imply, as others suppose, that one half of the route was already accomplished, for how, in that event, could they still be in sight of Carthage? But it means that Æneas was now fairly on his way, just as medius is used on other occasions, when we speak of one who is fully engaged with anything, or who is in the midst of an affair.

2. Certus. Commonly rendered, “resolved on his voyage,” but this is extremely awkward, for he has already carried his design fully into execution. Wagner, therefore, regards the usage of certus here as similar to that in such expressions as certa hasta, certa sagitta, i. e. ad certum locum tendens; and explains certus by “recto, non erratico itinere cursum intendens.

5. Duri magno sed amore, &c. “But the cruel sorrows (that arise) when deep affection is outraged, and the conviction of what a frantic woman can do (in such a case), lead the minds of the Trojans through a mournful foreboding (of the truth).” With duri dolores we may (although this is unnecessary) supply qui surgere or esse solent, the words amore polluto being in the ablative absolute.-6. Notumque. The participle in the neuter put for the subject. Compare Lucan (i. init.): “Bella .... populum .... acies .... certatum ..., signa canimus.Tacitus (Hist. ii. 82): “Sufficere adversus Vitellium videbatur Vespasiana nomen et nihil arduum fatis.

8-11. These lines, with a slight change, have already occurred in the third book (192-195). The use of pelagus (“the main ") proves our explanation of medium iter to be correct.

12. Palinurus. Supply exclamat.-13. Quianam tanti, &c. “Why have such threatening storm-clouds begirt the sky ?” —15. Colligere arma jubet, &c. “ He orders them to reef the sails." Arma, properly all sorts of naval implements, such as sails, ropes, oars, &c. Here, however, it is restricted to the first of these. So nla with Homer.

16. Obliquatque sinus in ventum. “And turns the bosom of the sail

obliquely to the wind.” He directs the bow of the vessel to a point nearer that from which the wind blows. In other words, he lies nearer to the wind by tacking.–17. Non si, &c. “ Not even if Jupiter, as the adviser (of the step), give me a pledge (of its accomplishment), can I hope to reach Italy in such weather.”—19. Transcersa fremunt. “ Roar across our path.” The neuter plural of the adjective used adverbially, according to the Greek idiom.-Et vespere ab atro consurgunt. “ And arise in all their energy from the darkened west.” Observe the force of con in composition.-20. Atque in nubem cogitur aër. Trapp : “ And all the air is thickened to a cloud.”

21. Nec nos obniti, &c. “We are neither able to make headway, nor even to withstand the storm.Obniti contra refers to their onward course ; tendere tantum, to their holding their own, and not being driven back. Servius: supplies the ellipsis thus : tendere tantum quantum adversa tempestas valet.

23. Nec litora longe, &c. Construe and supply as follows : Nec reor fida fraterna litora Erycis, Sicanosque portus longe (abesse). The shores are called fida on account of Acestes, who is mentioned presently after; and fraterna, on account of Eryx, son of Venus, and, consequently, half-brother of Æneas, who founded the town of Eryx.

-24. Portusque Sicanos. “And the Sicanian harbours.” This is to be taken in a strict sense. The Sicani, after having occupied the eastern parts of Sicily, were driven by the Siculi into the western parts of the island, where Eryx stood.-25. Si modo rite memor, &c. “If only, recollecting aright, I retrace (in thought) the stars (before) observed," i. e. observed by me before the storm arose. With remetior supply animo. It is the same as in animum revoco, “ I recall to mind."

27. Jamdudum, when joined to a present (cerno), gives it the force of a perfect in our idiom. “Long since have I perceived.”—28. Flecte viam velis. “Bend thy course (thither) with the sails," i. e. veer the ship around, change the position of the sails, and make for Sicily.-An sit mihi gratior ulla, &c. “Can any land be more acceptable unto me? or (can there be any) whither I would rather wish to bring my weary ships, than that which,” &c.

29. Quoce. The full form would be ullave sit tellus quo.–31. Et patris Anchisæ, &c. Anchises died at Drepanum, and was buried on Mount Eryx. (Compare iii. 707.)—32. Portus. The harbour of Drepanum. 33. Cita, the adjective, is here taken adverbially.-34. Notæ. Because they had been at Drepanum before.

35. Montis. Mount Eryx.-36. Adventum sociasque rates. “The arrival of the friendly ships.”—Horridus in jaculis, &c. Heyne doubts whether in jaculis is to be connected with horridus; but this construction is successfully defended by Wagner, who cites “leves in hastis," from Ennius, and“ metuendus in hastá," from Statius (Theb. iv, 221). The same redundant use of the preposition occurs even in prose writers. (Beier, ad Cic. Off. i. 9, 22.) We have, therefore, removed the comma after horridus, which appears in Heyne's edition.

38. Troïa, Crimiso, &c. i. e. his mother was a Trojan, his father the god of the stream.

39. Veterum parentum. “Of his ancient sires,” i. e. of his parentage on the mother's side and his Trojan origin.–40. Gratatur reduces. “Congratulates them on their return.”-Èt gazâ lætus, &c. “And joyfully entertains them from his rural riches.”

42. Primo oriente. “At its first rising." Literally " with the first rising sun." Supply sole.-44. Tumuli ex aggere. “From the summit of a rising ground.” Poetically for ex tumulo.

45. Genus. “A race (sprung) from the blood of the gods.” Dardanus, the founder of the Trojan line, was the son of Jove. (Compare üi. 167.)-46. Annuus exactis, &c. “ The annual revolution is completed, the months (composing it) having been gone through, from the time that we,” &c.

49. Dies. The anniversary of his father's death.-Nisi fallor. So Wagner, on the authority of some of the better MSS. The strict distinction between ni and nisi is this : ni affirms; nisi denies, or else expresses doubt. Ni fallor would imply that it is very possible Æneas may be mistaken in what he says, which certainly is not the meaning intended to be conveyed.

51. Hunc ego, &c. “If I were passing this day an exile among the Gætulian quicksands, or were overtaken by it on the Grecian sea," &c. We have removed the comma after ego, so as to make hunc depend on agerem. Heyne retains the stop after ego, regarding this clause as an anacoluthon, while he makes agerem equivalent to essem. This appears forced.

Gætulis. Not to be taken in its strict sense, since the Gætuli lay to the south-west of the Syrtes, at some distance inland, but merely as equivalent to Africis.-52. Deprensus. Supply essem ab eo.-Mycence. Genitive singular of Mycena. The expressions Argolico mari and urbe Mycenæ, are the same as “in the midst of the foe.-54. Suis donis. “ With appropriate offerings."

55. Nunc ultro. The idea intended to be conveyed is this : How much more should we now celebrate the day, when we are here of our own accord, &c.—56. Sine mente. “ Without the concurrence."58. Et lætum cuncti, i.e. with willing feelings let us all render honours to his memory.-59. Poscamus ventos, &c. “ Let us ask him (in prayer) for favouring winds, and that it be his good pleasure that I, when my city is founded, annually offer these sacred rites in temples dedicated unto him.” Æneas here declares his intention of celebrating an annual festival in honour of the now deified Anchises, whenever his new city shall be built.

61. Bina boum. “Gives unto you two head of oxen in number for each of the ships.” Observe the force of the distributive bina.-64. Adhibete. “Invite." There is no reference here to a ceremony resembling the Roman Lectisternium, but merely to a funeral banquet, in which libations were to be made to the Trojan and Sicilian penates.

64. Si. “When." Used in the sense of cum.-65. Extulerit. “Shall have brought forth," i. e. shall usher in. The funeral rites of the Romans were celebrated on the ninth day. Hence they were termed novendiale sacrum. 66. Prima. “First in order.” Equivalent to primum.-Ponam. “I will appoint.”—68. Aut jaculo, &c. “Or who moves along superior with the javelin or light arrows." We have placed a comma after cestu, as required by the sense.

69. Crudo cestuThe cestus was used by boxers from the earliest times. It consisted of thongs of raw ox-hide, or of leather, tied round the hands of pugilists in order to render their blows more powerful. Sometimes these bands were tied round the arms as high as the elbow. The cestus used in later times, in the public games, was a most formidable weapon. It was frequently covered with knobs and nails, and loaded with lead and iron.” (Compare line 405.) Figures with the cestus frequently occur on ancient remains.—70. Pălmoe equivalent to victoriæ.

71. Ore farete omnes. “Do ye all preserve a religious attention.” i. e. be watchful over your lips, that you pronounce no words of bad omen, whereby you may, though unintentionally, mar the effect of the sacred ceremonies. Literally, “do ye all favour me with your lips." All profane or ill-omened expressions were forbidden, and religious attention commanded by this formulary, which seems to have preceded the celebration of games or sacrifices.—Ramis. Put for coronis.

72. Maternâ myrto. “With his mother's myrtle.” The myrtle was sacred to Venus.—73. Ævi maturus. “Ripe in years.”—76. Ad tumulum. “To the tomb,” i. e. to the mound of earth that covered the remains of Anchises.—77. Hic duo rite mero, &c. “Here, making a libation in due form,” &c. The carchesium was a beaker or drinking-cup, which was used by the Greeks in very early times. It was slightly contracted in the middle, and its two handles extended from the top to the bottom. It was much employed in libations of wine, milk, blood, and honey.—78. Sanguine sacro. The blood of victims.

79. Purpureos flores. “Dark-hued flowers." The allusion appears to be to violets and other flowers of dark or sable hue, as suiting a funeral ceremony.-80. Iterum saldete, recepti, &c. “ Again hail, ye ashes, rescued (by me) in vain ; hail, both thou soul and shade of my father.” The expression recepti nequicquam cineres refers to the circumstance of Æneas having rescued his father from the destruction of Troy, but that father's not having been permitted by the Fates to arrive in Italy.–81. Animæque umbræque. The plural for the singular. According to one of the old scholiasts, the anima, or soul, ascends to the skies, the umbra, or shade, goes to the world of spirits.

83. Quicumque. “Whatever (stream) it is,” i. e, in whatever quarter of that land it may flow.

84. Adytis ab imis. “From the bottom of the shrine.” The tomb of Anchises is here called “a shrine,” in allusion to its sacred character, and the high honours to which, as a species of inferior deity, its occupant is now entitled.-85. Septena here loses its distributive force.—86. Aras. No mention has been made before this of any altars ; it was customary, however, to erect them in such funereal ceremonies as the present.

87. Cærulece cui terga notæ, &c. “ Its back azure marks (diversified), while a spotted brightness kindled up its (every) scale with gold.” With notæ supply pingebant, or some equivalent verb, from incendebat, that follows.--Maculosus fulgor. Equivalent to maculo fulgentes. Heyne refers here to Milton (P. L. ix. 501). “ With burnish'd neck of verdant gold.”—89. Jacit. “Sends forth.” Compare iv. 700.

90. Ille, agmine longo, &c. “It, at length, creeping with its long train amid the bowls and polished cups.” Serpens is a participle, not a noun.-91. Pateras. Consult note on i. 729.-Libavitque dapes, &c. “ Both slightly tasted the viands, and harmless retired again (from view) at the bottom of the tomb, and left the altars on which it had fed.”—Dapes. The viands forming the funeral banquet or offerings. -93. Successit. Literally,“ went in.”Altaria. The dishes (dapes) on the altars. 95. The ancients believed that there were genii appointed, some

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