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still.” Pluperfect rendered, in consequence of its continued meaning, as an imperfect.

525. Pictoe, i. e. of many-coloured plumage.—528. Lenibant. “Were lulling to rest.” Old form for leniebant. The 528th line is undoubtedly spurious : it is wanting in many MSS.; it mars the syntactical arrangement of the previous part of this fine passage ; and it appears to have been made up from lines 224, 225, of the ninth book. The only way to make the syntax at all tolerable is to place a semicolon after tenent.

529. At non infelix animi Phoenissa. “But the Phænician Dido slept not, wretched in mind.” Supply quievit.-530. Oculisce, &c. “ Nor does she feel the influence of night on her eyes or in her bosom.”

533. Sic adeo insistit. “In this way, then, does she reason.” Insistit equivalent to mente et cogitatione insistit.—534. We have preferred agam, with Wunderlich, to the common reading, ago.Irrisa. “ (Now) become a subject of mockery." Not for irridenda, as some maintain, but retaining its proper force.—535. Nomadum connubia. “ An alliance with the Numidians," i. e. with the monarch of the Numidians. Meaning Iarbas.-536. Maritos. “As husbands," i. e. as a husband. Again referring to their king.

537. Atque ultima Teucrúm, &c. “ And obey the most degrading commands of the Trojaps.” Sequar signifies “to follow” when construed with classes, and “to obey” when joined with jussa.-538. Quiane auxilio, &c. “ (Shall I), because it delights them to have been before this relieved by my aid, and (because) gratitude for what I formerly did stands its ground in them well mindful of it ?" Said ironically. With juvat supply eos, with levatos the infinitive esse. .

540. Quis me autem, &c. “ But who, suppose that I have the inclination, will allow me (to do this)." We read ratibusque, with Wagner, instead of the common ratibusde. The former is clearly required by the sense.-Fac velle. Supply me.

542. Observe the force of the plural in perjuria. The allusion is to the false faith of Laomedon, one of the earlier kings of Troy, towards Neptune and Apollo, and, subsequently, towards Hercules. The whole Trojan race are here stigmatized for the same failing.

543. As regards the peculiar force of quid tum ? consult Heindorff (ad Horat. Serm. ii. iii. 230).-Orantes. Exulting not only at their departure, but at bearing away with them also the queen of Carthage. Hence the degradation to herself implied in the term.

544. i. e. or shall I follow the Trojans with all my people, in order to found a new colony along with them in other lands, and thus expose anew to the dangers of the sea and the violence of enemies those whom I brought hither with difficulty from the city of Tyre 1545. Sidoniâ. Either because Tyre was founded by Sidonians, or because “Sidonian” here is equivalent to “ Phænician.”—547. Quin morere. “ Die rather.” Quin, with the imperative, used as a hortatory particle. * 548. Tu, lacrymis ericta meis, &c. This accusing of a sister who so tenderly loved her shows the intense anguish of her own bosom, a feeling that often leads us to be unjust towards those whom we ought to regard as most dear.-Furentem. “ Transported with love." Compare line 32, seqq.-550. Non licuit thalami, &c. This is said with a sigh. The common text has a mark of interrogation after curas, which mars the beauty of the passage.--551. More feræ. A

general allusion merely to a solitary life, far away from the haunts of men. Some commentators think that there is a reference here to the ounce (Lynx), which, according to Pliny, after the death of its mate, lives in strict widowhood. This is too far-fetched.

552. Sercata. “ Has not been kept (by me).” As the noun Sychæus has a termination common to many adjectives also, there is no great impropriety in regarding Sychæo as an adjective agreeing with cineri. At all events, Virgil here takes a much less liberty than Juvenal in his ursi Numido (iv. 99), or Ovid in his Numidas leones, (A. A. . 183).

553. Tantos illa suo, &c. " Such complaints did she cause to burst forth from her bosom.” 555. It is little to the credit of either the poet or his hero that the latter should, at this time, have been sleeping.–358. Omnia Mercurio similis, &ć. “In all things,” &c. Observe the Græcisms in omnia, vocem, colorem, &c. literally, “as to all things,” “ as to voice," " as to complexion,” &c.—Colorem. This and the decora membra, have a peculiar reference to Mercury, as the god of gymnastic exercises, depicting the ruddy glow of health, and the free and graceful movements of limb, that are wont to result from gymnastic training.

501. Te circum stent. So Wagner, in place of the common circum stent te.

565. Dum præcipitare potestas. “While thou hast the power to precipitate thy flight.” For dum potestas est tibi præcipitare fugam. In prose the genitive of the gerund, præcipitundi, would be employed.566. Jam mare, &c. “Soon wilt thou behold the sea disturbed by her ships.”—Trabibus. Literally, “naval timbers.”—Sæbasque collucere faces. While the Carthaginian galleys seek to intercept thy departure, the inhabitants of the city will pour down with lighted torches to destroy thy vessels on the shore.—570. Se immiscuit, i. e, he disappeared amid.

571. Subitis exterritus umbris. “Deeply terrified by the sudden gloom.” The deity, on his appearance, seems to have been represented as encompassed with brilliant light. (Compare line 358.) The sudden transition to darkness alarms and awakens Æneas.-573. Præcipites, vigilate, viri. “ Awake, this instant, men.”–575. Funes. The ropes that connected the vessels with the shore.

576. Sancte deorum. “O revered one of the gods.” Imitated from Ennius, Juno Saturnia, sancta dearum," and this last from the Homeric dia beáwv.—577. Quisquis es. The heavenly visitant had assumed the form and appearance of Mercury, but Æneas could not tell for certain whether it was Mercury himself or some one else. 578. Sidera dextra, i. e. stars on the rising of which favouring breezes would blow, and prosperous navigation ensue.

579. Fulmineum, i. e. gleaming suddenly on the view like the flash of the lightning.-580. Stricto ferro. “With the drawn steel.”—581. Rapiuntque, ruuntque, &c. “ They seize the cordage ; they rush to their respective posts ; they have left the shores; the surface of the sea lies hidden under their ships.” Observe the beautiful use of the perfect in deseruere, as indicating haste.

586. E speculis. “From her palace-towers."-587. Æquatis celis. “With balanced sails.” The wind being exactly fair, the sails were equally distended on either side of the sail-yards.-588. Vacuos sine remige. “Empty, without a rower.” This is a species of pleonasm, of which Wagner cites several instances from both Greek and Latin

writers. Thus Silius Italicus : “Vacuum sine corpore nomen” (x. 583), and “Vacuumque Jovem sine pube, sine armis” (xvi, 624).

590. Fladentes. Auburn, or, as they were poetically termed, golden locks, were most admired by the ancient Romans.

592. Non arma expedient? “Will not (some) get ready arms ?" Heyne takes arma for instrumenta natalia ; but Wunderlich, with more propriety, for instrumenta belli. Supply alii with expedient, to correspond with alii in the subsequent clause.—593. Deripientque rates alii, &c. “ And will (not) others tear my vessels from the dockyards ?” — Ite, ferte citi flammas, &c. Observe the air of rapidity which the omission of the copulative gives to this sentence.

595. Mentem mutat. “ Disorders my reason.” She now regards the idea of pursuing them, which she had adopted but an instant before, as perfect insanity.-596. Nunc te facta impia tangunt ? “Do the impious deeds of the man) come home to thee (only) now? They ought then to have done so when thou didst resign (to him) thy sceptre.” The common text has fata impia, which will then apply to Dido ; but impiety is never ascribed to the fates, and the reading is therefore decidedly erroneous. The words facta impia, on the other hand, have reference to the wicked and unballowed conduct of Æneas, which Dido now confesses ought to have been suspected by her when she gave the Trojan a share of her kingdom.

597. En dextra fidesque. Supply ejus. “Such is the plighted faith of him.” Heyne puts a mark of exclamation after fidesque, but the proper place for it is after Penates.—599. Subiisse humeris. “ Bore on his shoulders.”

600. Abreptum divellere equivalent to abripere et divellere.-602. Patriisque epulandum, &c. “And have served him up, to be banqueted upon, at his father's table.” Alluding to the legends of either Thyestes or Tereus.

603. Anceps fuerat, i. e. might have been doubtful.-Fuisset. “ Let it have been so."-604. Quem metui moritura? “Whom had I to fear, resolved to die ?" i. e. what had I to apprehend from the issue of such a conflict, when I had already made up my mind to die? Observe in metui the pluperfect force which our idiom gives to the Latin aorist.–605. Foros. “ Their hatches.”—606. Extincem. Contracted for exstinxissem.Memet super ipsa dedissem. “My own self I would have cast into the flames upon them.” With dedissem supply in ignes.

608. Tuque harum interpres, &c. “ And thou, Juno, the author and witness of these my cares." Interpres here indicates one by whose intervention any thing is effected, and the term is applied to Juno as the goddess who presides over marriage, and by whose intervention the union of Æneas and Dido was brought about. In this sense, therefore, she is the author of all the sorrows resulting from those ill-starred nuptials, and, following out the same idea, she is conscious of, or the witness to, them all.

609. Nocturnisqué Hecate, &c. “And thou, Hecate, (whose name is) howled through the cities, in the night season, where three ways meet.” The worship of Hecate was conducted at right, in places where three roads met, in allusion to the “tria rirginis ora Diance" (line 511). These rites were accompanied with loud cries and howlings, by which the goddess was invoked to appear unto her votaries.

610. Et Diræ ultrices, &c. “And ye avenging Furies, and ye gods

of the dying Elissa.” Heyne understands by the selast the guardian deities of Dido, “genii Didonis.” It is much better, however, to make the reference a general one, to all the gods who feel for Dido's wrongs and will avenge her fate.-611. Accipite hæc, &c. “ Hear these (my words), and direct towards my wrongs the well-merited aid of your divine power.” We have referred malis, with Wagner, to Dido, and not, as Heyne does, to the Trojans.

612. Si tangere portus, &c. “If it be necessary that the unhallowed wretch gain his destined harbour, and arrive at the lands (of which he is in quest); and if so the decrees of Jove demand, if this limit (of his wanderings) remain unalterably fixed.” Observe the peculiar force of the plural in portus, as indicating destiny.Adnare. In the sense of pervenire. Compare i. 538. « Vestris adnavimus oris.

615. At bello audacis populi, &c. The Rutulians, the subjects of Turnus, are here meant, and by “ daring” is meant “warlike," “spirited.” Observe the art with which Virgil here brings forward the most prominent events in the subsequent career of Æneas, as well as in the history of his descendants. It was a prevalent opinion among the ancients that the prayers of the dying were generally heard, and that their last words were prophetic. Thus, Virgil makes Dido imprecate upon Æneas a series of misfortunes which actually had their accomplishment in his own person or in his posterity. 1. He was harassed in war, on having reached Italy, by Turnus and the Rutulians, combined with the Latins. 2. He was compelled to abandon his son, and go into Etruria to solicit assistance (Æn. viii. 80). 3. He saw his friends cruelly slain in battle, especially the young Pallas. 4. He died before his time after a reign of only three years, having been slain in battle with Mezentius, according to a national tradition mentioned by Dionysius of Halicarnassus (i. 64); and his body having been carried off by the waters of the Numicius, near which he fell, never received the rites of sepulture. 5. The Romans and Carthaginians were irreconcilable enemies to each other. 6. Hannibal was Dido's avenger, who arose in later days to be the scourge of the Romans, and to carry fire and sword into Italy.

618. Nec cum se sub leges, &c. Alluding to the peace finally concluded between Æneas and Latinus. This is called iniquâ, “ disadvantageous,” because the Trojans lost by it their separate national existence and name, and became blended with the Latins as one common people. Compare xii. 823.-620. Mediaque inhumatus arena. “ And lie unburied in the midst of the sands," i. e. “amid the sands at the bottom of the stream. Servius gives various accounts of the manner of his death.

623. Exercete odiis. “Pursue with constant hatred,” &c. In the latter part of this clause there is an allusion to the sacrifices wont to be offered up to the dead. In the present case, the most acceptable offering to Dido will be unquenchable hatred on the part of the Car, thaginians towards the Romans.

624. Amor. “Amity.”—625. Exoriare aliquis, &c. “Arise thou, some avenger, from my dust, who mayest pursue,” &c. Observe the force and beauty of the second person. Arouse thou, who, I see, amid the dim future, art destined to be my avenger, although who thou art to be I know not.-Ultor. The allusion is to Hannibal.627. Quocumque dabunt, &c. “At whatever time (fit) strength shall lend itself (for the task).”_628. Litora litoribus, &c. “It is iny (dying) imprecation that shores be hostile to shores.”

629. Pugnent ipsique nepotesque. Ipsi, the present generation of both Carthaginians and Trojans; nepotes, their posterity to the remotest degree. Hence the meaning of the passage is simply this : “May the two nations be at war now and for ever.” The common text has pugnent ipsique nepotes, “may even their very descendants be at war," which amounts to almost the same thing, except that the hypermeter in nepotesque shows more agitation on the part of the speaker, and therefore accords better with the excited state of Dido's feelings. · 631. Invisam abrumpere lucem. “ To break off all connexion with the hated light of day.”—633. Namque suam, &c. “For the dark ashes held her own in her former country.” Heyne and others object to this line as interpolated. They censure the use of suam for ejus, and the expression cinis habebat, and also maintain that the subject is too unimportant to require mention. Wagner seeks to defend the line, but not with much success.

634. Annam, ...., huc siste sororem. “Bring hither my sister Anna.” We have retained the old comma after Annam, and also nutrix, so as to connect mihi with cara, which seems the more natural construction. Wakefield removes both commas, and makes mihi depend on siste, “bring hither for me," &c.-635. Dic corpus properet, &c.“ Bid her make haste to sprinkle her person with water from the running stream.” It was customary with the Greeks and Romans to purify their persons with running water before engaging in sacrifice. Consult note on ii. 719.

636. Monstrata piacula. «The expiatory offerings that have been pointed out," i. e. by the Massylian priestess.-637. Tuque ipsa pia, &c. The nurse, too, was to prepare herself for the sacrifice.-638. Jodi Stygio. “Unto Stygian Jove," i. e. Pluto, so called because he reigned supreme in the lower world, as Jupiter did in that above.Quæe rite incepta paravi. “Which, duly begun, I have prepared (for him).”-640. Dardanii rogum capitis. «The pile of the Trojan.” Alluding to the image of Æneas placed upon it.-641. Studio anili. “ With all an aged female's eagerness.” Wagner and others read anilem, agreeing with gradum, but this is much less graphic.

642. Coeptis, &c., i. e. maddened by the idea of the horrid deed she was about to perpetrate.-645. Interiora domus, &c. “ Bursts through the inner entrances of the palace, and with a frantic air ascends the lofty pile.” The pile was constructed in the inner part of the mansion. (Compare line 504.)-646. Recludit. “Unsheaths." -647. Quæsitum. “Sought," i. e. procured, or bestowed. In line 507, it is called ensem relictum, where we must supply dono, or munere.

649. Paullum lacrymis, &c. “ Having delayed for a moment in tearful musing.”—651. Dulces exuviæ, &c. “Ye relics dear to me, while,” &c.-656. Ulta virum. “I have avenged my husband,” i. e. Sychæus.-Pænas inimico, &c. “ I have punished a hostile brother,” i. e. by depriving him of the treasure which he so wickedly coveted.

659. Os impressa toro. “Having buried her face in the couch." This was an act of despair and agonized feeling. We must by no means render the words as some do, “having imprinted a kiss upon the couch.”—660. Sic, sic. Some suppose that Dido here stabs

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