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their companions on the shore.” In cocat is implied also the idea of monens, “ directing."-290. Arma. Not “naval equipments," as some render it, but “arms." Naval equipments are already implied in classem aptent. Et quæ sit, &c. “ And to dissemble as to what may be the cause of this change of affairs."
291. Quando optima Dido, &c. “ Since the generous Dido is ignorant (of what is passing).”—Quando, for quoniam.—Optima. Intended to express his sense of the indulgent hospitality of the queen. The term, however, sounds coldly to a modern ear.–293. "Tentaturum aditus, &c. “ Will try (gentle) avenues of approach (unto her feelings), and what may be the most fitting moments for addressing her ; what mode of proceeding may be favourable for the case.” In verse 423 a species of inverted arrangement takes place : “molles aditus et tempora.”
Mollissima tempora, 2. e. when he may be able to unfold his future plans to the queen, with the least pain to her feelings.—295. Facessunt. “Proceed to execute.” An old form. So in Ennius, “ dicta facessunt.”
296. With excepit we may supply sensu, mente, or something equivalent.—298. Omnia tuta timens. “Fearing all things (even though safe),” i. e. regarding everything with an eye of suspicion and alarm ; even what was perfectly safe, and ought not in reality to have excited such feelings in her.
298. Eadem impia Fama, &c. “ The same unpitying Rumour brought intelligence to her frantic.”-301. Qualis Thyias. Like a Bacchant aroused by the opening rites of the god, when the triennial orgies stimulate her on the name of Bacchus being heard.”
The expression commovere sacra is a technical one. The temples are thrown open ; the altars prepared for sacrifice ; the sacred vessels and utensils are brought out; dances and processions arranged, &c. In other words, the sacred things are set in motion, “sacra commota sunt."
302. Thyias. From the Greek Ovčác. This is the more correct form. Thyas comes from Ovás, which latter is only employed when the first syllable is wanted to be short.-Audito Baccho. Referring to the cry Io Bacche! as uttered by the Bacchanals.-Stimulant. The cry urges her on to join the crowd of worshippers.—Trieterica Orgia, Alluding to the old form of celebrating the orgies. This was done every third year by the Thebans on Mount Cithæron, and is not to be confounded with the later festival of the Dionysia, as celebrated by the Athenians. The latter was annual. The celebration on Mount Cithæron was, moreover, a nocturnal one.
306. Before posse supply te.-Tacitus. “In silence," i. e. without my knowledge. --309. Hiberno sidere. “Under a wintry star," i.e. in the wintry season. Navigation among the ancients was governed by the observation of the stars. In the period of the year then approaching storms must be expected.-310. Mediis aquilonibus. “In the midst of the northern blasts." The north wind would be quite contrary to Æneas, as he was to sail from Africa.
311. Quid? si non arra aliena, &c. The meaning of the passage is this : If Troy were even remaining, and thou wert about to return to it, not to seek foreign lands and unknown abodes, thou surely oughtest not to think even of going back to Troy at this inclement season.
314. Per ego has lacrymas. “I (do adjure) thee by these tears." It is better to understand obtestor here, and construe oro later in the
sentence. The position of the words is in accordance with Greek usage, the personal pronoun being placed between the preposition and the noun governed by it; a construction intended to express strong emotion. Compare the Greek, após de Tūv yovátwv.-315. Quando aliud mihi, &c. “ Since I have left to my wretched self no other means of persuading thee,” i. e. no other means but tears and entreaties.
317. Fuit aut, &c. " Or if to thee aught of mine was ever pleasing." Compare the beautiful passage in the twelfth book (v. 882). “ Aut quidquam mihi dulce meorum, te sine, frater, erit.”—319. Exue. “ Forego that resolve of thine."
320. Nomadumque tyranni. “And the kings of the Numidians.” Alluding particularly to Iarbas. 'Tyrannus used in its primitive meaning (like the Greek rúpavvoc), as equivalent to rex.–321. Infensi Tyrii. “The Tyrians are offended with me," i. e. the Tyrian nobles who had sought her hand in marriage. (Compare line 36.)—Te propter eundem, &c. “On thy account, too, my honour has been lost.” Virgil is said to have recited these lines with wonderful pathos and effect, when privately reading the third and fourth books in the presence of Augustus. So Servius.
323. Moribundam. “Soon about to die.” Priscian (xiii. 5, 24) reads morituram.—Hospes. As Æneas proves by his conduct that he does not consider himself bound by the matrimonial tie, it remains for Dido only to view him in that relation to her, in which he must admit himself to stand, that of “a guest.”—324. De conjuge. “From that of husband.”
325. An mea Pygmalion, &c. “Shall it be until my brother Pygmalion,” &c. With an we must associate the idea of morer understood, from moror which precedes.-327. Mihi de te suscepta fuisset. “ Had been born to me by thee.” The prose form is ex te.-329. Qui te tamen ore referret. “Who might, however, resemble thee in look (alone),” i. e. in countenance not in mind. -330. Capta aut deserta. “ Deceived or deserted.” We have given aut, the reading of several MSS. and of the editions before that of Heinsius. Some render capta “a captive,” which is not so good.
331. Immota. “Fixed (on the ground).”—333. Ego te, quæ plurima fando, &c. “Never will I deny that thou hast deserved well of me in the case of very many favours which thou canst enumerate in speaking,” i. e. that thou hast bestowed numerous favours upon me. The full form of expression would be: Nunquam negubo te promeritam esse (de me, quod ad plurima beneficia), quoe plurima (beneficia) vales enumerare fando.
335. Elissæ. He calls her by a more endearing and familiar name, but its employment on this occasion sounds almost like mockery. The appellation is said to mean “the exulting,” or “joyous one." (Gesenius, Phoen. Mon. p. 406.) Bochart makes it signify “the divine maiden,” but erroneously.—336. Dum memor ipse inei, &c. i. e. as long as memory retains her seat within me, &c.
337. Pro re. “In relation to the present matter.” Wunderlich makes re the same as discessu, but in this he is wrong. It is equivalent rather, to pro re natâ, i. e. ut res comparata est.-339. Nec conjugis unquam, &c. “ Nor did I ever pretend a lawful union, or enter into a compact such as this." Some explain prætendi by prætuli, “nor did I ever bear before me the torch of marriage.”
But it was not the Roman custom for the bridegroom to bear a torch.
340. Meis auspiciis.“ Under my own guidance.”—341.-Et sponte mea componere curas. “ And to lull my cares to rest in my own way." Literally,“ of my own accord.”—342. Urbem Trojanam primum, &c. “I would cherish before everything else," &c. Observe the peculiar force of primum.—The meaning is, that he would honour, according to custom, with yearly sacrifices, the remains of his departed friends and countrymen.—344. Et recidida manu, &c. “And I would with this hand have established for the vanquished, Pergamus rising from its fall.” Observe the continued action in colorem, and the final or complete action in posuissein.
345. Grynceus Ápollo. “ The Grynean Apollo.” So called from the city of Gryneum or Grynea, on the coast of Lydia, near the northern confines, and which was celebrated for its worship and oracle of Apollo.–346. Lycice sortes. “The Lycian oracles." Referring to the temple and oracle of Apollo at Patara in Lycia. Servius regards both Grynæus Apollo and Lycice sortes as mere ornamental expressions, and makes the oracular responses to which Æneas alludes to have been given, in reality, at Delos. This, however, is too frigid. The allusion must be to actual oracles obtained from Gryneum and Patara, though not mentioned elsewhere in the poem.
347. Hic amor, hæc patria est. “This is the object of my love; this my country." A cold and unfeeling remark to make to one who had loved him as fondly as Dido. Si te Carthaginis arces, &c. This wretched sophistry is any thing but creditable to the character of Æneas. “ Dido does not complain of him," observes an anonymous commentator, “(and it would have been very idle if she had) for settling in a foreign country, which he must have done had he stayed with her, nor for his having had a design upon Italy in particular before his arrival at Carthage. But what she blames him for is his deserting her now, after he had so deeply engaged himself ; upon which, according to her doctrine, he ought to have altered his resolution. The supposition, that such flimsy sophistry could justify Æneas in the eyes of Dido, is one of the many proofs which Virgil lias given of his low estimate of the female character; yet the whole is true to nature. Æneas, finding that he has no valid defence, seeks to deceive himself and others by a specious appeal to higher duties, which he ought to have thought of before he contracted so close an alliance with Dido and the Carthaginians.”
349. Quce tandem Ausoniâ, &c. “Why, then, envy the Trojans their settling in the Ausonian land ?" In other words, why grudge the Trojans their Italian settlements, when thou thyself, though a native of Phænicia, dost prefer to dwell in a foreign city, the Carthage of thine own raising ?-350. Fas. “Let it be lawful.” Supply sit.
353. Turbida imago. “The troubled image,” is e. the troubled ghost. Wunderlich refers the epithet to the influence of anger, as we say turbidus irâ. This, however, appears inferior to the common mode of rendering, as we have given it. -354. Capitisque injuria cari. “ And the injury done to that beloved one.” Caput, by a well-known poetic usage, for the whole person, or the individual himself.–355. Fatalibus arvis. “ His destined lands."
· 357. Testor utrumque caput. “I call to witness both thee and myself," i. e. I swear it by thy life and my own. Sorne refer utrumque caput to Æneas and Ascanius. It is much better, however, to apply it to Æneas and Dido.
358. Manifesto in lumine. “ Amid clearest light." The light, namely, which encompassed the persons of divinities.—359. Intrantem muros. Mercury, it will be remembered, alighted in the suburbs of Carthage.—360. Desine meque tuis, &c. Heyne : “ Incendere, commocere ; luctu, dolore et irâ exasperare.” The harsh arrangement, and equally harsh cadence of this line, are very remarkable. From the circumstance of a hemistich following, we might be inclined to believe that the poet had left the speech of Æneas unfinished, intending to complete and retouch it at some future day.
“The conduct of Æneas on this trying occasion," remarks Symmons," and his reply to the pathetic address of the much-injured queen, discover too much hardness and insensibility to be quite forgiven, though he acts under the command of Jupiter. He assents with too little apparent reluctance to the mandate of the Olympian king; and we should have liked him more if his piety in this instance had been less. There is also in his speech, and especially at the close of it, a peculiar harshness, to which it is not easy for us to be reconciled. It would seem that Virgil, intent upon the main object of his poem, and resolved, in this part of it, to excite our passions to their most intense degree, was careless of minuter delicacies, and was not, perhaps, desirous of softening down any of the roughnesses of effect.”
362. Talia dicentem, &c. “Him, all along, while uttering these things, she eyes with half-averted look."-363. Totumque pererrat luminibus tacitis, &c. “And with silent look roams over his whole person, and (at length), inflamed to fury, thus breaks forth.”
365. Nec tibi dica parens. “Neither was a goddess thy parent." Supply erat.–367. Admôrunt ubera, i. e. gave thee suck.- 366. Duris cautibus, &c. “Horrid to view with its flinty rocks.” Some make it equivalent to é duris cautibus, “horrid Caucasus engendered thee out of the flinty rock.” The other interpretation, however, is more natural.
368. Nam quid dissimulo, &c. “For why do I conceal my feelings? or to what greater outrages do I reserve myself ?" i. e. why do I check the impulse of my feelings, as if I had reason to fear lest I might exasperate him by what I said? Can I suffer any greater outrage and contumely than he has already put upon me!-369. Num fletu ingemuit nostro ? “Did he groan when I wept ?" Dido here ceases to address Æneas; she speaks not to him, but of him as absent.-Num lumina flexit? “Did he (once) bend his eyes upon me?” Compare line 331, “immota tenebat lumina.”
371. Quce quibus anteferam, &c. “ To what feelings shall I first give utterance ?" Literally," what things shall I prefer to what ?”—372. Oculis æquis. “ With impartial eyes.”
374. Et regni demens, &c. Compare line 214.-375. Amissam classem, &c. “I restored his lost fleet, I rescued his companions from death.” Observe the zeugma in reduxi. With classem it has the force of renovaci.-378. Horrida jussa. So called because one obeys them with shuddering, on account of their dreadful import.--379. Scilicet is Superis labor est ! &c. “ This, forsooth, is a (befitting) labour for the gods above; this care disquiets those tranquil beings!" Æneas, as a cloak for his abandonment of Dido, suggests orders from on high which he cannot disobey. The irritated queen seeks to refute him with doubt and incredulity, and the bitterest irony. Thou talkest of the prophetic Apollo, of the Lycian oracles, of the dreadful mandates which the messenger of the skies has brought to thee; just as if the gods above would trouble themselves with thy concerns, or would allow their calm and tranquil existence to be disturbed by any cares for one so perfidious and ungrateful !
380. Neque refello. “Nor do I deign to confute thy words.” The natural consequence of the view which Dido has taken of the excuses of Æneas is a feeling of contempt for him who has employed them. She bids him depart: he is too unworthy to be detained by her. But she expresses, at the same time, the earnest hope that he may be made bitterly to atone for his baseness.
382. Spero equidem, &c. “I do indeed hope, that if the just gods can accomplish any thing, thou wilt drain the cup of punishment amid the rocks of ocean.”_383. Dido. The Greek accusative, Aidóa, Aldü.-384. Sequar atris ignibus absens. “Though absent,'I will pursue thee with gloomy fires.” She is thinking of the torches of the Furies and their pursuit of the guilty. As if one of these avenging deities, she will be ever present to his thoughts, and will ever haunt him with the terrors of a guilty conscience.
385. Et, quum frigida mors, &c. “And when chill death shall have separated these limbs from the vital spirit,” &c., “thou shalt render fuil atonement: I will hear of it (in the world of departed spirits).”
388. Et auras ægra fugit. “And, sick at heart, fees the light of day.” — 392. Marmoreo thalamo for ad marmoreum thalamum, which would be the prose form of expression.
394. Avertere. “To divert."-395. Labefactus. “Shaken.”_396. Exsequitur. “Proceeds to execute.”—397. Incumbunt. “Bend themselves (to the work).” Supply operi.—Et litore celsas, &c. According to the early custom, vessels were drawn up on the shore, stern foremost, when a voyage was ended, and were supported by props until they were again required, when they were drawn down once more to the water.--398. Uncta carina. « The ta rred keel."-399. Frondentes remos, et robora infabricata. “Oars with the leaves still attached to them, and unwrought timber.”
403. Tectoque reponunt. “And lay it up in their habitation.” Imitated from Apollonius Rhodius, vi. 1452. More careful modern observation does not confirm this proof of foresight in ants, which affords to poets so frequent a subject of allusion. On fine days, it is true, the working ants bring out and expose to the sun the eggs and larvæ ; but no store of corn, or of other provisions, has been discovered, or is requisite, as in winter ants become torpid.
406. Obnicæ. “Struggling against with their shoulders.”— Cogunt agmina, &c. “ Keep together the column of march.”
409. Fercere. “Glow (with busy preparation)."-410. Totumque videres misceri, &c. “ And didst perceive the whole surface of ocean to be disturbed,” &c.
413. Ire in lacrymas. “To have recourse to tears."-414. Et supplex animos, &c. « And, as a suppliant, to make resentment yield to love.”-415. Frustra moritura. “In that event about to die in vain," i. e. about to die in vain, in case she left any one thing unattempted.
417. Vocat jam carbasus auras. “The canvass now invites the