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82. Moeret. “She pines."-Stratisque relictis incubat. “And reelines upon his forsaken couch," i. e. that which had been occupied by Æneas during the banquet. This is so true to nature that it is surprising how Heyne, Wunderlich, Wagner, &c. could be at all in doubt about its meaning.-84. Genitoris imaginec apta. “ Captivated by his resemblance to his sire.”—85. Infandum si fallere, &c. “(To see) if (in this way) she may be able to beguile her unutterable love."
86. Non arma exercet. “Do not exercise themselves in arms."88. Pendent interrupta, i. e. are interrupted and discontinued.Minæque murorum ingentes, &c. “Both the threatening ramparts, vast of size, and the scaffolding raised to the very sky.” Heyne : “ Muri alti, quasi altitudine suâ minantes.”—89. Machina. Among the various explanations of this term given by the commentators, we have selected the most natural one, namely, the scaffolding with the pulleys fixed, and other contrivances for raising materials.
90. Quam simul ac, &c. “ As soon as the beloved consort of Jove perceived that she was held (enchained) by so blighting a passion, and that a regard for character presented no obstacle to her raging love,” &c. Quam, as beginning a clause, is here equivalent to eam. -94. Puer, i. e. the god of love.-Magnum et memorabile numen, &c. “ It will be a great and memorable exercise of divine power, if one (poor, feeble) woman is conquered by the guile of two divinities !"
96. Nec me adeo fallit. “Nor is it so unknown to me.” More freely, “nor am I so dull of comprehension as not to have perceived." 97. Suspectas habuisse. “Have held in suspicion," i. e. have regarded with an eye of suspicion.-98. Sed quis erit modus? “But what limit will there be (to this exercise of enmity)?"-Aut quo nunc certamina tanta? “Or to what purpose now (are) so great contentions (as these) ?" Certamina tanta is the conjectural emendation of Heinsius. The common text has certamine tanto, where we must supply opus est. The MSS. are in favour of this last, but still it seems to have arisen from the error of some copyist, who took quo for the ablative, when it is, in fact, an adverb, and equivalent to quorsum.
99. Quin potius pacem, &c. *“Why do we not rather cultivate an eternal peace, and bring about binding nuptials ?" i. e. nuptials the result of a regular matrimonial compact.- 100. Exercemus. Observe the zeugma in this verb.-Habes. Compare i. 673 seqq.-101. Traxitque per ossa furorem. “And hath imbibed the maddening passion into her inmost frame."--102. Communem, i. e, in common.-Paribresque auspiciis. “And with equal sway.” Equivalent to æquali potestate. The reference here is not to the nuptial auspices, but to those accustomed to be taken among the Romans when individuals entered upon any office of magistracy or power. These are here taken figuratively for authority or power itself, since they were supposed to imply a sanction, on the part of the gods, for the exercise of such power.
103. Liceat servire. « Let it be allowed her to obey.”_104. Dotalesque tuce T'yrios, &c. “ And to consign to thy tutelary care the Tyrians given as a dowry (to Eneas).” Literally, “ to thy right hånd.” So Wunderlich. 'Venus, as the mother-in-law of Dido, will become the tutelary deity of the Carthaginians, or, in other words, share that honour with Juno. The deep dissimulation of this remark does not escape the observation of Venus.
105. Olli. “Unto her.” Old form of the dative for illi, and depending in construction on ingressa est.-Sensit enim, &c. The words included in the parenthesis assign a reason why Venus replied with insincerity to Juno, namely, because she perceived that the latter had spoken insincerely.-Simulatâ mente. “With an insincere mind.” Analogous to the Homeric doloopovéovoa.—106. Quo. “In order that.”—107. Sic contra, &c. “ Venus thus began in reply.” We may supply orationem after ingressa est, though not needed in the translation.
Quis talia demens abnuat? “Who so infatuated, as to refuse such terms ?" &c.—109. Si modo, quod memoras, &c. “ Provided only a favourable issue attend the proceeding of which thou makest mention," i. e. provided the lasting union of the two races result as a matter of course from the marriage of Æneas and Dido.
110. Fatis incerta. “In a state of utter uncertainty as regards the decrees of fate.” Incerta fatis must be joined in construction, fatis being here equivalent to de fatis. (Consult Ruddimann, Instit. Gramm., col. ii. p. 71, ed. Stallbäum.)
113. Animum tentare. “To sound his intentions."-114. Perge, sequar, i. e. make a beginning ; I will follow up what thou hast begun.-115. Mecum erit iste labor. “That task shall be mine.—Quod instat. “Our present business.”—116. Adverte. “Mark (carefully).” Supply animum.
118. Ubi primos crastinus, &c. “When to-morrow's sun shall have brought forth its first risings (from the deep).” The poets used to consider the light as sunk in the ocean every evening, and brought forth from it every morning by the returning sun.—119. Titan. XCcording to one fable, the sun was the offspring of Hyperion, one of the Titans, and, of course, a Titan himself. This legend was earlier than the one which made the sun and moon (Phoebus and Diana) the offspring of Latona and Jove.
120. His ego nigrantem, &c. Construe as follows: His, dum aloe trepidant cinguntque saltus indagine, ego infundam desuper nimbum nigrantem commixtâ grandine, &c.—121. Dum trepidant alæ, &c. “ While the bright-hued plumage flutters in the wind, and (the hunters) are surrounding the thickets with their toils.” In hunting it was usual to extend nets in a curved line of considerable length, so as in part to surround a space, into which the beasts of chase, such as the hare, the boar, the deer, the lion, and the bear, were driven through the opening left on one side. This range of nets was flanked by cords, to which feathers, dyed scarlet, and other bright colours, were tied, so as to flare and flutter in the wind. These feathers were termed alæ. The hunters then sallied forth with their dogs, dislodged the animals from their coverts, and, by shouts and barking, drove them first within the formido, as the apparatus of strings and feathers was called, and then, as they were scared with this appearance, within the circuit of the nets. Commentators generally translate alæ in the text by “mounted hunters,” which is totally at variance with the spirit of the passage.
125. Adero. “I will be there,” i. e. as Juno Pronuba, or the goddess who presides over marriage. Et tua si mihi, &c. “ And provided I have thy sure assent.”—126. Connubio jungam stabili, &c. Repeated from i. 73.—128. Atque dolis risit repertis.“ And smiled at the detected fraud.” We regard dolis as the dative; Wunderlich, as ablative absolute.
130. Jubare exorto. “At the first beams of the sun." Literally, “the light, or brightness of the sun, having arisen." Supply solis after jubare.-131. Retia rara, plago, &c. “(Forth, too, go the fine nets, the toils, the broad-pointed hunting-spears.”—Plago. The larger kind of nets, for the greater beasts of prey.-Massyli. The name of a particular nation in Africa, here put for the Africans collectively.—132. Odora canum vis. Literally, “a quick-scented power of dogs.” The expression is modelled after Homeric usage, as seen in the phrase Bin IIpıápoio, &c. It is meant to indicate a number of dogs, a pack.
133. Cunctantem. A fine touch of nature. Never satisfied with her personal appearance, the operations of the toilet are begun and ended again and again.-135. Stat sonipes. “Her courser stands pawing the ground.”—137. Sidoniam picto chlamydem, &c. “Attired in a Sidonian chlamys, with embroidered border,” i, . in a purple chlamys, &c. The chlamys, to which we have already alluded (note on iii. 484), was not only a military, but a hunting dress, or scarf.
138. Cui pharetra. “Her quiver.” Supply est. Cui beginning the clause is equivalent to ei ; literally, “the quiver to her.” Crines nodantur in aurum. “Her tresses are tied up into a knot with gold,” i, e. are secured by a golden ornament. This alludes to the custom of forming a knot of hair at the top or back of the head.
139. Aurea subnectit, &c. “A golden clasp fastened her purple robe beneath the bosom," i. e. at the waist, and connected with a zone or girdle.-143. Qualis ubi, &c. “Such as Apollo (appears) when he abandons the wintry Lycia,” &c.-Hibernam Lyciam. Apollo was fabled to spend six months of the year at Patara in Lycia, where he had a temple and oracle, and six in Delos, his natal island. The six months which he spent in Lycia were winter months, and hence the expression in the text is equivalent to “Lycia, his winter abode.”— Xanthique fluenta. The Xanthus was a Lycian stream, near which stood the city of Patara.
145. Instauratque choros. “And renews the dances.” The poet · makes the god do here what was properly the office of his priests and
votaries.—Mixtique altaria circum, &c. '“ While both the Cretans, and Dryopes, and painted Agathyrsi, intermingled together around his altars, raise the loud cry of joy." This is generally supposed to be a figurative allusion to the concourse of people from different countries, who welcomed the deity on his arrival. Nöhden, however, thinks that we have here the names of three orders of priests connected with the religious rites at Delos, names borrowed from mythological times. The Agathyrsi, at all events, remind us of the Hyperboreans, and their offerings conveyed to Delos from the remote north.-But, whoever are here meant, one thing is clear, that they are represented as dancing with song around the altar, and thus performing what was denominated the χορός κυκλικός. "
146. Pictique Agathyrsi. Mela speaks of this nation's having a custom of painting their faces and bodies with marks that could not be obliterated (ii. 1, 2, 86).
147. Ipse jugis Cynthi, &c. “He himself moves majestic along the mountain-tops of Cynthus." A noble image. While his votaries are employed at the base of the mountain, where the temple was situated, in singing his praises, the god is moving majestic along the lofty summits, a laurel crown on his brow, his hair decorated with gold, and the quiver, with its fearful contents, rattling on his shoulders.-Cynthi. Consult note on i. 498.-Mollique fluentem, &c. " And, adjusting his flowing hair, crowns it with a soft and leafy bough, and clasps it round with gold.”—Premit molli fronde. Literally, “presses it with the soft leaf,” i. e. with a crown of bay, his favourite tree.- 148. Implicat auro. The hair was drawn up all around the head, and fastened in a knot or cowbólos, which was secured by a golden ornament.
149. Haud segnior. “With no less graceful activity than he.”
151. Postquam centum. “ After they had come.” Full form, postquam dentum est ab illis.-Invia lustra. “Pathless haunts (of wild beasts).”—152. Ecce! fere, saxi, &c. “ Lo! the wild goats, dislodged from the top of the rock, ran down the ridges.” So Wunderlich. Heyne makes dejectæ equivalent to quæe se dejecerant, “having leaped down.”—153. Aliâ de parte, &c. "In another quarter, the stags traverse in rapid course the open plains, and gather together in their flight their dust-covered squadrons,” &c.—154. Transmittunt campos, i. e., mittunt se trans campos.
156. At puer Ascanius. The exchange had again been made between Cupid and Ascanius, and the latter was now once more with his sire.-158. Spumantemque dari, &c. “And wishes a foaming boar to be given to his prayers amid the unwarlike herds,” i. e. by Diana, the goddess of hunting. .
162. Tyrii comites. “ The Tyrian retinue,” i. e. the Carthaginian attendants of Dido.-163. Diversa tecta. “ Different shelters.”— 166. Earth is here personified, as one of the deities presiding over marriage. “This consummation of the unhappy queen's love," remarks Symmons, “is related in the finest spirit of poetry. The nuptial goddess, Juno, presides over the scene : earth and air give ominous presage of the fatal consequences : the hymeneal torches are supplied by lightning ; and the nuptial song is formed by sounds of ghostly lamentation, and the howlings of the Oreades, or mountain nymphs. The peculiar modesty of the passage has frequently been made the subject of praise.”—167. Dant signum. A slight tremor of the earth ensues ; as a signal of the unhappy union of the guilty pair.
Et conscius other connubiis. “And the sky was a witness to their nuptials.” This is merely an enlargement on what immediately precedes. The flashing lightning reveals their guilt to the skies.Summo. “On the summit of the mountain.” The mountain nymphs, or Oreades, are here meant.
169. Illé dies primus, &c. “That day first was the cause of death, and that first of (all) her woes.” The more ordinary expression would have been, prima causa, or primum fuit causa.–170. Neque enim specie, &c., i. e. she is now equally regardless of appearance and of her own character. Meditatur here does not refer to the mere reflecting upon a matter, but to the clothing of it with reality. “ Indulges in.” Heusinger (ad Cic. Off. i. 40, 9: “ Meditari non est tantum secum attentius cogitare, cerum etiam exercere, et ad quamcunque rem se præparare”).-172. Prætexit. “She seeks to cover." The more usual construction would be, prætexit hoc nomen culpæ, “she spreads this name as a covering for her fault ;" more literally, “she weaves this name in front of her fault (as a covering or screen)."
173. Famu. “ Rumour.”—176. Parod metu primo. “ Small at first through fear,"' i.e. her first steps are timid, owing to the secrecy with which, to avoid detection, slanders are first propagated.-177. Ingrediturque solo. “And stalks upon the ground. Virgil gets the
hint of his phantom from the Eris of Homer, and both this and the previous line are directly imitated from the Greek poet. (Il. iv. 442, seq.)
178.* Írá irritata deorum. “ Incensed at the anger of the gods," i. e. at the angry punishment inflicted by the gods on her giant offspring.–179. Extremam, ut perhibent, &c. “The youngest sister, as they say, to Cous and Enceladus." These are two of the giants, or sons of Earth ; and Fame, from the gigantic size to which she ultimately attains, is made their sister. Coeus is ranked by Apollodorus (i. 1, 3) among the Titans. The Giants warred against Jupiter, the Titans against Saturn.
181. Cui quot sunt corpore, &c. “ To whom, as many feathers as there are upon her body, so many sleepless eyes are there beneath,” &c., i. e, eyes under the feathers; hence the poet adds mirabile dictu. The body of Rumour is covered with feathers, because, as La Cerda rather quaintly remarks, “ Quisque, quum rem enuntiat, suam addit plumam, faciens, quantum in se est, celeriorem famam." The eyes are placed under the plumage, because, as Servius explains it, while Rumour sees all things she is seen by no one ; " quum ipsa omnia videat, videatur a nemine," alluding, of course, to the incipient stages. - 183. Subrigit. “She pricks up."
184. Nocte volat, &c. “ By night she flies midway between heaven and earth, through the gloom, with a rushing sound of her pinions.” Rumour flies amid darkness and obscurity, and nought is heard but the rushing sound of her pinions, because incipient slander is stealthy and cautious, and the only indications of its presence are the buzzing and whispering tongues of men.-186. Luce sedet custos, &c. “ By day, she sits as a spy.” When slanders have gained a certain degree of ascendancy, then Rumour shows herself in the full light of day, and sits down before the eyes of all. But she sits as a spy, on lofty places of observation, searching for new materials of detraction, and prying into the secrets of families.
188. Tam ficti pravique tenax, &c. “As tenacious of what is false and wicked as an announcer of what is true.” Rumour clings to what she has once propagated, whether it be true or false. “ This personification of Rumour has often been censured,” remarks Symmons, “as extended to too great a length; and perhaps we might wish that it had been somewhat shorter. But the part assigned to the monster is important, and the poetry in which she is represented is so admirable, that he must be an unrelenting critic indeed, who, as he reads, can consent to blot out a single line of it.”
190. Facta atque infecta. “Facts and fictions."
192. Viro. “ As a husband.”—193. Nunc hiemein inter, &c. “ That they are now passing the winter, as long as it may last, in mutual dalliance, unmindful of their respective kingdoms, and enslaved by degrading passion.” With quam longa supply sit. It was now only the commencement of winter ; but Rumour, with her thousand tongues, exaggerates every thing, and makes it the intention of the guilty pair to spend the whole winter thus. Hiemem fovere is elegantly used for hiemale tempus luxui dare.
196. Iarban. Virgil, following, probably, the fabulous narrative of some Alexandrian poet, makes Iarbas to have reigned in the Numidian territory, and to have introduced into his dominions the rites and worship of Jupiter Ammon, his sire, from the Oracle of Ammon in the Oasis.—197. Aggerat. “Aggravates."