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racter as coming from the lips of Æneas, who could have no feeling of commiseration for a bitter foe.

692. Sicanio prætenta sinu. “ Stretched out in front of the Sicilian bay.” The Bay of Syracuse, otherwise called Portus Magnus, is here meant.-Contra Plemmyrium undcsum. “ Opposite the wavelashed Plemmyrium.” The Plemmyrian promontory is meant.693. Priores. “ The ancients.” Literally, “the earlier race of men.” The poet means that the island got the name of Ortygia from an early legend. According to one of Mai's scholiasts, it was called Ortygia from õprvĚ, “a quail,” because Latona took refuge here, having been changed into a quail in order to escape from the serpent

Python.

694. Huc occultas egisse vias, &c. “ Hath worked hither a secret passage beneath the sea, which (stream) is now, 0 Arethusa, mingled through thy mouth with the Sicilian waters."

697. Jussi. “Being directed so to do.” By Anchises, as Heyne thinks. The poet himself does not say by whom.-698. Helorus. A river of Sicily, between Syracuse and the promontory of Pachynus. It overflows, and for a season remains stagnating upon the adjacent fields. When its waters are withdrawn, great fertility is the result. 700. Radimus. “We coast closely along."--Fatis numquam concessa moveri, i. e. forbidden by the Fates to be moved. Alluding to the well-known story of the draining of the adjacent marsh.—701. Campique Geloï. These plains lay around Gela, and were famed for their fertility and beauty.- Immanisque Gela. “And Gela, of monstersymbol.” The city of Gela had the Minotaur on its coins, hence the epithet immanis.

* 703. Arduus inde Acragas. “Then lofty Agrigentum.” Acragas is the Greek name for Agrigentum, and also for the height or rock on which it was situate. It stood 1100 feet above the level of the sea, and, therefore, might well be seen from afar.—704. Generator. “The breeder.” The Agrigentines were famous at one time for sending horses to the Olympic games. Theron, a native of this city, is also celebrated by Pindar as an Olympic conqueror. -706. Et vada dura lego, &c. “And I coast along the shoals of Lilybeum, (rendered) dangerous by hidden rocks." Lilybeum was the westernmost of the three famous capes of Sicily. It is not a mountain-promontory, but a low, flat point of land, rendered dangerous to vessels by its sandbanks and concealed rocks.

707. Hinc. “ Leaving this.”Illætabilis ora. « Joyless coast.” So called by him because here he lost his father.—711. Nequidquam. “In vain." Not having been enabled to reach Italy.—712. Cum. “Though.”—715. Hinc me digressum, &c. This carries us back to i. 34 : “ Vix e conspectu Siculo telluris," &c.—717. Fata Divúm, i. e. his career, &c., as settled by the decrees of heaven.—718. Quierit. “Rested,” i. e. rested from his narrative. Wunderlich and others render this “retired to rest.” But this is too abrupt, and borders on the burlesque.

402

BOOK FOURTH.

1. Curâ put for amore. The particle at has reference to the close of the preceding book: Æneas, on his part, made an end of his narrative; but the queen, on the other hand, long before it was done, was a prey to ardent love.-2. Carpitur. “Is consumed."-3. Multa viri virtus, &c. “ The many distinguished traits in the hero, and the lofty honour of his line, keep recurring to her mind.” Virtus is here more than mere valour : it is all that ennobles and makes the true man (oir).-4. Gentis honos. Referring to the connexion of the house of Æneas with the race of the gods through Venus and Anchises.

Vultus. “ His looks."-5. Nec placidam, &c. “Nor does (this) care allow calm repose to her frame.” Her slumbers were broken, and strange visions came over her in her dreams. Compare line 9: “ Quæe me suspensam insomnia terrent ?

6. Lustrabat. “ Was beginning to illumine.” Heyne makes aurora stand for dies, which is justly condemned by Wunderlich.-8. Unani. mam is a beautiful term here, “ of one and the same mind,” “united in feeling,” &c. Voss also renders it “liebenden (Schwester),” “ Lov. ing sister.”—Male sana. Heyne : "insana, waivouévn.” “Disturbed in mind.”

9. Quce me suspensum, &c. She dreamed of Æneas and love. This filled her with alarm when she awoke, lest she might be tempted to violate the vows of constancy which she had previously offered up to the memory of her husband; and yet so powerful were the attractions of the Trojan hero, that this same alarm would, every now and then, pass away from her bosom, and be succeeded by a feeling of utter uncertainty as to how she should act.

10. Quis norus hic hospes, &c. “Who is this wondrous guest that hath come to our abodes?" Literally, “ to our settlements," Observe the imitation of the Greek idiom. In this latter language, the demonstrative placed after the interrogative pronoun draws together two members of a sentence into one; as ούτος δέ τίς λόγω τε και ODével kpatei, for tíç čoTLV Oŭrog og kpatei, &c.

11. Quem sese ore ferens ! “How graceful in mien !" Literally, “ whom, bearing himself to the view) in personal appearance.” Quam forti pectore, &c. “ How brave in spirit and in arms !" Literally " of how brave a spirit and arms." The full expression would be, quam forti pectore et quam fortibus armis.

12. Nec cana fides. « Nor is my belief a groundless one."--Genus esse deorum. “'Í'hat he is a descendant of the gods.” Supply eum. Genus for prolem or progeniem.-13. Degeneres animos, &c.“ Fear argues ignoble souls." The absence of fear on the part of Æneas, in so many trying situations, is a proof of his high origin.-14. Exhausta. “ Endured (by him in all their dangers).” Literally, “exhausted," i. e, drained or exhausted of dangers by him.

16. Ne cui me cinclo, &c. “Not to wish to join myself to any one by the marriage bond, since my first love disappointed me, deceived (in my hopes of happiness) by the death (of Sychæus).”—18. Si non pertæsum fuisset. Supply me.Tædæ. “The marriage torch.” According to the Roman custom, the bride was conducted to the residence of the bridegroom by the light of torches.

19. Potui. Not for possem, as some maintain. Potui succumbere indicates what would have happened under a certain condition, but what, since the condition has not taken place, has not, of course, occurred. It is the same, therefore, as saying, “ potui succumbere, at non succumbam.Culpo. The fault here meant is a second marriage. Second marriages in women were not esteemed reputable.

20. Fata. The fatal end.-21. Fraternâ cæde. “With blood poured out by a brother's hand.” The same as cæde a fratre commissa.

-22. Solus hic inflexit, &c. “This one alone hath swayed my feelings, and given an impulse to my wavering mind.”—23. Agnosco teteris, &c. i. e. I again feel the flame of love, as I formerly felt it.

27. She would offend against propriety and modesty by a second marriage.—Meos amores. All my love.” Observe the force of the plural.-30. Sinum. Supply sororis. -Obortis. Consult note on iii. 492.

32. Solane perpetuâ, &c. “ Wilt thou alone be wasted away, in mourning (for another), during all thy youth ?” The reference is to Sychæus.--Juventâ. Heyne takes this in a general sense for wtate, or vitâ. In this, however, he is wrong. The poet has imaged forth Dido as still conspicuous for youthful beauty.

33. Veneris præmia. « The endearments of wedded love.”—34. Id cinerem, &c. “ Think you that the ashes (of the dead), or the manes laid at rest in the tomb, care for that ?" i. e. think you that the departed Sychæus at all cares whether you are again united in wedlock or not? The manes were supposed to rest in peace after the proper funeral ceremonies had been performed.

35. Esto: gram nulli, &c. “Granted that in former days no suitors bent thee (to their prayers) while pining (for Sychæus)," i. e. I allow that in former days your conduct was proper enough in refusing to listen to any suitors while the loss of Sychæus was still recent in your memory ; but now, why continue to act thus ? why struggle with a passion that possesses charms for you? We must be careful not to connect esto with what precedes. The more literal translation is, “ Be it so: no suitors formerly,” &c.

36. Non ante Tyro. “Not before that in Tyre.”—Despectus Iarbas. “ Iarbas was slighted." Iarbas was an African prince, in whose dominions Dido had been allowed to settle, and whose hand she had refused. Compare line 196, seqq.-37. Triumphis dives. “Rich in triumphs," i. e. agitated by constant warfare.—38. Placitone etiam pugnabis amori ? “Will you even struggle against a passion that is pleasing to you ?”

41. Numidæ infræni. “The Numidians riding unbridled steeds." Infræeni is very incorrectly interpreted indomiti by Ruæus. Virgil certainly means their governing their horses without a bridle, by a wand only. So Heyne and the best commentators.--Et inhospita Syrtis. The two Syrtes are here meant, especially the Syrtis Major. The reference, however, is, in fact, to the barbarous and inhospitable tribes along this part of the shore.

42. Hinc deserta siti, &c. “ On the other side a region rendered desert by aridity, and the widely-raging Barcæans.” The Barcæans were properly the inhabitants of the city of Barce, in Cyrenaïca, and are here named by a species of anachronism, since their city was founded long after the supposed time of Æneas. It will be perceived, from an examination of the map, that Virgil speaks of the Numidians and Gætulians, to the south-west of Carthage, and the Barcæi, to

the south-east. Between these he places the Syrtes and a sandy desert.

43. Tyro surgentia. “ Arising from Tyre.”—44. Germanique minas. Alluding to Pygmalion, who had threatened war, on account of the treasures which Dido had carried off with her.—45. Dis auspicibus, &c. Juno is here particularly mentioned, both because she presided over marriage, and because Carthage was under her peculiar care.

47. Quam tu urbem, &c. “ What a city, O my sister, wilt thou see this one.”—49. Quantis rebus. “By how great power.” Rebus equivalent to opibus or potentia.

50. Tu modo posce, &c. The recommendation of Anna to perform sacred rites that may secure the favour of the gods, is an answer to Dido's quce me insomnia terrent ? These rites would serve to counteract the omens connected with her dreams.-Sacrisque litatis. A novel form of expression. Litare properly means “to appease by sacrifice;" here, however, the phrase sacris litatis reminds us of celebrantur are, and similar poetic forms. Subsequent writers, imitating Virgil in this novel usage, say “litare victimas,litare sanguinem humanum,&c.

51. Causasque innecte. “And frame pretexts.”–52. Dum pelago, &c. Anna here suggests various reasons for inducing Æneas to remain longer at Carthage : the wintry season, the storms threatened by Orion, the shattered condition of the fleet, &c.— Aquosus Orion. Consult note on i. 535.-53. Dum non tractabile cælum. This has very much the appearance of an addition by some later hand, to complete a hemistich. It is certainly not needed after dum pelago desceoit hiems, &c.

54. Incensum animum, &c. “ She wrapped in flame her bosom, glowing with love,” i. e. she kindled the fire that was preying upon lier peace of mind into an open flame. Incendere is to make a thing all on fire ; accendere to set fire merely to a part. Accensus animus, therefore, is merely equivalent to animus excitatus ; whereas incensus animus denotes a bosom pervaded by the powerful influence of some passion or strong emotion, “a mind all on fire.” Inflammare is to cause what was before more or less concealed to burst forth into a flame. Compare the version of Voss : “ Erhob sie die Glut der Liebe zu Flammen.”

55. Soloitque pudorem. “And removed her former scruples," i. e. removed the scruples in the mind of Dido, as to any disrespect she might be thus showing towards the memory of Sychæus. Some render pudorem in this passage “ every sense of shame," a meaning which cannot be too much condemned.

56. Adeunt. Referring to the two sisters.--Pacemque per aras, &c. “ And earnestly seek at the altars for the favour (of the gods).” Literally, “ among the altars," i. e. going from one to another, or to the temples of various deities in succession.-57. Lectas de more, &c. “ Chosen in due form.” The heathen, as well as the Jewish religion, ordained that no victims should be offered to the gods but such as were sound, perfect in all their parts, and without blemish. This seems to be the import of lectas de more.

58. Legiferæ Cereri. “To the law-giving Ceres.” Laws were said to have been introduced by Ceres, because agriculture, over which she presided, laid the first foundations of civilized life. Dido, therefore, offers sacrifice to her, as having instituted laws, especially those of marriage, and having led men by these means to the formation of

families and the blessings of civilization.-Phoeboque. She offered sacrifices to Phoebus as the god who presided over futurity, in order to gain his favour for her intended union with Æneas.- Patrique Lyão, i. e. Bacchus, called Lyæus (Avaios), from lów, “ to loosen," or “ free," because he frees the mind from care. Bacchus is here invoked, in order that he might crown the match with perpetual joy. -59. Cui vincla jugalia, &c. “ Unto whom nuptial ties are a care," i. e. who presides over marriage. Hence the epithet Juno Pronuba.

60. Pateram. Consult note on i. 729.–61. Media inter cornua, &c. This is according to the Roman manner of performing sacrifice. After the immolatio, which consisted in strewing the head of the victim with roasted barley-meal, mixed with salt, wine was poured between the horns. Compare vi. 244.-62. Ante ora deúm. “Before the statues of the gods.” Literally, “the visages," &c.—Pingues. “Loaded.”—63. Instauratque diem donis. “And renews the day with gifts," i. e, makes the whole day one continued scene of solemn sacrifice, by offering victim after victim. These repeated offerings are made from an anxious wish to obtain new omens still better than the last.

63. Pecudumque reclusis, &c. “ And bending with eager expectation over the opened breasts of the victims.”-64. Inhians. Literally, “standing with parted lips over.” It beautifully expresses the eager expectation of the queen.—64. Exta. These are the onláyxva of the Greeks, as contained in the upper stomach, namely, the heart, lungs, liver, &c.

65. Vatum. “Of diviners," i. e. of those who seek to derive from sacrifices a knowledge of the future. How ignorant, beautifully exclaims the poet, were the very diviners whom she consulted, and who predicted unto her the secrets of the future from an examination of the victims! They saw not the hand of fate busily at work in the case of that very female unto whom they pretended to disclose events about to happen.

66. Est is from ēdo, “ Consumes.”—67. Tacitum. “ Hidden.”— Vivit. Forcibly said of a wound that keeps rankling and growing more and more inflamed.

69. Qualis conjecta, &c. Heyne well remarks of this beautifully appropriate simile, “ Egregia perdite amantis comparatio.72. Ne. scius, &c. “ Ignorant (of the wound), has left (in her) the flying steel.”—73. Dictæos. Consult note on iii. 171.

75. Sidonias opes. “Her Sidonian wealth,” i. e. the splendid appearance of her city, as testifying to her wealth. With regard to the epithet Sidonias, consult note on i. 446.–Urbemque paratam. “ And the city that stood ready for him.” A union with Dido would place this fair city in his hands, nor need he seek any further for a resting-place. This, of course, was not openly expressed, but was easily to be implied from the manner of the queen.

76. Media in coce. “In the midst of what she was saying.”77. Labente die. The poet follows the Roman custom of having the coena, or banquet, late in the afternoon.—Qucerit, i.e. she impatiently awaits. –78. Demens. “ Infatuated.”

80. Post, ubi digressi, &c. “ Afterward, when all had retired, and the (now) dim moon, in her turn, withdraws her light." The reference is to the setting moon with its feebler light.- Vicissim. After giving her light in due course.–81. Suadentque cadentia, &c. Consult note on ii. 9.

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