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dismisses the banquet without much particularizing, the only two allusions being to the libation and the golden service. Heyne thinks that paterasque tenebant is a frigid addition, but Wagner makes libabant paterasque tenebant equivalent to libabant pateras tenentes. Still there is an awkward pleonasm in pocula.- Aulaz. Old form of the genitive for aulæ.-Paterasque. As regards the form of the ancient pateræ, consult note on i. 729.

356. Alterque dies. “And a second day."-358. Vatem. “ The prophet,” i. e. Helenus, who is also called by Homer oiwyomówv őx' ZOLOTOS, “by far the best of diviners.” (Il. vi. 76.)-359. Qui Numina Phoebi, &c. “ Who understandest the will of Phæbus, the tripods, the bays of the Clarian god, the stars," i. e. whose breast is filled with the same prophetic spirit that actuates the Pythoness at Delphi, or the priests of the Clarian god, and who art able to read the stars, and draw from them sure omens of the future.-360. Tripodas. The sacred tripod at Delphi, on which the Pythoness sat. (Consult note on line 92.)-Clarii lauros. With Clarii supply dei. Apollo had a famous seat of divination at Claros, near Colophon, in Asia Minor. The oracle was in a cave, surrounded by a sacred grove.

361. Et roluorum linguas, &c. “ And the notes of birds, and the omens of the rapid wing,” i. e. afforded by the rapid wing. We have here the two great classes of omens accustomed to be drawn from birds, namely, those from their singing or cry, and those from their flight. Birds belonging to the former class were called Oscines ; to the latter, Præpetes.

362. Namque omnem cursum, &c. “(And well may I ask thee this), since favouring responses and omens have declared thy whole course to me.” Observe the force of namque, equivalent to kai yao --363. Religio. The term properly applies to religious rites and ceremonies, and then to all things connected with or flowing from them, such as responses, omers, auguries, &c.-Numine. “By an expression of their divine will."-364. Et terras tentare repóstas. “And to make trial of far-distant lands." i. e. to search there for a new home.-366. Tristes iras, &c. “ Gloomy vengeance and loathsome famine," i. e, famine so severe as to compel us to eat the most revolting food.

370. Erorat pacem divúm. “Entreats the favour of the gods." - Vittasque resolvit, &c. “ And unbinds the fillets of his consecrated head." Helenus, while performing the sacrifice, had his brow, as was customary, encircled with fillets. Now, however, that he is going to prophesy, he removes the fillets, and assumes more of that air of wild enthusiasm which the ancients ascribed to divine inspiration. Compare what is said of the Sibyl in vi. 48 : “ Non compte mansere comce."-371. Ad tua limina, Phoebe. There appears to have been a temple of Apollo in this new Troy, after the example of the one which had stood in the Pergamus at home.-372. Multo suspensum numine. “Awestruck at the abundant presence of the god," i. e. struck with awe at the many indications around me of the presence of the god.

374. Nain te majoribus, &c. “For sure is my faith that thou art going through the deep, under higher auspices (than ordinary),” ise. strong is my belief that thou art the peculiar favourite of heaven, and art traversing the ocean under loftier auspices, and with a higher destiny, than fall to the lot of ordinary men. Nam may be referred

either to nate deá, which goes before,

F a s tin follows after. If we refer it to the somez sie as a who z for, that thou art really the stageing of a petits MTZ from the higher auspiees that are thine

e me = make nam relate to ponos, de. then te meaning in de zi de only a few things out of many. The remainie

t e : character for a mere mortal prophet samme samt e

te This last is far preferable to the other inter ius: 204 se m a order of the sentence, by hieh won is starte

e n accords well with the agitated state si de e making this diselosure. Hence, toe, sites is as Ser the from nam to ordo being incident in a facencke -2 deúm rex, &c. “The king of the pre s s the second fate, and regulates the succession sé erens: ne aties me things is now undergoing its simplismens*

* being made to revolve, ie this rerüan si ens = 5 ration. 377. Quo tutior hospita, &e. I sier at du

se in greater safety friendly sexs Tate, m

a e allusion is to the Yare Terra , de iwe ang tse S. which the Ausones were settier, iron om die La La to fear. The Adriatie, ou te stes tant, s áni sé Sanga them, since its coasts were a wh Gongan suihibent nam cetera, &e. We have remote se sama z ona as to make both this verb and furi de sfees Kerian with the explanation given of name in line 554 381. Italian. Governed by toilt-382. c

r o &c. “And whose harbour, ipsunt sé res ne gaa t preparing to enter as if they veze sein ng me"> * tu were in thy immediate vicinity. Eace ve s . imagined that all he had to do in selesai ar was over the intervening Adriatie so se sognate d e ora forms him of his error, and states that sie sa ay walan destined to settle is still fa : se


. will still find a long tract of country is the sale me te his course by sea will be equally inngana se ilan wishes to reach its erasts, to sail nd Itay at bear

383. Longa procal longis,&e. * Along re , difer e ncia keeps far off from thee, by intervenang lauta sé sag a ta Italy,” &c. Many think that this mes 2 sute by

a however. The meaning of Helena i mesai suust, sest sie uns cross over at once from Epirus to Italy, fue att all star and along a tedious and difficult rudte by u t

* terro” intervening, before reacting Lacana, de

la was destined to settle. The lasa torre* ut sa is

a ng the whole intervening trzet of Italy, sm the con Latin frontier. Heyne thinks that a page wat met longa, longis; ria, inria.

384. Trinacriá. Sieily was called Irasas i sada, *se Trinacrian island," from its three yesmuntamas

on -385. Salis Ausonii. The Lover o T aa ya Chuo along a large part of whose store the fans w stan b d nations were settled. · 386. Infernique lacus. Lake Arer ,

E amu wa

“ And the island of Ævan Circe.” Circe was so called from her native city Æa, in Colchis. Her island was on the western coast of Italy, and became afterward a promontory of Latium, by the name of Circeii.-387. Antequam tuta, &c. “Before thou canst erect a city in a land of safety.”

389. Cum tibi sollicito, &c. “When a huge sow, having brought forth a litter of thirty young, shall lie beneath the holm-trees on the shore, having been found by thee while musing by the stream of a retired river, white (herself), reclining on the ground, her young ones white around her dugs." This circumstance of the white sow with her thirty white offspring, which to many may appear beneath the dignity of epic song, is related by Dionysius of Halicarnassus, on the authority, as would appear, of antecedent writers; and we may conclude that it was the subject of some ancient tradition. Our poet, therefore, very properly seized on it for the purpose of authenticating his poem with the semblance of historic veracity. What may tend, therefore, to lower it in our eyes, was calculated to give it credit in those of the Romans.

393. Is locus urbis erit. Alba was built at a later day, by Ascanius, on this very spot, and received its name, according to tradition, from the white sow and her white young ones.—By the retired river the poet merely means a part of the Tiber, at a distance from the haunts of men.

397. Proxima quce nostri, &c. “Which, nearest, is washed by the tide of our sea," i. e. which, lying in our immediate vicinity, is laved by the tide of the Ionian Sea, where it flows between Epirus and Italy. The Ionian Sea is here the same with the Adriatic.-388, Cuncta moenia. “All the cities.”

399. Narycii Locri. The Epizephyrian Locri, who settled in Bruttium, in Lower Italy, and who are here called “Narycian,” from Naryx, or Narycium, one of their cities at home, opposite Eubea.-400. Et Sallentinos, &c. “ And the Cretan Idomeneus hath occupied, with his soldiery, the plains of the Sallentini." The Sallentini were a people of Italy, in the territory of Messapia.-401. Lyctius. Froin Lyctus, a city of Crete. · Hence equivalent to “ Cretan.”-Hic illa ducis, &c. “Here, too, is that little Petilia, relying for defence on the wall of Philoctetes, the Melibaan leader," i. e. defended by the wall, &c. Petilia was a small place in Bruttium, built and fortified by Philoctetes, after the Trojan war. He is called the Melibean, from his native city, Melibea, in Thessaly.

403. Quin. “ Moreover.” For quinetiam.- Transmissæ steterint, &c. “ Having been carried across the seas, shall have come to a sta. tion.”—405. Purpureo velare, &c. “ Covered with a purple covering, be thou veiled as to thy locks." Velare is the present imperative passive, like imponere, in ii. 707. Virgil alludes here to what was properly a Roman custom, namely, to cover the head during a sacrifice, in order that the priest who officiated might observe nothing ill-omened. Afterwards, a veil was merely thrown from behind over the head and face, which, although one could see through it, still satisfied the form required.—406. Qua, for aliqua.—407. Omina. Taken before the sacrifice commenced.

Servius tells a curious story, that Diomede, suffering under various calamities, was directed by an oracle to restore to the Trojans the Palladium which he had in his possession. That he came, accord.

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ingly, with this intention tu the spot where Æneas was sacrificing with muffled head, and that the Trojan warrior, not stopping the sacrifice to receive the image, Nantes, one of his followers, took it.

409. Hâc casti maneant, &c. “Let thy pious descendants stead. fastly adhere to this ceremony."

411. Et angusti rarescent, &c. " And the straits of the narrow Pelorus shall begin to open on the view." The straits here meant are those between Italy and Sicily, now the Straits of Messina. The name given them in the text is from Pelorus, the easternmost promontory of Sicily, and the point on the Sicilian shore where the straits are narrowest. Helenus directs Æneas not to pass through these, on account of the dangers which threaten from Scylla and Charybdis, but to keep to the left, and sail around Sicily.-- Rarescent. To a vessel sailing down along the coast of Italy, this country and Sicily must appear at some distance as one land, until the mariners come in a direct line with the straits; and then the claustra must gradually open and discover the narrow passage.

412. Læra tellus. Sicily.—413. Destrum littus. Italy.

414. Hæc loca, vi quondam, &c. Construe as follows: Ferunt hæc loca, convulsa quondam vi et castá ruinâ dissiluisse.--Vastā ruinâ. “ With vast desolation.” Heyne explains ruinâ by terrce motu, a meaning which is implied rather in ri.—416. Ferunt. “They say.” Alluding to the tradition that Sicily, after having formed part of it, was torn away from Italy by some violent convulsion of nature, and became an island.-Cum protenus, &c. “When each land was joined and formed but one.” Protenus equivalent, literally, to continuè, or the Greek dintekūs.-417. Venit medio vi pontus.“ The sea came violently between.”—418. Arraque et urbes, &c. “And with a narrow (and tumultuous) tide, now flows between fields and cities separated by a shore," i. e. separated by the sea, forming a shore on either side.—419. Angusto cestu, i. e. the tide, as being strongly agitated in a narrow strait.

420. Dextrum Scylla latus, &c. Helenus is now describing the straits between Italy and Sicily. Scylla is on the Italian, Charybdis on the Sicilian side. -421. Obsidet. “Guards.” Literally,“ blocks up.” A military term, that here denotes, figuratively, her holding the place like a foe, bent on the destruction of all passers by. The same remark will apply to Charybdis.— Implacata. “Implacable,” i. e. unsated.-Atque imo barathri, &c. “ And thrice, with the deepest whirlpool of its abyss, it sucks vast waves headlong in, and spouts them forth again in succession unto the upper air, and lashes the stars with the spray,” i. e, and thrice, where the abyss is deepest, its eddying waters suck in, &c.—422. In abruptum. . Heyne : “ Profundum, adeoque præceps."

425. Ora exsertantem, &c. “ Stretching forth her jaws from time to time."-426. Prima hominis facies. The upper part of her body is that of a human being." Prima opposed to postrema. Literally, “the uppermost appearance (or look) is that of a human being."

427. Pistrir. “A sea-monster.” Some commentators think that a species of basking shark (squalus maximus) is here meant, and they are probably correct. According to the poet, the lower parts of Scylla consisted of an immense sea-monster, terminating in numerous dolphin-tails, each tail being connected with the womb of a sea-wolf, and these wombs formed the under part of the pistrix. By the sea

wolf is meant a rapacious kind of fish.-—-428. Delphinum caudas, &c. “ Having the tails of dolphins joined to the womb of wolves.” Literally, “ joined as to the tails of dolphins with,” &c.

429. Præstat Trinacrii, &c. “It is better for thee, delaying in thy course, to pass around the limits of the Sicilian Pachynus, and to fetch a long compass, than once to have beheld the misshapen Scylla,” &c., i.e. it is better for thee to take more time in navigating, and, lengthening thy route, to pass around Sicily, doubling Cape Pachynus, its southern extremity, than to expose thyself to the dangers arising from a single view of Scylla.—432. Et cæruleis canibus resonantia saxa. “And the rocks that re-echo with the howlings of the dark blue hounds of the sea.” These “ hounds” are the canes marince, or sea-dogs. Heyne makes them the same with the lupi just mentioned, but not, in our opinion, very correctly. They seem, rather, to have been quite distinct from Scylla, and to have occupied the caverns in the neighbouring rocks, whence they issued to destroy shipwrecked mariners. Homer represents Scylla as often catching these sea-dogs for her own prey. (Od. xii. 97.-Schol, in Apoll. Rhod. iv. 825.)

433. Si qua est Heleno prudentia, &c. “If Helenus possesses any wisdom (as a man), if any credit is due to him as a prophet.” Some remove the comma after prudentia, and place it after vati. According to this, prudentia will signify a knowledge of the future. This, how. ever, is far inferior to the ordinary pointing, as we have given it in the text.—436. Prædicam. “ I will tell thee plainly,” i. e. I will here openly charge upon thei'. llelenus now begins to allude to the dan'gers which Juno will throw in the way of Æneas. As he cannot, however, particularize these dangers (compare line 380), he contents himself with giving the hero a general warning. He enjoins one thing, nevertheless, in plain and direct terms, namely, to propitiate Juno's favour.

437. Primum, i. e, before doing any thing else.–438. Junoni cane, &c. “With willing bosom offer up vows unto Juno, and strive to overcome,” &c.Libens, i. e. neither sparingly nor remissly. It answers to the Greek apobúuws.-439. Supera. A strong term. Compel her, as it were, to become propitious by dint of entreaty. Heyne explains it very well by expugna. “ Take by storm."-440. Mittere. « Thou shalt be sent (on thy way),” i. e. thou shalt be allowed to reach.

441. Cumæam urbem. “The Cumæan city," i. e. the city of Cumæ, in Italy, on the shore of Campania. It was famed as the residence of the Sibyl.—442. Divinosque lacus, &c., i. e. the Lucrine and Avernian lakes, but especially the latter. They are called sacred, either from their general character, or, more probably, because the Sibyl resided in their immediate vicinity.--Et Acerna sonantia silvis. Alluding to the low moaning of the wind among the thick forests that encircled this gloomy and stagnant lake.

443. Insanam catem. “A wild-raving prophetess." Alluding to the appearance and demeanour of the Sibyl, when under the influence of divine inspiration.—444. Fata canit, &c. “ Reveals the secrets of the fates, and consigns characters and words unto leaves," i. e. writes down her oracles on leaves. The verb cano must not be taken in its strict and literal sense, but merely implies that the responses of the Sibyl were in verse, that is, verse not pronounced, but merely written. The usual custom of the Sibyl was not to deliver

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