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sequendi. Heyne thinks that we must either include the words quce sit rebus, &c., down to urbi incensce, in a parenthesis ; or else must understand agite, sequimini me, after certa sequi. But a parenthesis of so great length would be altogether out of character with the tone of excitement that pervades the whole address ; nor is an ellipsis needed if we only make the apodosis commence at line 350. The general meaning of the whole passage will then be as follows : If you have determined to follow me, you do this because you see that every thing is lost. Let us, therefore, as the only thing left for the vanquished, meet our death like men.
351. Excessere. “Have departed from among us." We make adytis and aris ablatives absolute.-352. Steterat. Observe the force of the pluperfect, “had stood and remained until lately standing.”353. Moriamur et in media, &c. “Let us die, and rush (for that purpose) into the midst of the conflict.” Grammarians call this Votepov' a pótepov, i. e. “last first," an imaginary figure, for which there is no necessity either here or any where else. We have merely in the text the strong language of excited feeling.–354. Una salus victis, &c. “The only safety," i. e, an honourable death, by which they may free themselves from the power of the foe, is all that remains for the vanquished.
355. Inde, lupi ceu raptores. “ Then, like ravenous wolves.” So the Greek lúkoi åpnaktñpec.-356. Atrâ in nebula. The wolves, it is said, prefer prowling when the sky is shrouded in clouds, or when mists and fogs add to the darkness of the night.-Improba. The leading idea in probus is that of softness and mildness. (Compare the Greek apģos, país, of which it is only another form.) Hence the original force of improbus is “ harsh," "urgent,” “strong,” “ powerful,” &c., the preposition in having a negative force here in composition.-357. Cæcos. This properly denotes, blind to all danger. Their hunger makes them see nothing, and fear nothing.
359. Medice urbis. Equivalent to per mediam urbem.-360. Nox atra. Thiel supposes that it was now about midnight, and that the moon had gone down.-Carâ. The shade is here called “hollow," because forming a kind of covering around them.
361. Funera. “The deaths." —-362. Aut possit lacrimis, &c., i.e. or can shed as many tears for our misfortunes as they deserve.-363. Dominata. “After having borne sway,” i. e. over the neighbouring cities of Troas.-364. Inertia corpora. “Corpses of the unresisting.” Inertia is here equivalent to non repugnantia, and refers to the old men, women, and children.
367. Quondam etiam dictis, &c. “At times, their courage returns even to the breasts of the vanquished.” Quondam for aliquando. 369. Plurima. “Very many a form of death," i. e. numbers slain in every way.
371. Androgeos. Not mentioned elsewhere in the legends of the Trojan war. 'He must not be confounded with the son of Minos.Credens inscius. “Ignorantly believing us to be.” Supply nos esse. 373. Quæ tam sera, &c.“ What sluggishness, so retarding (in its nature), delays you ?". Sera equivalent to “quce seros (i. e. tardos) facit." -374. Rapiunt incensa feruntque Pergama. “Are plundering blazing Troy.” Rapiunt feruntque is in imitation of the Greek äyovoi kai dépovoi.-375. Itis. For cenitis.
377. Fida satis, i. e. on which he could rely without suspicion.Sensit medios delapsus in hostes. “He perceived that he had fallen
into the midst of foes.” Delapsus for delapsus esse. An imitation of the Greek idiom, namely, the nominative before the infinitive, in place of the accusative. This takes place regularly whenever the verb that follows has the same subject with the one that precedes, Thus, žon olog å uūvai, " he said that he alone warded off ;" foagav dixalol civai, " they said they were just,” &c.—378. Retroque, &c. “ And checked his footstep, together with his voice," i. e. became instantly silent. Equivalent to pedem retulit et cocem repressit.
380. Humi nitens. “ Treading on the ground.”—Improvisum. “ Previously unseen.”-Refugit attollentem iras, &c. “ Has in an instant fled back from it, raising its head in anger, and swelling as to its azure neck.”—382. Abibat.“ Was beginning to retreat."-383. Circumfundimur has here a kind of middle meaning, “we pour around.”—384. Ignaros loci, i. e, not as familiar with the localities of Troy as the Trojans themselves were.–385. Aspirat primo, &c. “Breathes (propitious) on our first effort.” A metaphor taken from the breathings of a favouring gale.
386. Successu exultans, &c. “ Exulting with success, and animated by fresh courage.” Observe the zeugma in exultans, and the force of the plural in animis.- 387. Prima monstrat. “First points out.”— 388. Quâque dextra. “And where, with favouring influence."-389. Mutemus clypeos. It would seem from this that there was some difference of shape between the Grecian and Trojan shields. The former, at least in Homeric times, were circular, and therefore an Argolic shield is likened to the sun. (Virg. Æn. iii. 637.) The clypeus, however, as represented in Roman sculpture, is an oblong oval, and this, perhaps, makes the distinction between the common buckler and that of Argos, or between the earlier and later Greek shield. The projection in the centre was called the umbo, or boss (in the Greek shield, oupalóc), and sometimes a spike, or other prominent excrescence, was placed upon this.
Danaúmque insignia, &c. “And let us fit to ourselves the badges of the Greeks." "These badges, or insignia, are explained immediately after, consisting of the galea, ensis, clypei insigne, &c. The last refers evidently to some peculiar device or emblazonment on the shield.
390. Dolus an cirtus, &c. “Who stops to inquire, in the case of a foe, whether it be stratagem or valour ?" Supply sit. The meaning is simply this: it matters not how we subdue a foe, whether by artifice or open fight, if we only do succeed in our object.-391. Ipsi. Referring to the Greeks who had just been slain by them.-392. Deinde comantem Androgei, &c. “He then assumes the helmet of Androgeos, with its flowing crest,” &c.
393. Argicum ensem. The early Greeks used a very short sword. The ancient Homeric sword had generally a straight, two-edged blade (äuonnec:—Hom. Il. x. 256), rather broad, and nearly of equal width from hilt to point.
396. Haud numine nostro. “ Under auspices not our own.” There is no allusion here, as some suppose, to the party of Æneas bearing the effigy of Minerva, the protectress of the Greeks, on their changed shields. This is too far-fetched. The meaning merely is, that they were now fighting in Grecian arms, and, as far as mere externals went, under Grecian auspices.
398. Demittimus Orco. “ We send down to the world below.” Orco, the dative (literally, “ for Orcus”), by a poetic idiom, based on a
Græcism, for in Orcum. 399. Litora. The shores are called fida (literally, “ trusty”), because here their vessels lay, into which they might retreat.-401. Conduntur. “ Strive to conceal themselves.” Observe the middle force of the verb.
402. Heu! nihil invitis, &c. “Alas ! it is right for one to trust to nothing when the gods are adverse ;" i. e. notwithstanding all their efforts, the little band of Trojans were able to obtain no lasting success, since Heaven itself was adverse. It is most correct to make this the introduction to the passage that follows, for which it seems naturally to pave the way.–404. Mineroce. She had fled as a suppliant to the shrine of Minerva.
405. Ardentia lumina. “Her burning eyes,” i. e. wildly glaring. So Voss, in his German version, “die brennenden Augen."-406. Lumina, nam teneras, &c. “Her eyes—for cords secured her tender hands.” The turn here given by the poet to the legend of Cassandra is different from the more common account, as alluded to in the note on line 41 of the first book. The expression, Lumina, nam teneras, &c. is successfully defended by Wagner, who derives his principal reason for thinking it genuine from the use of tendens on this occasion. Tendere lumina is not the usual Latin expression, but tendere manus; and when Virgil, therefore, wrote tendens lumina, he immediately subjoined, by way of explaining so unusual a phrase, lumina, nam teneras, &c.
407. Hanc speciem. “ This spectacle.”—408. Et sese medium, &c. “ And (therefore), resolved to perish, threw himself into the midst of the moving band.” Agmen always denotes motion, and here refers to the party who were hurrying away Cassandra.-409. Et densis incurrimus armis. “ And rush upon them in close array.” Densis armis equivalent to denso agmine, a meaning for which consequimur prepares us.
410. Delubri. Referring to the temple of Minerva. This building was in the citadel, so that the party of Æneas had now reached the quarter which he had originally in view.-411. Obruimur. Last syllable lengthened by the arsis or cæsura.–412. Armorum facie, &c. “ From the appearance of our arms, and the mistake occasioned by our Grecian crests." Their countrymen on the temple roof mistook them for Greeks. Observe the force of the genitive here : literally, “ the error proceeding from our Grecian crests ;" so oulnere Ulixi in line 436.
413. Gemitu atque ereptæ, &c. “ With a groan of indignation, and through rage for the maiden rescued from their hands,” 3. e. through grief and rage for the loss of their captive.—414. Acerrimus Ajax. The son of Orleus is meant; the same who, according to Virgil's version of the legend, had dragged Cassandra from the shrine of the goddess. See note on line 41 of the first book.—415. Dolopum. See note on line 29 of this book.
416. Adversi rupto ceu quondam, &c. “ As at times a hurricane having burst forth," &c. Rupto equivalent to prorupto. - Quondam. Equivalent to aliquando. So line 367.-418. Equis. Heyne refers this to the chariot of the winds ; but Wagner, Thiel, and other commentators take the term in its natural sense, and cite, besides other passages, the following from Horace : “ Eurus per Siculas equitavit undas.” (od. iv. 4. 44.) There is more good taste, however, in Heyne's explanation. The steeds of Eurus are termed Eoïs, because that wind blows from the south-east.
419. Spumeus. Foam-covered. Equivalent to spuma maris adspersus. Nereus, an ancient god of the sea, here takes the place of Neptune, and is represented as fiercely plunging his trident into the sea, in order to call up the waters from their lowest depths.
420. Ili etiam. Compare lines 370, 383, &c.—Si quos fudimus insidiis. “Whomsoever we had put to the rout by our stratagem.” Literally,“ if any we had put to the rout.” Quos for aliquos, but si quos more freely for quoscunque.—422. Mentitaque tela. * And false weapons." Mentitus is often used with the force of a deponent participle.- 423. Atque ora sono, &c. “And mark our tones of voice at variance in sound with their own." The allusion here is merely to an organic variety in pronunciation, the result of climate, and other local causes, not to any actual difference of language. Homer nowhere states that the Trojans spoke a language different from that of the Greeks. This was a discovery reserved for the later Greek and Roman poets. Virgil here follows Homer.
425. Penelei. The Peneleus here mentioned is not the Baotian leader of whom Homer speaks, for he had been slain by Eurypylus, son of Telephus.—Dicæ armipotentis. Minerva.–426. Justissimus unus, &c. “Who was pre-eminent above all others for justice among the Trojans, and for rigid adherence to what was right.” Unus, when joined to a superlative, carries with it the idea of something exclusive and pre-eminent, and becomes at one time equivalent to præcipuus, insignis, &c.; at another, to præ cæteris. It has the latter force in the present instance.-428. Dis aliter risum. Supply before this clause, “ (Such then ought not to have been his fate; but) it seemed otherwise to the gods," i. e. his virtues ought to have secured him a more lengthened existence.
429. A sociis. “By their own friends," i. e. on the temple roof, and who mistook them for Greeks.-430. Apollinis infula. He wore this as priest of Apollo.
431. Iliaci cineres, &c. “ Ye ashes of Troy, and thou last expiring flame of my countrymen, I call you to witness, that as you fell, I shunned neither the missiles, nor any onsets of the Greeks, and that if the decree of the fates had been that I should fall, I deserved it by the work of my hand," i. e. by the slaughter which I made of the foe. The hero wishes it to be known that he continued fighting until the very last, until all hope of saving his country had completely fled. For the truth of this he invokes the ashes of Troy, which beheld him, as they fell to the ground, still contending manfully against the foe; and also the last flame from the great funereal pile of his country, which, as it sank expiring, witnessed his final efforts.
432. Nec tela, nec ullas, &c. Tela, missiles hurled from afar; rices, a close conflict hand to hand, with all its accompanying chances and changes.
434. Dicellimur inde. “We are forced away from this quarter in different directions,”—435. Mecum. “Remain with me.”_436. Gracior. “ Enfeebled.”—Pelias et vulnere, &c. “Pelias also was retarded by a wound (he had received) from Ulysses” Observe the peculiar force of the genitive Ulixi, and see note on line 412.-437. Vocati. “We are summoned.” Supply sumus.
438. Hic cero. Supply videmus, implied in cernimus.—Ceu cetera nusquam, &c. “ As if the other conflicts were prevailing nowhere ; as if none were dying elsewhere throughout the whole city.” Observe the force of cetera, as referring to the other conflicts that were actually raging in other parts of the city at this same time. Alia would have been too general.-439. Nulli. Supply ceu, before this word.—440. Sic Martem indomitum, &c. “So fierce a conflict do we behold.”— 441. Obsessumque, &c. “And the entrance beset by a testudo (of shields) advanced against it.” The testudo here meant was not the machine of that name, but was formed by the soldiers locking their shields together over their heads, and advancing under this cover to storm a place.
442. Parietibus. To be pronounced, in scanning, as a word of four syllables, paryětibus.-Postesque sub ipsos, &c. “ And they mount by the steps (of these) close to the very door-posts." By gradibus are meant the steps of the scaling-ladders, not those of the palace entrance, as some erroneously suppose.- 443. Clypeosque ad tela sinistris, &c. “And, protected (by them), they oppose their shields to the missiles with their left hands,” &c. With protecti supply iis, i. e. clypeis. Some commentators very unnecessarily make protecti equivalent here to ut protegantur.-444. Fastigia. The battlements of the palace-wall.
445. Tecta culmina are the tiles and whatever else went to form the roof of the building.–446. His se quando ultima cernunt, &c. “With these missiles, since they perceive that their last hour has come, they prepare to defend themselves in their final death-struggle.” Literally, “ that the last (i. e. most imminent) dangers are present," ultima pericula adesse. So the Greek, rà čoxata, and oi čoxarol
448. Veterum decora alta parentum. “The lofty decorations of their ancient sires,” i. e. of earlier times. What the kings of other days had put up as decorations of their abode.—449. Imas obsedere fores. “ Blocked up the entrance below.”
451. Instaurati animi. “Our courage was renewed. Supply nostri, as referring to Æneas and his two companions.—452. Auxilioque lecare ciros. “And to lighten by our aid (the labours of the men.” Victis, i. e. the Trojans as fighting with no hope whatever of ultimate success.
453. Limen erat, &c. “There was an entrance, and private portal, and a free communication (by means of it), between the different quarters of Priam's palace, and a gate left neglected in the rear." Observe the different modes employed by the poet of specifying one and the same entrance.- Percius usus, &c. Compare the explanation of Heyne : “Quâ commeare et contenire se invicem commode poterant qui inhabitabant regiam.”—454. Tectorum Priami. The palace of Priam, according to the poet's idea, appears to have been a square, with an open place in the middle. (Compare line 512.) The attack of the Greeks was made on the front, while the private entrance through which Æneas came was on the opposite side, in the rear. There were several buildings or royal residences under one and the same roof.
456. Incomitata. Marking the private character of the visit. It would have been a violation of decorum for her to have appeared without attendants had the visit been an open and a public one.-457, Ad soceros. “To her parents-in-law.” Referring to Priam and Hecuba. Andromache was the wife, and Astyanax the son of Hector, Observe the peculiar use of soceros (properly, “fathers-in-law"), to denote both parents. So, in line 579, we have patres for parentes.