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549. Sunt et Siculis regionibus, &c." There are for us both cities and fields in Sicilian regions, and (there too is) the illustrious Acestes, sprung from Trojan blood.” Ilioneus does not mean, as some suppose, that the race of Trojan descent will repay her kindness ; but the mention of these settlements in Sicily is here introduced in order to quiet any fears which the queen may have entertained of an intention, on the part of the Trojans, of settling in Africa. Compare verses 557 and 558.-550. Arvaque. Some read armaque, which is recognized by several good MSS.; and the defence offered for this reading is, that Ilioneus wishes to alarm the fears of Dido and her court. This, however, is at variance with the whole tenour of his speech.
551. Liceat subducere. “Let it (only) be allowed us to draw up on shore.” In accordance with the usual custom of the ancients when vessels were brought to land.—552. Et sildis aptare trabes. " And to select suitable timber in the woods," i. e. for spars, planks, &c. Aptare is equivalent here, as Servius remarks, to aptas eligere. --Et stringere remos. “ And dress (the boughs of trees for) oars." This is one of those concise forms of expression that bid defiance to a close translation. The literal meaning is, “ to strip oars," i. e. to strip off the foliage and smaller branches from the boughs of trees, and smooth and shape them into oars.—553. Si datur Italiam, &c. “ In order that, if it be granted us to stretch our course to Italy, after our companions and king have been recovered, we may seek with joy," &c.
555. Sin absumta salus. “But if the source of all our) safety has been taken from us," i. e. if Æneas, in whom all our hopes of final deliverance from misfortune were centred, has been taken from us by the hand of death ; if he, with whose safety our own was identified, has perished.- Et te, pater, &c. Observe the beautiful turn given to the sentence by this sudden apostrophe.-536. Nec spes jam restat Iuli. “Nor hope of Iulus now remains," i. e. if Iulus, too, is taken from us.-557. At petainus. “ Yet at least we may seek.”— Paratas. “Prepared for us," i. e. that stand ready to receive us.
559. Talibus Ilioneus. Supply verbis reginam alloquitur.—Ore fremebant. “Murmured assent," i. e. in half-suppressed accents signified their assent.
561. Vultum demissa. “With downcast look.” Literally, “ downcast as to look.” A beautiful trait of nature : the modesty of a female, even though a queen, in the presence of strangers. Compare Euripides (Hec. 952), airióv tl kai vóuos Tuvaikas åvopūv un BXéTTELV Évavríov.-562. Soloite. “Dismiss."-Secludite curas. “Lay aside your cares.” Literally, “shut out cares,” i. e. from your bosoms.563. Res dura. “A hard necessity.”—Talia moliri. “To use such precautions.” She fears the power of her brother Pygmalion.—564. Custode. Put for custodibus.
566. Virtutesque virosque, &c. “And its deeds of valour, and its warriors, or of the conflagration kindled by so great a w of the ruin which so great a war has brought with it. The expression virtutesque virosque may also be taken as a hendiadys for virtutesque virorum," and the valiant deeds of its warriors.”
567. Non obtusa adeo, &c. “We Carthaginians bear not bosoms so blunted (to all kindly feeling), nor does the Sun yoke his coursers 80 far away from the Tyrian city.” Alluding to the popular belief of the day, that the inhabitants of cold climates had less refinement
of feeling, and were characterized by more rudeness and barbarity than those of warmer latitudes.
569. Hesperiam magnam. “ The great Hesperia.” Magnam equivalent to potentem.— Saturnia aroa." Saturnian fields," i. e. Italian. Italy was sometimes called Saturnia terra, from Saturnus or Saturn, who was fabled to have reigned there after his expulsion from the skies by Jupiter.--570. Erycis fines. “ The territories of Eryx,” i. e. the lands around Mount Eryx, which was situate near the western extremity of Sicily. This mountain took its name from Eryx, son of Butes and Venus, who was killed by Hercules and buried here. On its western declivity stood the town of Eryx, and at no great distance to the east stood Segeste or Ægesta, the city of Acestes.-571. Auxilio tutos. “ Rendered secure by my aid.”—Opibus. “With my resources.”
572. Vultis et his mecum, &c. “(Or) are you willing even to settle along with me in these realms on equal terms ?”—573. Urbem quam statuo, &c. An imitation of the Greek. The noun, when placed after the relative, is sometimes put in the same case with it, though a different case is required by its own connexion. Thus, Atque alii quorum est comoedia prisca virorum, for alii viri quorum, &c. This is sometimes done when, as in the present case, the noun even precedes. The expression in the text, therefore, is equivalent to Urbs, quam urbem statuo, destra est, i. e, urbs quam statuo, &c.—574. Mihi nullo discrimine agetur. “ Shall be treated by me with no distinction.” In prose it would be habebitur.
576. Afforet. “Were present here.”—577. Dimittam. “I will send in different directions.”—576. Certos. “Trustworthy persons," i. e. who will bring back a faithful account.-577. Et Libyæ lustrare extrema, &c. “And will order them to search the extreme parts of Libya, (and see) if, having been shipwrecked, he wanders in any woods or cities.”_578. Quibus. For Aliquibus.
582. Quæ nunc animo, &c. " What intention now rises in your mind ?!!~584. Unus. Referring to Orontes.—585. Diotis respondent, &c. “ Every thing else tallies with the words of your mother." Venus had said (1. 390), “ Namque tibi reduces socios Nuntio, &c.587. Scindit se, &c. “Divides, and melts away into the pure open air.”—588. Restitit Æneas." There stood Æneas.” Literally, “ Æneas remained,” i. e. after the cloud had melted away from around him.-589. Os humerosque. “In visage and in shoulders like a god," i. e. in broad and muscular shoulders, or, in other words, in breadth of bosom. The ancients were fond of ascribing a broad and powerful chest to their divinities, especially Jupiter, Neptune, and Mars. Os and humeros are accusatives of nearer definition.
Namque ipsa decoram, &c. “ For his mother herself had breathed upon her son beauty of locks, and the bright light of youth, and (had kindled up) sparkling graces in his eyes,” &c.—591. Purpureum. Equivalent to splendidum or nitens, since not only its colour, but its bright surface also, were admired in the ancient purple.—Lotos honores. The term lætus here does not so much relate to any thing joyous, as to that which is bright and sparkling ; while by honores is meant whatever serves to impart grace, or render an object attractive and becoming. Hence Heyne explains it in this passage by pulchritudo.
592. Quale manus, &c. “Such beauty as the hand of the artist imparts to ivory, or when silver, or Parian marble is surrounded
with the yellow gold.” Literally, “such beauty as the hands add lo ivory.” The true force of the comparison is this : the manly beauty of Æneas was as much increased by the graces which Venus diffused over his person, as the native beauty of ivory, of silver, or Parian marble, when the skill of the artist has been expended on them.-593. Pariuste lapis. The marble obtained from the island of Paros, in the Ægean, was highly prized for statues. Marble set in gold was sculptured, it is thought, in relief.
595. Coram, quem quæritis, &c. “I, whom you seek, am present here before you, the Trojan Æneas."-597. Infandos. “Unutterable.” -598. Quæ nos, reliquias Danaúm, &c. “Who dost offer to make us, that are a remnant saved from the Greeks, that are already worn out by every misfortune of both land and sea, that are destitute of all things, sharers in thy city, in thy home.”—600. Socias. Equivalent to sociare vis.
Grates persolvere dignas, &c. “ To return thee suitable thanks is not in our power, Dido, nor in that of whatever portion of the Trojan race anywhere exists, a race that is now scattered throughout the wide world.” The full construction will be, non opis est nostræ, nec Gentis Dardaniæ, quidquid Gentis Dardaniæ est ubique; gentis quce sparsa est, &c.
603. si qua. “If any." For si aliqua.-Si quid usquam justitia, &c. “ If justice, and a mind conscious to itself of rectitude, be any thing any where,” i. e. be any where aught save an empty name. 605. Quæ tam læta secula, i. e. what times so fortunate.-606. Qui tanti parentes. “What so illustrious parents."-607. Dum montrbus umbræ, &c. “ As long as the shadows of the mountains shall traverse the projecting sides of the same," i. e. as long as the shadows thrown from the forests on the mountains shall darken the sides of the same as they move around with the sun. As the sun turns round these shadows fall successively on different parts of the mountain side.
608. Polus dum sidera pascet. “As long as heaven shall feed the stars.” The stars were supposed by some of the ancient philosophers to be fed, that is, to have what they lost of light supplied again by fine emanations or vapours from earth and sea. Hence in Lucretius, “unde æther sidera pascit ?”-610. Quce me cunque cocant terra. “ Whatever lands call me," i. e. to take up my final residence therein. He means, that he will ever remember her kindness, in whatever land he may be called by the fates to settle.
612. Post. Used adverbially.-615. Quis casus. “What destiny." 616. Quæ vis immanibus, &c. “ What power brings thee into contact with these savage shores ?" i. e. where the savage tribes of Libya dwell.-617. Tune ille Æneas. “ Art thou that Æneas ?"-Dardanio. Observe the hiatus at the end of this word, through the operation of the cæsura.-618. Phrygii Simoëntis. “of the Trojan Simois.” A river of Troas, rising in Mount Ida, and falling into the Scamander or Xanthus.
619. Atque equidem memini, &c. “And I do indeed remember that Teucer came to Sidon, having been driven out from his paternal territories." Teucer, the son of Telamon and Hesione, was halfbrother of Ajax. The latter slew himself in the course of the Trojan war, on account of the arms of Achilles, which had been awarded to Ulysses; and the indignation of Telamon at the supineness of Teucer in not having avenged his brother's death, caused him to banish the young prince from his native island. Teucer thereupon retired to Cyprus, where he founded the city of Salamis, called after his home. He was aided, according to Virgil, in effecting this new settlement, by Belus, the father of Dido, and king of Tyre and Sidon. This, however, is a poetic anachronism, in relation to which consult the Life of Virgil at the commencement of this volume. Dido lived, in fact, many hundred years after the Trojan war. Equally incorrect, in point of history, is the statement that Belus reigned over both Tyre and Sidon, since the latter city, at this time, was independent of the former.
621. Belus. There is, of course, no historical truth in what is here stated respecting this pretended parent of Dido. The whole account is a poetic fiction. Belus is a name of Oriental origin, being derived from Beel or Baal, “ Lord” or “Master.” This same root occurs in the Carthaginian names, Hanni-bal, Asdru-bal, Mahar-bal, &c.—622. Tenebat. T'he imperfect here, in conjunction with castabat, implies that he was just beginning to rule over the island.
623. Casus. “The fall.”—624. Regesque Pelasgi. “And the Grecian kings.” Pelasgi, the name of the early race who occupied Greece before the dominion of the Hellenes, and who are generally thought to have belonged to the same coinmon stem with the latter, is here put for Græci.—625. Ipse hostis. “Your foe himself.” Referring to Teucer.-Ferebat. *“ Used to extol.”—626. Seque ortum antiquâ, &c. Teucer was, in fact, of Trojan origin on the mother's side, since he was the son of Telamon and Hesione, daughter of Laomedon. This princess was given in marriage to Telamon by Hercules, on the capture of Troy by the latter.
627. Succedite. “ Enter beneath.”_633. Non ignara mali, &c. “Not ignorant of misfortune, I learn (from my own case) to afford succour to the wretched.” This is the famous line of which Heyne says, that any youth who does not dwell on it with a feeling of delight, ought to be excluded from a further perusal of Virgil. [So Gray. “ And from her own she learnt to melt at other's woe."]
632. Dicúm templis indicit honorem. “Proclaims a sacrifice for the temples of the gods.” Virgil here deviates from the custom of heroic times, and follows that of his own. In the heroic ages, as we learn from Homer, the arrival of a stranger-guest was greeted with a sacrifice under the roof of the entertainer, which was immediately followed by a banquet on the remains of the victim.-633. Nec minus interea. «Meanwhile too.” Literally, “nor less meanwhile.”—634. Magnorum horrentia centum, &c. “A hundred bristly backs of largesized swine."
636. Munera lætitiamque dii. “As presents and the means of passing a joyous day.” Dii an old form for diei. There is great doubt about the true reading. The MSS. vary between die, dii, and dei. They who read dei, refer this to Bacchus, and either make a hendiadys of munera lætitiamque, “the joyous gifts of the god," or join munera in construction with the previous line, and place a comma after it. The objection to dei is, that the mention of Bacchus is too abrupt; and, besides, if munera indicates any thing different from what is mentioned in the previous verse, the copula ought to be expressed. If, on the other hand, we place a comma after munera, the effect is stiff and frigid. In favour of dii it may be urged, that Aulus Gellius recognizes this reading. (N. A. ix. 14.) Perhaps the most rational conclusion is that Virgil wrote neither dii nor dei (for certainly neither has much to recommend it), and that this is one of
those passages which the death of the poet prevented him from putting into a proper shape
637. Regali splendida luxu instruitur. “Is splendidly arrayed in regal sumptuousness.” Splendida instruitur is a prolepsis here for ut splendida esset, &c.-639. Arte laboratce cestes, &c. “ Couch coverings are there, wrought with elaborate art, and of rich purple." Supply adsunt with restes.-640. Ingens argentum mensis, &c. “ There is massive silver on the tables, and embossed in gold are the brave deeds of their sires.” Supply adest with argentum. Wunderlich, however, and Wagner refer ingens, not to massiveness, but to abundance of plate.-Coelata. The terms colare and colatura are constantly employed to denote work fashioned in relief.-642. Ducta. “Traced.” -Ĝentis, i. e. of the royal line.
643. Neque enim patrius, &c. “ For a father's love suffered not his mind to enjoy repose.”—645. Ascanio ferat hæc. “To bear these tidings to Ascanius.” The subjunctives ferat and ducat depend on ut understood, and which is implied, in fact, in præmittit. This is the earlier construction, and occupies a middle rank between the bare infinitive and the expression of ut.-646. Omnis in Ascanio, &c. “ All the solicitude of the fond parent centres in Ascanius.”
648. Signis auroque rigentem. “ Stiffening (to the view) with figures and with gold," i. e. with forms of human beings, or representations of things, embroidered thereon in gold. The term “cloak," though commonly adopted as the proper translation of palla, conveys no accurate conception of the form, material, or use of the latter. The palla, as well as the pallium and palliolum, was always a rectangular piece of cloth, exactly, or, at least, nearly square. It was, indeed, used in the very form in which it was taken from the loom, being made entirely by the weaver. Among the Greeks and Romans its most common material was wool. It was often folded about the body simply with a view to defend it from cold, and without any regard to gracefulness of appearance. A more graceful mode of wearing it was to attach it by means of a brooch, and allow it to hang down from the shoulders.
649. Et circumtextum croceo, &c. “And a veil bordered all around with the saffron-hued acanthus," i. e. having a border of yellow acanthus flowers. The acanthus generally bears a white flower ; one kind, however, yields a flower of a reddish-yellow hue, and it is to this that Virgil alludes here.
650. Quos illa Mycenis extulerat. “Which she had brought from Mycenæ, when she was seeking Troy, and an unlawful union (with Paris).”—Mycenis. Put here for Greece generally, just as Argioc is to be taken as equivalent merely to Græcæ ; for Helen was of Spartan origin, and fled with Paris from Sparta.
653. Ilione, maxima natarum, &c. “Ilione, eldest of the daughters of Priam.” She married Polymestor, king of Thrace.—654. Colloque monile baccatum. “And a bead necklace," i. e, a necklace consisting of berries, small spheres of glass, amethyst, &c., strung together. It is a very common error to translate monile baccatum, "a pearl necklace.” Ancient necklaces have been found, in which small golden lizards alternate with drops.
655. Et duplicem gemmis, &c. “And a diadem double with gems and gold,” i.e. a golden diadem adorned with gems.—656. Hæc celerans, i. e. hastening to procure and bring these things. He had received his orders in v. 644, seqq.