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· 479. Interea ad templum, &c. The fourth painting. It represented the Trojan matrons bearing in solemn procession the peplus to the temple of Minerva. The story is related in the sixth book of the Iliad (v. 286), where Hecuba, with the other Trojan women, carries the peplus to the temple of Minerva, to entreat the goddess to remove Diomede from the fight, where he had been making immense slaughter. All that Homer says of this peplus is, that it was the richest vestment in Hecuba's wardrobe, having been embroidered by Sidonian women, and brought by Paris from Sidon.
Non æquce Palladis. “Of the unpropitious Minerva.”—Peplumque ferebant. The peplus was a shawl which commonly formed part of the dress of females. It was often fastened by means of a brooch ; but was frequently worn without one. It passed entirely round the body, and the loose extremity of it was thrown over the left shoulder and behind the back.
481. Tunsæ pectora palmıs. “Beating their bosoms with their hands.” More literally, “ beaten as to their bosoms,” &c., the accusative of nearer definition, where some, without any necessity, understand quoad or secundum, as tunsæ (quoad) pectora.—482. Dioa solo fixos, &c. “ The goddess, turned away, kept her eyes fixed upon the ground.” Virgil's imagery here is superior to Homer's. The latter makes Minerva shake her head in token of refusal : ώς έφατ' ευχοuévn, ávéveve dè IIallàs 'Aonvn. (Il. vi. 311.)
483. Ter circum Iliacos, &c. The fifth painting ; the subject, Priam ransoming from Achilles the dead body of Hector.–Raptarerat Hectora muros, &c. Virgil's account differs from that of Homer. According to the latter, the dead body of Hector was attached to the chariot of Achilles, and insultingly dragged away to the Grecian Aleet; and thrice every day, for the space of twelve days, was it also dragged by the victor around the tomb of Patroclus. (Il. xxii. 399, seq.-16. xxiv. 14, seq.) Homer says nothing of Hector's body having been dragged thrice, or even at all, around the walls of the city. He merely makes Hector to have fled thrice around the city before engaging with Achilles. The incident, therefore, which is here mentioned by Virgil, must have been borrowed by him from some one of the Cyclic bards, or some tragic poet; for these, it is well known, allowed themselves great license in diversifying and altering the features of the ancient heroic legends.
484. Exanimumque auro, &c. “And was (now) selling (to Priam) his lifeless body for gold.” Homer speaks of the " immense ransom" (árepeioi' ätoiva) which Priam brought, amounting to “ ten whole talents of gold” (pvooữ déka závra' rálávra).—486. Spolia. The arms of which Achilles had despoiled him.-Currus. The chariot unto which he had bound his dead body.
488. Se quoque principibus, &c. The sixth painting. It represents a battle between the Trojans and the Greeks, in which Æneas himself bears part, and in which the Eastern forces of Memnon are engaged.--489. Eoasque acies, &c. “And the Eastern forces, and arms of swarthy Memnon.” Memnon, according to poetic legends, was a son of Aurora, who brought a body of forces from the distant East to aid the Trojans against the Greeks. He was slain by Achilles. He is represented as of a dark-brown, or Oriental complexion, approaching to a sable hue.
490. Ducit Amazonidum, &c. “Penthesilea, fierce-raging, leads on her bands of Amazons, with crescent targes.” The subject of the seventh and last painting is here described, namely, the Amazons bringing aid to the Trojans, and led on by their queen, Penthesilēa. She was the daughter of Mars, and came to Troy in the last year of the war. After performing prodigies of valour, she was slain by Achilles.-Lunatis peltis. The pelta was a small, light targe, or buckler, of different shapes. In the hands of the Amazons, however, it appears on the works of ancient art, sometimes elliptic, at other times variously sinuated on the margin, but most commonly with a semicircular indentation on one side, answering to the lunatæ peltoe of the text.
492. Aurea subnectens, &c. “Binding a golden girdle beneath her exposed breast ; the warrior female ! and, though a virgin, dares to contend with men !” The Amazons are generally represented on ancient monuments and gems, with one breast exposed, and the other concealed by drapery. The roundness of form in the case of the latter is very perceptible. The story of their having but one breast, the other being cut off for convenience in drawing the bow, is a mere fable, and warranted by no remains of ancient art.
494. Hæc dum Dardanio, &c. “While these things seem worthy of all his wonder unto the Trojan Æneas.” Some make Ænece equivalent here to ab Ænea, and dependent on videntur. “While these things, deserving of wonder, are viewed by the Trojan Eneas.” This, however, wants force.—495. Obtutuque hæret, &c. “ And remains rooted to the spot in one earnest gaze.” Hæret here is extremely forcible, “clings (to these scenes of other days).”—497. Incessit. Incedo here, again, as in a previous instance, conveys the idea of blended dignity and grace. Observe the beautiful use of the perfect in incessit : “ While Æneas stands lost in silent musing, the queen has come.”
498. Qualis in Eurotæ ripis, &c. “ Such as Diana leads the choral dances, on the banks of the Eurotas, or along the mountain-tops of Cynthus," i. e. as beautiful and graceful as Diana is when she leads, &c.—Eurotce. The Eurotas was a river of Laconia, running by Sparta. It is now the Vasili-potamo. It is here mentioned because Diana was worshipped at Sparta with peculiar honours.Cynthi. Cynthus was a mountain in the island of Delos, the natal place of Diana. Here, also, Diana was particularly worshipped. -499. Exercet choros. The term chorus always carries with it the blended ideas of dancing and song.
500. Glomerantur. « Crowd around.”-Oreades. “ Mountainnymphs.” From the Greek 'Operádes, and this from opos, “a mountain.”—501. Gradiensque. “And as she steps along."- Deas. The nymphs just mentioned.-502. Pertentant gaudia.“ Joys diffuse themselves through.” Literally, “explore,” “try thoroughly.” A beautiful image. Joys seek to take up their abode in every part of her bosom, and explore for this purpose its inmost recesses.- Latonce. Latona became by Jupiter the mother of Diana and Apollo.
504. Instans operi. “Urging on the work, and (with it) her future realms.” Opus is the work, taken collectively, on which depends the development of her kingdom and power.-505. Tum foribus divæ, &c. “ Then, in the gates of the goddess, under the arched roof of the temple.” Some of the commentators discover a contradiction in terms between foribus and testudine, and make the former apply to the gates of the sanctuary, or adytum, itself, and not, as the poet evidently intended, to the mere gates of the temple. This proceeds from their supposing that media testudine templi means “ beneath the centre of the vaulted roof of the temple.” Such, however, is by no means the case. There is an important difference between medius, when used alone with a noun, as in the present instance, and when a preposition is added. Thus mediâ silvá, “amid a wood ;” but in mediâ silvá, “in the very middle of a wood ;” medio mari, “amid (i. e. in) the sea ;” but in medio mari, “in the middle of the sea.” So, in the present case, mediâ testudine, “under the vaulted roof,” i. e. with the arched roof rising all around; but in mediâ testudine, “ under the very centre of the arched roof.” (Wagner, Quæst. Virg. xiv. 5, b.)
506. Sépta armis. “Surrounded by arms," i. e. armed followers, body-guards. Armis for armatis or satellitibus.—Solioque alte subnixa. “ And supported by a throne on high.” The throne was raised on high, and her feet were supported by a footstool.
507. Jura dabat legesque, &c. “ (And now) she was beginning to dispense justice unto her subjects, and to equalize the labour of their respective tasks by fair apportionments, or else to determine them by lot.” Jura dabat legesque means, literally, “she was giving out the unwritten and written principles of justice," i. e. was dispensing justice according to law.–508. Sorte trahebat. Poetically for sortem trahebat. Observe in this whole passage the peculiar force of the imperfect.
509. Concursu magno. “With a large attendant concourse," i. e. of Tyrians, actuated, some by hostile feelings, others by an emotion of curiosity. Compare l. 539, et seq.-511. Ater quos æquore, &c. “ Whom the gloomy tempest had dispersed over the sea, and carried to a far-distant part of the Carthaginian shores.”—515. Res incognita. “ Uncertainty as to the issue." Literally, “the unknown issue,” or “affair.”—516. Dissimulant. “ They restrain their feelings.”-Speculantur, &c. “ Watch to discover what fortune may have attended the men (since their shipwreck); on what shore they leave their fleet; why they come in a body; for individuals selected from (each of) the ships were moving along.”—517. Linquant. Observe the force of the present tense. It is equivalent to saying, “where they may have left their fleet, and where it still remains.”—518. Quid teniant, &c. The reading and punctuation of Wagner. The ordinary text runs as follows : Quid veniant: cunctis nam lecti navibus ibant. Æneas, however, was not so much surprised at their coming, as at their coming in a body (cuncti). The reason of their appearing thus was, in order that their embassy might have a more imposing appearance.
519. Orantes veniam. “Entreating the favour of an audience.” This meaning is more consistent with the remainder of the line than the common version, “the favour of landing and refitting their
520. Et coram data, &c. “ And liberty was given them of speaking before the queen.” More freely, “in the royal presence,”'_521. Maximus. “The eldest (of their number).” Supply natu.—Placido pectore, i. e. in language calculated to conciliate, coming, as it did, from a calm and unruffled breast.-522. Cui condere Jupiter dedit. “ Unto whom Jupiter hath granted to found.” An imitation of the Greek construction.—523. Superbas equivalent to feroces, and the native African tribes are meant, not the Tyrians. Justitia has here a general reference to all the softening influences of civilization as felt through the medium of justice and laws.-524. Maria omnia. Supply per.
525. Prohibe infandos, &c. The Carthaginians had menaced the Trojans with the conflagration of their ships, in case they ventured to land. The flames are hence called infandos, because in violation of divine as well as human law, and especially offensive to Jove (Z£ùs Žévios), the great god of hospitality.-526. Parce pio generi. “ Spare an unoffending race," i. e. who have done you no wrong ; who come not as robbers to plunder your shores. Pius, like pietas, carries with it the idea of a just observance of duty, not only towards the gods, but our fellow-men also. Hence pietas is often used for justitia.-Et propius res aspice nostras. “And take a nearer view of our present affairs," i. e. be not influenced by any hasty impressions to which our appearance on your shores may have given rise.
527. Libycos penates. “ The Libyan abodes.” Penates, the gods worshipped in the innermost part of the abode are here put for the abode itself.-528. Aut raptas ad litora, &c. “Or to seize and drive away booty to the shores." Raptas tertere is equivalent to rapere et certere. The allusion in prædas is principally to flocks and herds.529. Non ea ris animo, &c. “ No such hostile intent (dwells) in our bosom, nor is there so much haughty daring to the vanquished.' — Ea vis. For talis violentia.
530. Locus. “A region."—Hesperiam. Italy was called “ Hesperia,” or “the western land,” because lying to the west of Greece. The name is of Greek origin : 'Errepia, from OTEPoç, “ the west," in both of which words there is an ellipsis of 71.-531. Potens armis, &c. “ Powerful in arms and in fruitfulness of soil."-532. Coluere. “ Once cultivated it.” The Enotri were a tribe of the great Pelasgic race, and at a very early period occupied a portion of the southeasternmost coast of Italy, called from them Enotria. With Virgil and the poets of a later day, the Enotri stand as a general designation for the Pelasgic inhabitants of Italy, and Enotria as a general name for that country itself.
Nunc fama, minores, &c. “Now there is a report that their descendants have called the nation Italy, from the name of a leader (of theirs).”-Minores. Supply natu.-533. Ducis de nomine. The whole legend is a fabulous one. The leader meant is Italus, an early king of Italy, who lived only in fable.-Gentem. Poetically for terram. – 534. Hic cursus fuit. « This was our course,” i. e. this is the laud that we sought in our course. We have adopted the reading and explanation of Wagner, and which is sanctioned by the best manuscripts. The ordinary reading is Huc cursus fuit. “Hither was our course.”—The words Hic cursus fuit form the first of the hemistichs, or half-lines, left imperfect by Virgil, and which he intended no douit to complete, had his life been spared.
535. Quum subito, &c. “ When, on a sudden, the stormy Orion, rising from the wave.” Heyne joins subito, as an adjective, with Auctu, and explains the two thus connected by “repentinâ tempestate commotâ." There is more poetry, however, in the common arrangement.-Nimbosus Orion. Both the rising and setting of this constellation were accompanied by storms. It belongs to the southern hemisphere, and consists of thirty-eight stars.-536. In rada cæca. “ Upon hidden shoals ” Cæca equivalent to latentia.—Penitusque procacibus austris, &c. “ And, with southern blasts disporting fiercely, drove us in different directions, over the waves, over pathless rocks, the briny sea overpowering us.” We have connected penitus with procacibus, and not, as is generally done, with dispulit. The expression penitus procacibus is extremely beautiful, and might be paraphrased by “ deriding all our efforts to withstand them.”--537. Superante salo. All the skill and labour of the mariner being completely set at nought by the drenching mountain-wave.-538. Pauci. Because they supposed Æneas and the rest of the fleet to be lost.Adnavimus. “We have floated.” This single term forcibly paints the shattered condition of their vessels. It was not sailing, but merely floating.
539. Quod genus hoc hominum ? “What race of men is this?" i. e. how fierce and inhuman. The common pointing is : Quod genus hoc hominum, qucere, &c.—Hunc morem permittit. “Permits this custom," i. e. of rudely repelling strangers.—540. Hospitio prohibemur arence. “We are excluded from the hospitality of the shore,” i. e. not allowed to land.—541. Primaque terra, &c. “On the very verge of your land,” i. e. on the very shore, where the land first appears emerging from the waters.
542. Genus humanum, i. e. the opinion which men in general will entertain of such barbarity.-Mortalia arma, i. e. the just vengeance which men may seek to inflict.-543. At sperate deos memores, &c. “ Yet expect that the gods are mindful of right and of wrong." Sperate is here used as a miw often is in Greek, with the signification of expecting, apprehending, &c. Hoogeveen, in his remarks on Viger, lays down an excellent rule for cases like the present. Wherever we find a verb with two directly opposite significations, as, for example, tiw, “to honour,” and “to punish,” we must regard neither of these as the true and primitive meaning, but must seek for some third one, by which both the others may be explained. Thus in riw, the primitive idea is “to recompense,” “ to pay,” &c.; and so in drisw and spero, the original meaning is “ to expect,” “tó look out for,” and then either to “liope” for good, or to “ apprehend” the coming of evil. (Hoog. ad Vig. c. 5, s. 7, reg. 2.)
544. Quo justior alter, &c. “Than whom there was not another more scrupulous in piety, nor greater in war and in arms," i. e. more scrupulous in performing all the duties that piety enjoined. Heyne and others consider justior pietate a harsh construction, and therefore place a comma after alter, thus making pietate depend upon major. The expression major pietate, however, in connexion with major bello et armis, has very little to recommend it on the score of good taste.-545. Bello et armis. The former of these terms has reference to Æneas as a chief and leader in war; the latter, as personally brave in fight.
546. Si vescitur aura ætheriâ. “If he (still) enjoys the air of heaven,” i. e. still breathes.—547. Neque adhuc crudelibus, &c. “Nor lies as yet amid the cruel shades," i. e. of the other world.—548. Non metus, officio, &c. “We have no fear lest you repent of having striven to be beforehand with him in kindness," i. e. lest, in the contest of mutual good offices, you repent of having conferred on him the first obligation by succouring us his followers. The common text has officio nec te, &c., in which case non metus will be equivalent to non metus sit tibi. But why should any fear have arisen in Dido’s bosom ? What had she to apprehend from the Trojans ? Non metus, therefore, must be taken for non metus est nobis.-Certasse priorem. After priorein supply fuisse,