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high the valiant Æneas,” &c. By a beautiful image, the mother herself, who is so deeply interested in the fortunes of her son, is to be the immediate agent in effecting his deification after death. The enrolment of a mortal among the gods was termed his apotheõsis.
261. Tibi fabor enim.' Tibi is here equivalent to tibi soli. Some join tibi in construction with bellum geret, but with much less propriety.-- Quando hæc te cura, &c. “ Since this care continually distresses thee.” Quando for quandoquidem. Observe, also, the force of re in remordet. Literally, “ gnaws thee again and again.”
262. Longius et coltens, &c. “ And, causing them to revolve, will set in motion for thee, far in the future, the secrets of the fates."' The ancients assigned to periods of time, and the events connected with them, a revolving course, just as we still speak of the recolution of events, of revolving years, &c. This idea lies at the basis of the present passage, the peculiar force of which has been generally misunderstood. The events of age after age form so many grand cycles, or concentric circles, as it were, each spreading out more widely than the previous one into the vast field of the future. Of these circles Deity is the common centre, and around him, that is, in accordance with his decree, each in its turn revolves. The cycles of the past have performed their allotted motion. The cycle of present events is now revolving ; but Jove, directing the eye of his daughter into the distant future, removes the veil that conceals it from all save himself, and causes one of the quiescent circles of after ages, comprising all the grand events of Roman history from Romulus to Augustus, to move for a time, for her instruction, upon its destined round.-Longius. More literally, “from a further distance," i. e. than thy unaided vision can extend. The ordinary translation is, " and unrolling further the secrets of the fates, will declare them unto thee.” The idea being supposed to be taken from the unrolling and reading of a scroll or manuscript. This, however, is far inferior. -Voltens inorebo. Equivalent, in fact, to rolvendo morebo.
264. Contundet. “He shall subdue.” Literally, “shall bruise.” -Moresque viris, &c. “ And shall establish civilization and cities for the men.” Mores, here the civilized habits consequent on the introduction of laws; so that Romulus appears now in the light of a lawgiver.- Viris. Alluding to the “feroces populi,” whom he shall have subdued.
265. Tertia dum Latio, &c. “Until the third summer shall have beheld him reigning in Latium.” Æneas was to reign three years after settling in Italy.—Dum. For donec.—266. Ternaque transierint, &c. “And three winters shall have passed after the Rutuli have been subdued.” Literally, “the Rutuli having been subdued.” These were the subjects of Turnus, the rival claimant of the hand of Lavinia.-Hiberna. For hiemes. Supply tempora.
267. Cui nunc cognomen Iulo, &c. “ Unto whom the surname of Tulus is now added," i. e. who is now surnamed Iulus. He was the son of Æneas by Creüsa, one of the daughters of Priam. Iulo, dative, by attraction to cui, in imitation of the Greek, instead of the nominative. So Est mihi nomen Joanni, “My name is John," for Est mihi nomen Joannes.-268. Ilus erat dum, &c. “ He was Ilus, as long as the Trojan state stood (erect) in a kingdom," i. e. he was called Ilus in Troy, before the downfall of that city, having been thus named after one of the old progenitors of the Trojan line. This, of course, is mere poetic fiction, in order to trace, with courtly adulation, a Trojan origin for the Julian line, through the names Iulus and Ilus. Heyne considers the passage a spurious one, but it is well defended by Wagner.
269. Triginta magnos, &c. “Shall fill up with his reign thirty great circles of revolving months,” i. e. shall complete thirty years.Voldendis. Equivalent here to sese moventibus, “ rolling themselves onward.” It is now pretty generally agreed among grammarians that the participle in dus is, in reality, a present participle of the passive, or, as in the instance before us, of the middle voice.-270. Regnumque ab sede Lavini, &c. “And shall then transfer the kingdom from the settlement of Lavinium, and found and fortify Alba Longa." According to mythic history, Ascanius, in the thirtieth year of his reign, removed the seat of government from Lavinium to Alba Longa, having founded the latter city.—271. Muniet. Observe the zeugma, or double signification in this verb. It is equivalent here to exstruet ac muniet.- Multâ vi. Referring to both strength of situation and the numbers of the inhabitants.
272. Hic. At Alba.-Regnabitur gente Hectoreâ. “There shall be a line of kings of Trojan race." Literally, “it shall be reigned beneath an Hectorean race.” The Trojan race is here called Hectorean, in compliment to Hector, the great champion of Troy.–273. Donec regina sacerdos, &c. “Until a priestess of royal parentage, Ilia, made a mother by Mars, shall give twin offspring at a birth.” Ilia, otherwise called Rhea Silvia, was daughter of Numitor, and mother, by Mars, of Romulus and Remus. She is called sacerdos here, as having been a vestal virgin. The name Ilia is given her by the poet as an indication of her descent, through Æneas, from a Trojan stem.
275. Lupæ fulco nutricis, &c. “Exulting in the tawny covering of a she-wolf, such as his foster-parent was." Alluding to the custom on the part of the ancient heroes of arraying themselves in the skins of wild animals, in order to strike more terror into the foe, and of either making a part of the hide answer the purposes of a helmet, or of decking the helmet with it.-Nutricis. Alluding to the story of the wolf that suckled Romulus and Remus. Virgil does not mean that this was the hide of that same animal ; on the contrary, nutrix is here merely equivalent to “ qualis ejus genetrix fuerat."
276. Excipiet gentem. “ Shall receive the nation beneath his sway," i. e. shall succeed to the throne.—Marortia mcenia. “ The city of Mars.” Romulus, the reputed son of Mars, shall found a warlike city, Rome, sacred to his sire.--277. Dicetque. “And shall call its people.”-Nec metas rerum nec tempora. “Neither limits of power, nor duration of sway." Hence Rome becomes the eternal city, a title appearing often on her coins.—279. Dedi. Observe the change of tenses in pono and dedi, equivalent, in fact, to “ I set no limits of power, because I have giren,” &c.
279. Quin aspera Juno. “ Nay, the harsh-spirited Juno herself.”— Quæ nunc metu fatigat. “Who now wearies out by the fear that she excites.” Metú equivalent to metu injiciendo. Juno, in ber bitter persecution of the Trojans, fills the whole universe with objects of alarm ; so that even the sea, and earth, and sky, participate in the terror which they excite, and become, at length, quite wearied out with fear. The common interpretation is : “ Wearies out, &c., through fear,” i. e. through fear lest her favourite Carthage fall in after ages, she wearies out heaven, earth, and sea, with her im
portunities and complaints. This, however, is somewhat tame.281. Consilia in melius referet. “ Shall change her counsels for the better," i. e. shall cease to persecute the descendants of Æneas.
282. Rerum dominos, gentemque togatam. “Lords of the world, and the gowned nation.” The toga was the peculiar badge of a Roman, as the pallium was of a Greek. Heyne thinks that the rerum dominos refers to warlike, and the gentem togatam to civic virtues, or the arts of peace. It is much better, however, to suppose that the poet meant, by this latter clause, to designate the Romans in a more special manner by their national costume. Indeed, from the anecdote related in Suetonius (Octav. 40), Augustus himself would appear to have understood it in this same sense.
283. Sic placitum. “Such is my pleasure.” Literally, “ thus is it pleasing unto me." The full form is, sic placitum est mihi.- Veniet lustris labentibus ætas. “A period shall come amid gliding years." Lustrum properly denotes a space of five years ; here, however, lustris is used poetically for annis, as taking in a wide range of the future.-284. Domus Assaraci. “The line of Assaracus." Alluding to the Romans, as the descendants of the Trojaus ; Assaracus, son of Tros, having been one of the forefathers of Æneas.-Phthian, clarasque Mycenas, &c. The conquest of Greece by the Romans is here predicted unto Venus; Phthia, Mycenæ, and Argos, being put collectively for Greece itself. These three names recall the recollection of three of the most powerful enemies of Troy, and are therefore selected for this purpose. Phthia, in Thessaly, was the native region of Achilles ; Mycenæ, in Argolis, was the capital of Agamemnon ; and the city of Argos was under the sway of Diomede when the Trojan war broke out. (Compare Æn. vi. 839.)
286. Nascetur pulchrâ, &c. *“ The Trojan Cæsar shall be born, of illustrious origin.” The reference is to Augustus, not Julius Cæsar. -288. Julius. “ Called Julius also.” Augustus obtained the name of Julius from his adoptive father, Julius Cæsar, who was his uncle. Hence he is called Trojanus in the text, as deducing his origin, through the latter, from Æneas and Troy.- Demissum. “ Handed down."-Hunc. Augustus.—289. Spoliis Orientis onustum. Alluding to the overthrow of Antony and his Eastern forces (Æn. viii. 678, se99.), but more especially to the acknowledgment by the Parthians of the power of Augustus.
290. Secura. “ Safe from further opposition.” No power shall then ny longer oppose, and even the wrath of Juno shall be appeased. — Vocabitur hic quoque cotis. “ He too shall be invoked in vows,” i. e, shall receive the honours of divinity, as well as Æneas. (Compare Georg. i. 42.)-291. Positis bellis. “ Wars being laid aside.” Alluding to the universal peace that shall mark the greater part of the reign of Augustus.
292. Cana Fides. “Hoary Faith,” i. e, the Faith of early days, or of the good old times that marked the earlier history of Rome. To the goddess of Faith are here figuratively assigned gray or hoary locks, on account of the reputation for good faith which the Romans attributed to their forefathers.—Vesta. The worship of Vesta was the oldest among the Romans, and therefore peculiarly national (patria religio); hence Vesta is here put for Religion itself.
* Remo cum fratre Quirinus. “ Romulus, with his brother Remus.” A type of fraternal harmony restored. The whole passage means that Good Faith shall once more prevail, the national Religion
be re-established, and conccrd and brotherly love be the order of the day. All this is to mark the happy reign of Augustus.
Quirinus. A name bestowed by the Roman senate on Romulus, after his disappearance from among men. It was derived from the Sabine curis, “a spear,” and meant as defender,” and was particularly applied to the god Janus, as the defender, or combatant, by excellence. Hence the glorious nature of the title when bestowed on Romulus, indicating, as it were, the perpetual defender of the Roman city.-294. Belli portæ. There is a personification in Belli, the term properly meaning here the divinity who presides over war. The allusion in the text is to the closing of the Temple of Janus, which was open in war, but shut in peace. During the whole period of Roman history down to the time of Augustus, this temple had been only closed twice : once, during the reign of Numa, and a second time, at the end of the First Punic War. Augustus had the high honour of shutting it the third time, A.U.C. 727, when universal tranquillity had been restored by his sway.-Furor impius. “Impious Fury.” Another personification.–296. Nodis. Put for catenis. The door in front of a temple, as it reached nearly to the ceiling, allowed the worshippers to view from without the entire statue of the divinity, and to observe the rites performed before it. The whole light of the building, moreover, was commonly admitted through the same aperture.
297. Maiâ genitum. “Him of Maia born.” Mercury is meant, the son of Maia and Jove, and the messenger of his father.—299. Fati nescia. “ Jgnorant of their destiny.” Dido, not aware that the Trojans were seeking, in accordance with the decree of fate, a resting-place in Italy, and fearful lest, after landing, they might seize upon her newly-erected city, might have given orders to her subjects to burn the ships of Æneas, and drive the strangers from her territories. Hence the entreaty of Ilioneus (1. 525), “ prohibe infandos a navibus ignes.” Dido, therefore, did not know that Jupiter had decreed that the Trojans should pass from Africa to Italy, and not settie in Carthage.
301. Remigio alarum.“ By the oarage of his wings.” The waving movement of his pinions is beautifully compared to the upward and downward motion of the oar, especially when seen in the distance. Astitit. Observe the beautiful use of the perfect to indicate rapidity of movement: “ has taken his stand.”—302. Ponunt Pæni, &c. . The Carthaginians lay aside," &c. The name Pæni indicates the Phcenician origin of the Carthaginians. Indeed, Poenus is nothing more than Qolviť itself, adapted to the analogy of the Latin tongue; just as from the Greek polvikiog comes the Latin form Poenicus, found in Cato and Varro, and from this the more usual Punicus.
303. Vólente deo. It is a fine idea on the part of the poet to make Mercury, the god of civilization and human culture, bring about the change of feeling here referred to.
305. Volvens. “Revolving.” Wunderlich takes this in the sense of " after having revolved,” in which opinion Thiel agrees; but Wagner considers it equivalent to qui volvebat, not qui volterat. -306. Ut primum lux alma, &c. “ Resolved, as soon as the cheering light of day was afforded, to go forth,” &c. Exire, and the other infinitives, are governed by constituit.-307. Quas vento accesserit, &c. “ To try to ascertain (quærere) to what shores he may have approached with the wind.”—308. Qui teneant, &c. “Who may occupy them, whether men
or wild beasts, for he sees them to be uncultivated.-309. Exacta. “ The results of his search.” Equivalent to exquisita.
310. In convexo nemorum, &c. “Beneath a hollow rock, with jutting woods (projecting over), shut in all around by trees and gloomy shades." The fleet was concealed beneath an over-arching rock, covered above with thick woods, which, projecting forth, formed a kind of outward curoe, and cast a deep shade upon the waters below. They who make contexo here equivalent to concavo, and sig. nifying merely “a recess within the grove," mistake entirely the sense of the passage.-312. Comitatus. Used in a passive sense. Achate. Achates, in the Æneid, is the faithful companion of the hero of the poem, just as in Homer, Meriones is the companion of Idomeneus, Sthenelus of Diomede, and Patroclus of Achilles.-313, Bina manu lato, &c. “ Brandishing in his hand two spears with the head of broad iron.” Bina, by poetic usage, for duo.-Crispans. Referring properly to the rapid and swinging motion of the weapons, as Æneas proceeds.
314. Cui mater media, &c. “Unto him his mother, meeting him full in front, presente
esented herself in the middle of a wood.” The conimon prose form would be tulit sese obriam, which the metre here forbids.-315. Os habitumque gerens. “Wearing the mien and attire." Gerens not put for habens, as some think, but carries with it the idea vf something assumed for a particular occasion, which is not one's own. Hence Servius well remarks : “ et bene gerens, non habens, quod geri putantur aliena.”
315. Et virginis arma, &c. " And the arms of a virgin, either a Spartan one, or such as the Thracian Harpalyce wearies out her steeds, and outstrips in fleet course the rapid Hebrus," i. e. “ or like the Thracian Harpalyce when she wearies out,” &c. The common text has a semicolon after Spartance, and no stop after arma, which will give the following meaning, “and the arms of a Spartan virgin, or such as,” &c. This, however, is extremely awkward. We have adopted in its place the punctuation of Wagner, which merely requires rel to be supplied before Spartanæ. The full expression then will be, “(vel) Spartance (virginis) vel (talis virginis) qualis (est) Threïssa Harpalyce (quum) fatigat equos,” &c. The comparison with the Spartan virgin has reference merely to her hunting equipments,
316. Spartance. The Spartan virgins were trained by the institutions of Lycurgus to all kinds of manly exercises, but more particularly to hunting and riding.–Fquos. The various steeds on which she rides from time to time, in accordance with her Amazonian habits.-317. Harpalyce. The daughter of Harpalycus, king of Thrace. Her mother having died when she was but a child, her father fed her with the milk of cows and mares, and inured her to martial exercises and Amazonian habits.—Provertitur. Used here as a deponent verb.
Hebrum. The Hebrus was a river of Thrace, now called the Maritza.--We have retained the common reading Hebrum, which rests on MSS. authority, instead of adopting Eurum, the emendation of Rutgersius. The principal objection to Hebrum is, that this river is by no means a rapid stream. The ancient poets, however, indulged in great license frequently as regarded streams in far-distant lands, and Virgil might easily assign to the remote Hebrus, of which and its wild country so little was known by the Romans, the character of a rapid stream. Hebrum is also retained by Wagner.