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“ With its crooked fluke.” The anchor used by the ancients was for the most part made of iron, and its form resembled that of the modern anchor.
170. Septem. The fleet originally consisted of twenty. (Compare 1. 381.) Of these, three preserved from the rocks, three from the quicksands, and this one, in which Æneas himself was embarked, make up the pumber in the text. Of the others, one had sunk (1. 117). The arrival of the remaining twelve is announced by Venus (1. 399).–171. Magna telluris amore. “ With an eager longing for the land.”—173. Et sale tabentes, &c. “ And recline on the beech, their limbs drenched with brine." Tabentes, literally, carries with it the additional idea of limbs enfeebled by long exposure to the action of the water,
175. Suscepitque. “And received.”—176. Rapuitque in fomite flaminam. “ And by a rapid motion kindled a flame amid the fostering fuel.” Wagner thinks that the poet alludes here to the mode practised among shepherds at the present day, who, after receiving the fire in the pith of a dry fungous stalk, kindle this into a flame by a rapid vibratory motion.--177. Tum Cererem corruptam undis, &c. “ Then, exhausted by their hardships, they bring out their grain damaged by the waters, and the implements of Ceres, and prepare to scorch with the flames their corn (thus) rescued, and to break it with the stone."
Arma. A general term for the implements of any art. Cerealia arma denotes those that were necessary for converting grain into meal, and then into bread.-178. Fessi rerum. Supply adversarum.179. Torrere. Previous to grinding corn, observes Valpy, it was cominonly scorched by our own ancestors : hence the term bran, from the German brennen, to burn ; i. e. the burned part. Before the invention of mills, when the reducing grain to meal was a domestic manufacture, this operation was facilitated by scorching slightly the grain, as in semi-barbarous countries is still the practice ; it is afterward pounded, or ground, between two stones, one fixed, the other revolving.
181. Petit. “Takes in.”- Anthea si quem, &c. “If he may see any Antheus,” &c. i. e. any one answering the description of Antheus ; any ship like that of Antheus.—183. Celsis in puppibus, &c. The shields and other armour were commonly placed in the stern. 184. Narem in conspectu nullam. Supply aspicit, or videt.—185. Tota armenta. “ Whole herds." There were three leaders, each followed by a herd.—190. Cornibus arboreis. “With branching antlers.” Volgus. “The common herd.”—Et omnem miscet, &c. “ And pursuing with his shafts, scatters the whole crowd in confusion throughout the leafy groves.” See note 1. 69.—193. Et numerum cum naribus, &c. He slays seven, one for each ship.-196. Trinacrio. The Trojan fleet had been driven into Drepanum in Sicily. (Compare iïi. 707.) A tradition existed, that in this neighbourhood, Ægestus, a Trojan, whom Virgil names Acestes, had established himself. Æneas was received by him a second time. (Compare v. 36, seqq.)
198. ( socii, &c. “O my companions, 0 ye who have endured greater hardships (for we are not unacquainted with previous ills)," &c.--Ante malorum. A Greek construction, Tūv piy kakõv, 200. Vos et Scyllæam rabiem, &c. “ You have approached both the rage of Scylla, and the rocks resounding far within," i. e. and the rocks within whose deep caverns is heard the roaring of the waters.
(Consult notes on iii. 424, seqq.) — 201. Accéstis. Contracted from accessistis.- Vos et Cyclopia saxa, &c. “ You have also made trial of the rocks of the Cyclopes," i. e. you know the rocky shore where dwell the cruel Cyclopes. (Consult notes on iii. 569, 617, &c.)-203. Forsan et hæc olim, &c. “ Perhaps it will delight hereafter to recall even the present things to mind.” Hæc refers not to the “ Scyllæam rabiem," nor the “ Cyclopia saxa," but to their present unhappy condition.
204. Per tot discrimina rerum. “ Through so many hazardous conjunctures.” Literally, “through so many hazards of affairs.”--205. Tendimus in Latium. “We stretch our course towards Latiuin.” Supply cursum.-206. Ostendunt. “ Point out to us," i.e. through the medium of oracles and auguries.-Fas. “ It is the decree of heaven.” -207. Durate. “ Be of stout hearts."
209. Spem oultu, &c. “ Assumes an appearance of hope in his look, keeps down deep sorrow in his breast.” Æneas is afraid of discouraging his followers, if he show any sign of despondency.
210. Ini. “ They, on the other hand ;" . e. his followers.--Accingunt se.“ Prepare themselves.” Literally, “they gird themselves.” The poet speaks here according to the customs of his own countrymen. When the Romans wished to engage in any active work, they girded the toga more closely around them, and by this means drew it up more, so as to prevent its interfering with the feet.—Dapibusque futuris. “ And for the approaching banquet.”
211. Tergora deripiunt, &c.“ They tear away the hide from the ribs, and lay bare the flesh beneath.” Viscera here means, Quicquid sub corio est. In other words, it is equivalent to carnes.—212. Pars in frusta secant, &c. An imitation of the Homeric Miorullóv p' üpa i älla, kai áud' opeloiolvětelpav. (II. i. 465.)-Trementia. “ Still quivering."-213. Aëna. “ Brazen caldrons. In the heroic times flesh was not prepared for food by boiling : these caldrons were merely intended to contain warm water for ablution, before partaking of the banquet.- Flammasque ministrant. “ And supply the flames," 3. e. and kindle a blaze beneath them.
214. Revocant. “They recruit." Literally, “recall.”—215. Implentur deteris Bacchi, &c. “ They sate themselves with old wine and fat venison.”—Implentur joined with the genitive by a Greek construction. Verbs of filling, &c., in Greek, take a genitive.-Ferince. Literally, “ the flesh of wild animals.” Supply carnis.
216. Postquam exemta fames, &c. “After their hunger had been taken away by the banquet, and the viands had been removed.” Another imitation of Homer : aúrào, šttE TOOLS kai tontúos ¿E ēpov Švto. (II. i. 469.) As regards the expression “mensce remoto," consult the note on í. 723.-217. Requirunt. “ They inquire after.” The verb requiro is here applied, with great beauty, to regret for the absent.–218. Seu credant. “Whether they are to believe.”—219. Extrema pati. “ Are now enduring their final lot.” A euphemism, for “are now dead.” This mode of speaking was adopted by the ancients in order to avoid the evil omen that might accompany too plain an expression. So, in English, we say “decease,” “ demise,"' &c., instead of “ death."--Nec jam exaudire vocatos. “ Nor any longer hear when called.” An allusion to the custom of calling upon the dead, which was done at the close of the funeral obsequies. The relatives and friends of the deceased called upon him thrice by name, and thrice repeated the word, Vale, “ Farewell.”
220. Acris. “ Valiant."--Oronti is here an old form of the genitive for Orontis.-221. Casum.“ The sad fate."
223. Et jam finis erat. “And now at length there was an end,” i. e. of the “ longi sermonis," or, of their inquiries and laments for their absent friends.— Æthere summo. “ From the highest heavens.”
-224. Despiciens mare celicolum. “ Looking down upon the sea, where many a sail wings its flight.” Vélidolus properly means “flying with wings," i. e. moving rapidly : here, however, it is used to signify “sailed upon,” or “navigable.”—Jacentes. “ Lying spread beneath his view.”
225. Latos populos. “The out-stretched nations."- Sic vertice coli constitit. “Stood, while thus employed, on the very pinnacle of the sky.” Sic used in imitation of the Greek construction with üç or OŰTWS, and appears to be equivalent to sicut erat.--226. Constitit. Not “stopped,” but “stood.” The former would have been expressed by substitit. Jupiter is represented as abiding in his dwelling-place in the highest heavens, and as not moving therefrom, but looking down thence upon the earth.
227. Jactantem pectore curas. He saw Carthage and Rome in the distant future, and thought of the bloody warfare that was destined to take place between the rival cities, as well as the cruel overthrow of the former.-228. Tristior. “Plunged in more than ordinary sadness.” She had been tristis since the downfal of Troy; she was now tristior at the idea of the perils that encompassed her
230. Et fulmine terres. The fulmen is here the badge of empire, and the whole expression is muci stronger than the ordinary et fulmen geris or jacis would have been.-231-2. Quid meus Æneas, &c. " What offence of so great magnitude has my Æneas been able to commit against thee? What one have the Trojans? Against whom, after having already suffered so many disasters," &c.--233. Quibus clauditur would be expressed in prose by ut iis claudatur. Imitated from a Greek idiom of frequent occurrence in the tragic, and sometimes met with even in the prose-writers.
06 Italiam. "On account of Italy.” In order to prevent their settling there, and overthrowing, in the course of time, the favourite city of Juno, Carthage.-234. Certe hinc Romunos, &c. “ Surely thou didst promise that from these, hereafter, in revolving years, should the Romans come ; that hence should be leaders (springing) from the blood of Teucer recalled to life," &c. ; i.e. from the re-established line of Teucer:-235. Ductores. “Rulers uver the nations.”—Teucri. Teucer, father-in-law of Dardanus, and king over part of Phrygia. He was regarded as one of the founders of the Trojan race.
236. Omni ditione. “Beneath their sovereign sway.” Equivalent to summâ potestate.-237. Quce te genitor, &c. “ What (new) resolve has changed thee, O father ?'' i. e. Why hast thou changed thy former resolve ?
238. Hoc equidem occasum, &c.“ With this, indeed, was I wont to find solace for the downfall and sad destruction of Troy.” Literally,“ was I wont to console the downfall,” &c. A poetical construction, by which, instead of the accusative of the person (solabar me), we have the accusative of the evil itself on account of which consolation is needed. Compare Claudian, “ Tali solatur vulnera questu." (Nupt. Hon. et Mar. 46.)–239. Fatis contraria fata rependens.
“ Balancing adverse fates with fates (of fairer hue).” She hoped that, the gloomier the present destinies of the Trojans were, the brighter were those that awaited them in the future.
240. Eadem fortuna. “ The same evil fortune.”--Actos. “ Tossed to and fro by so many calamities.”—242, Antenor potuit, &c. Antenor, a son of the sister of Priam, led a colony of Heneti from Asia Minor after the fall of Troy, and reached the head-waters of the Adriatic. According to some, he founded Patavium, now Padua ; a legend which Virgil here adopts.—243. Illyricos penetrare sinus, &c. “To penetrate in safety the Illyrian bays, and reach the realms of the Liburni far within.” The voyage of Antenor up the Adriatic would, of course, be along the coast of Illyricum on the right, and hence he is said to have penetrated the numerous bays or indentations with which that coast abounds. Penetrare, however, takes a different meaning with regna (grammarians call this construction a zeugma), and signifies, not “to enter,” but “to reach.” The territories of the Liburni, an Illyrian race, were far within the Adriatic, and near its head-waters.
244. Et fontem superare Timavi. “And to pass, too, beyond the source of the Timavus." The voyage of Antenor is still continued. He leaves the shores of the Liburni, passes around Histria, and then comes to the river Timavus, by which he sails. The Timavus was a small stream, rising not far from the sea. It was said to burst forth from caverns amid the rocks, having in this way nine different fountain-heads or sources, forming, soon after, one stream. As the river rose so near the sea, the poet figuratively blends its source with its mouth, making Antenor pass the former in his course. “ It has been well ascertained,” says Cramer, “ that the name of Timao is still preserved by some springs which rise near S. Gioranni di Carso and the castle of Duino, and form a river, which, after a course of little more than a mile, falls into the Adriatic. The number of these sources seem to vary according to the difference of seasons, which circumstance will account for the various statements which ancient writers have made respecting them.”
245. Ora. The openings or mouths at the sources of the river. Montis. The mountain or hill containing the caverns whence the stream issues.-246. It mare proruptum, &c. “A bursting sea goes forth, and overwhelms the fields with a roaring ocean.” Some, with less spirit, translate this, “it goes forth as a rushing sea," &c. Others, again, make proruptum the supine, governing mare in the accusative, “it goes forth to break (and drive onward before it) the sea," i. é. to force back the waves of the Adriatic by the impetuosity of its own current. This is Voss's idea, “Geht zu brechen das Meer," but it does not harmonize with the “pelago premit arou sonanti.”
247. Hic tamen. “Here, however." Hic refers, not to the vicinity of the T'imavus, but to the coast generally, at the head of the Adriatic. Tamen, in this passage, has a meaning very nearly allied to our “ at least," or the Latin saltem. Antenor, at least, founded a city in these regions, remote and barbarous though they were. Æneas, however, after all the splendid promises made to him from oracles and other sources, has not yet been able even to set foot in Italy.-Sedesque Teucrorum. “ And a Trojan settlement."-248. Nomen dedit. The Heneti who accompanied him from Paphlagonia, became in Italy, by a slight change of name, the Veneti.- Armaque fixit Troüa. “And affixed the Trojan arms (to the temyle walls)," i.e. all warfare being now ended, he hung up or consecrated the Trojan arms in the temples as a badge of peace. It was customary with the ancients, when they discontinued any art or calling, to consecrate the instruments connected with it, to the deity under whose auspices that art or calling had been pursued.
249. Nunc placida, &c. “ Now, laid at rest, he sleeps in placid peace.” Compóstus, by contraction, for compositus. Compono is the technical term employed by the Latin writers in cases like the present. It comprises the laying out of the corpse, the decking of the couch with the funereal garlands, and more particularly the gathering of the ashes into the urn. Hence it is equivalent, in some respects, to the Greek TEPLOTéllelv.-Some commentators make this passage refer, not to the death of Antenor, but to his enjoying a peaceful and happy reign at the time that Venus was speaking. This, however, would make a disagreeable tautology with “armaque fixit,” and would destroy, besides, all the force of nunc. The ancients regarded a happy and peaceful death (evdavaoía) as the true goal of human felicity.
250. Nos, tua progenies. The goddess here, through a mother's eagerness for his welfare, speaks of herself and her son as having their interests identified.—Cæli quibus annuis arcem. “ To whom thou promisest the palace of the skies,” i. e. a share of heaven. Æneas was to be deified after death.-251. Infandum. “Oh! woe unutterable !" Infandum here and elsewhere alludes to that, the full extent or measure of which cannot be expressed in words.-Unius. “Of one,” i. e. Juno.-Navibus amissis. An intentional exaggeration, in order to add force to her complaints.—252. Prodimur. “Are made the victims of secret machinations.”—Longe disjungimur. “Are kept far away.”
253. Honos. “The recompense."-Sic nos in sceptra, &c. - Is it thus that thou restorest us to the sceptre of empire ?” More literally, “Dost thou replace us in this way for (a wielding of) the sceptre ?”
254. Olli. Old form for Illi.—255. Vultu quo serenat. A zeugma lurks here in serenat, “calms the sky, and hushes to repose the tempests." -256. Oscula libavit nato. “Gently pressed his daughter's lips." A beautiful usage of the verb libo, which, acquiring from its ordinary meaning, “ to make a libation,” the reference to a part, gets subsequently the signification of “ to taste” or “sip.” So here, “gently sipped the nectar from his daughter's lips.”- Dehinc. Pronounced as a monosyllable, d’hinc.
257. Parce metu, Cytherea. “Spare thy fear, goddess of Cythēra.” Venus was so called from the island of Cythēra, near which she was fabled to have arisen from the sea. Here, however, as elsewhere, there is a blending of legends, the poet styling her the daughter of Jove.—Metu. Old form of the dative for metui.—Manent immota, &c. “ The destinies of thy people remain unshaken for thee.”—258. Tibi
is here what the grammarians call “ dativus ethicus,” and is employed · in such cases as the present to give to the discourse a touch of feeling
or sentiment. It is somewhat analogous in this passage to our expression, 6 let me assure thee.”
Cernes. Emphatic here. “ Thou shalt behold.”-Lavini. For Lavinii. Lavinium was the city which Æneas was destined to found in Italy, and call after the name of his wife Lavinia, the daughter of King Latinus.—259. Sublimemque feres, &c. “ And thou shalt bear on