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255; the "beatitudes," ii, 257;
prayer, ii, 262; universality of
Christ, ii, 263; it must need be
that offenses come, ii, 265; the
judgment of omniscient love, ii,
267; render unto Cæsar, ii, 268;
be ye perfect, ii, 270; resist not
evil, ii, 271; judge not, ii, 272;
the things of God and the last
judgment, ii, 273; its inclusion of
previous thought, ii, 339, 398-
408; God and Fate, ii, 399–402;
the sphere of man's desires, im-
mortality, India, Greece, Rome,
ii, 402-408; art, ii, 405-406; joy-
fulness, ii, 406; the emotions, ii,
407; the final universality of, ii,
408; see Gospel of John, Apostolic
Interpretation, Roman World and
Christianity

Christianity and the Emperor Julian,
ii, 92-96

Chrysippus, i, 374, 375, 385
Cicero, religious thought, i, 433, 434;
ii, 394; his Hellenism and human-
itas, i, 444; his ideal of oratory,
i, 445; his philosophic position,
i, 446; ii, 61; character, i, 449;
death, ii, 2, 4

City-State, the Greek, i, 234 et seq.
Cleanthes, i, 376

Cleomenes, i, 346

Cognitiones, ii, 358

Comedy at Rome, i, 420, 425
Commodus, ii, 363
Confucianism, i, 47-54

Conscience, conception of, in Stoi-
cism, i, 379

Consulship, the Roman, i, 394, 398,
406

Covenants, the, between Jehovah
and Israel, ii, 122; relating to
the Messiah, ii, 147, 155
Creation of the world, in ancient
Indian thought, i, 66

Cuniform writing in Syria, ii, IOI

Curse, Greek conceptions of, i, 206

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certain psalms, ii, III, note; in
Messianic psalms, ii, 146, 148–150,

171, note

Dead, book of the, i, 18; i, 25; i,
27

Death, see Future life

Deborah, ii, 106, 107, 140
Debtor and Creditor, law of, in
Twelve Tables, i, 410-414; rela-
tions between at Rome, i, 396;
Cæsar's measures, i, 457
Decalogue, the, ii, 103, 118
Decius, ii, 364

Deification, of Augustus, ii, 24-27
Deluge, the, i, 4; Chaldæan, i, 35,
37; Hebrew story of, ii, 127,

note.

Demetrius Poliorcetes, i, 345
Demochares, i, 346
Democracy, Greek, i, 235
Democratic party, tendencies of, at
Rome, i, 450; Cæsar's position as
leader of, i, 452; the Empire a
part realization of the ideal of, i,
461
Democritus, i, 262; his philosophy
and ethics, i, 313; his atomic
theory borrowed by Epicurus, i,
382; by Lucretius, i, 438
Demosthenes, i, 344

De Natura Deorum, Cicero's dia-
logue, ii, 61

Deus Fidius, i, 409

Deuteronomy, book of, ii, 144, 166,
216-223, 275

Development, human, parallelisms
of, i, 2; modes of, 5-10; diver-
gence in, ii, 379

Dialectic, of Paul, ii, 313–316
Diocletian, ii, 364

Divorce, Gospel utterances regard-
ing, ii, 271, note
Domitian, ii, 361
Dorian invasion, i, 147

Doryphorus, the, i, 263, 364

Drama, at Rome, i, 420-425; Greek,
see Tragedy

Dramatic modes of setting forth per-

sonality, i, 264; see Tragedy
Drawing, Egyptian, i, 29

Dualism, of Zarathushtra, i, III; of
Neo-Platonism, ii, 84

E

Ea, Sumerian god, i, 33
East, the, and paganism, ii, 90–95,
396, 397

Ecclesiastes, book of (Koheleth), ii,

214-216

Eclecticism, in Greek philosophy, i,
385

Eclogue, the fourth, of Virgil, ii, 24
Education, Greek, i, 242, 245
Egyptians, peaceful character of, i,
15; mental crudities of, i, 15 et
seq., 56; ii, 378; unprogressive-
ness of, i, 16; beliefs as to a fu-
ture life, i, 17, 28; Book of the
Dead, i, 18; their gods, i, 20-22;
animal worship, i, 21; ethics, i,
22-25; Pharaoh, i, 23; literature,
i, 26; architecture, i, 28; the
Great Pyramid, i, 28; mathe-
matics. i, 29; temples, i, 29;
painting, i, 29; sculpture, i, 31;
early intercourse with Babylonia,
i, 131; relations with Phoenicia,
i, 133; hieroglyphics adopted by
Phoenicians, i, 137; early Aryan
attacks upon, i, 144

Eleatic school of philosophy, i, 308
Election, Paul's reasonings, ii, 316
Electra, the (of Euripides), i, 353
Elijah, ii, 129, 130

Elysian plain, in Homer, i, 161
Elysium, in Eneid VI., ii, 20-22
Empedocles, i, 311, 425
Ennius, i, 422, 435

Enoch, the Book of, ii, 228, 229
Epicharmis, i, 435

Epics, of India, i, 78; of Greece,
see Homer

Epictetus, ii, 60-65, 335, 337, 392,
394

Epicureanism, at Rome, i, 440
Epicureanism, pathos of, in Horace,
ii, 44, 45

Epicurus, philosophy of, i, 381-383,
385; ii, 339; influence on Lucre-
tius, i, 436; position in human
progress, ii, 391

Equilibrium and Harmony, State of,
Confucian conception, i, 49
Eran, see Iran

Eratosthenes, i, 356
Erinyes, i, 207-215

Eros, the Platonic conception, i,
254 with Empedocles, i, 312
Essenes, ii, 263

Eternal life, in John's Gospel, ii,
284-308; in Paul's writings, ii,
317-322; in John's epistle, ii,

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Buddhism, i, 93; Homeric, i,
176; Greek development, i, 205
et seq.; of Greek philosophers, see
under names of the philosophers;
of Stoicism, i, 377; religious, of
the Eneid, ii, 11-22

Ethos, in Greek tragedy, i, 291 et

seq.

Etruria, influence of Greece upon, i,
416
Euhemerus, i, 435

Eumæus' story, i, 134, 181
Eumenides, i, 214
Eumenides, the, i, 227
Euripides, i, 230 et seq.; ii, 390;
lack of ethos in dramas, i. 295
et seq.; a forerunner of Alexan-,
drian literature, i, 352
Exile, the, of Israel, prophecies of,
ii, 155 et seq., and note to ii, 161
Exodus, influence on Hebrew
thought of God, ii, 101, 106, 124;
character of Moses in, ii, 103
F

Fabius Pictor, i, 424

Faith, ii, 246, 260, 303; function
of, with Paul, ii, 322; in He-
brews xi, ii, 323

Fame, Greek love of, i, 189, 201,
203, 242, 243

Family, the Russian, i, 389
Fate, conception of, in Homer,
i, 165 et seq.; relation to the
gods, in Homer, i, 171 et seq.;
later Greek conceptions, i, 204 et
seq., ethical development of fate,
i, 205 et seq.; retributive nature
of, i, 212; compared with Indian
rita, i, 64; Greek conception of,
how included in Christianity, ii,
265, 266, 400

Federation, in Greece, i, 346
Feriæ publicæ, i, 409
Fetiales, i, 405

Filial piety, in China, i, 50
Fire, Agni, Indian god of, i, 68
"Flesh," Paul's use of the term, ii,

321

Flood, see Deluge
Fors Fortuna, i, 499

Fourth Gospel, see Gospel of John.
Freedom, incapacity for, in China,
Chaldæa and Egypt, i, 56; among
primitive Aryans, i, 59, 61; of
primitive Persians, i, 125; Greek,
i, 233 et seq.; of Aryan peoples in
Europe, i, 240

Frieze, of the Parthenon, i, 273, 282
Future life, thoughts of savages, i,
16; Egyptian beliefs, i, 17; ii,
403; Babylonian beliefs, i, 19;
Vedic Indian beliefs, i, 66; in the
Avesta, i, 118; in Homer, i, 161;
in Pindar, i, 223; in Æneid VI,
ii, 19; Hebrew conceptions, ii,
167, 228; under the Roman Em-
pire, ii, 22, 338, 395; in Gospel of
John, ii, 284-308; Christian and
previous beliefs, ii, 403

G

Galerius, persecutes Christians, ii,
364

Gallienus, ii, 364
Ganymede, i, 207

Gathas, oldest portion of Avesta, i,

105, 108, 113, 117; the ideal ex-
pressed in them, i, 115

Gauls, of later Greek sculpture, i,
369

Georgics, the, ii, 8, 11, 26
Gilgames epic, i, 35
Glaucus, in Homer, i, 163
Glory, Christian conception of, ii,
299, 306; see Fame

God, the Hebraic conception of, see
Jehovah.

God, and human development, i,
1-10; revelation of, ii, 400
Gods, the, Egyptian gods, i, 20-22;
Indian gods, i, 61 et seq.; the, in
Homer, i, 155 et seq., 176; rela-
tion of to fate, i, 171 et seq., 204;
Greek conceptions of, i, 218 et
seq.; Roman, i, 406

Gospel of John, relations to the
synoptic gospels, analogies of
method, ii, 240-245, 257, 286,
408; the prologue (the logos), ii,
274; the incarnation, ii, 274, 280;
the great antithesis (echo of Deu-
teronomy), ii, 275; Christ and the
World, ii, 276; the offer of life,
ii, 280; the way to Christ, ii,
281; discipleship through love, ii,
282; eternal life, ii, 284-308;
husbandman, vine, and branches,
ii, 295; the prayer of consecra-
tion, ii, 299; This is life eternal,
that they should know Thee," ii,
301-305; "sanctify them in the
truth," ii, 305; "I in them and
thou in me," ii, 306; the eternal
preservation of individualities, ii,

307; relation of Christ's discourses
in John to Paul's and John's
Epistles, ii, 317, 332

Gospels, the, and the rest of the
New Testament, ii, 309
Gospels, the synoptic, ii, 240; rela-
tion of to the Fourth Gospel, an-
alogies of method, ii, 242-425;
question of the composition, ii,
241, note
Gotama, see Buddha

Gracchus, Caius, i, 444, 451
Greece, characteristics, i, 127; con-
dition of in Macedonian times, i,
344-348; specialization of occu-
pations, i, 349; individualism, i,
350

Greek drama, at Rome, i, 420-425;
see Tragedy

Greek genius, the, i, 150 et seq., 201
Greek influence, upon early Rome, i,
416 et seq.; upon early Roman
literature, i, 419-429; upon Ro-
man art and architecture, i, 429;
upon Roman religion, i, 431; upon
Cicero, i, 444; upon Cæsar, i,
452, 461; in the time of the Em-
pire, ii, 29; on Roman law, ii,
53; in Book of Ecclesiastes, ii,
214; on later Judaism, ii, 224
Greek philosophy, origin and char-
acter, i, 302; attitude toward re-
ligion, i, 305; Ionian school, i,
306; Pythagoras and the Eleatics,
i, 308; Heraclitus, i, 310; Em-
pedocles, i, 311; Anaxagoras, i,
312; the Atomists, i, 313;
Sophists, i, 316; Socrates, i, 317-
321; Platonism, i, 321-326;
modes of Plato's teaching, the
ideas, i, 328; Platonic physics
and ethics, i, 330-335; Aristotle,
i, 336-342; Cynics and Cyrenaics,
i, 371; Stoicism, i, 374-381; Epi-
curus, i, 381-383; Sceptics and
Eclectics, 1, 384; see Philosophy
at Rome, Philosophy in the time
of the Roman Empire
Greeks, the, racehood, i, 7, 127 et
seq., witness of archæological
finds, i, 129; external sources of
civilization, Egypt and Babylonia,
i, 131; Hittites, i, 132, Phoeni-
cians, i, 132 et seq.; the alphabet,
i, 136; primitive art and architec-
ture from Mycenæ, Tiryns, Or-
chomenus, i, 140 et seq.; attacks
on Egypt and Troy, i, 144; genius

of, i, 150 et seq., love of beauty,
i, 153; imagination of, i, 154;
idea of fate (in Homer), i, 165 et
seq., ethics (in Homer), i, 176 et
seq.; later thoughts of fate, i, 204
et seq.; ethical development, i,
205 et seq.; conceptions of the
gods, i, 218 et seq.; civic freedom,
i, 233 et seq., the city-states, i,
234 et seq., art and poetry of, i,
249 et seq.; architecture, i, 268 et
seq.; drama, see Tragedy; artist
qualities of compared with those
of Israel, ii, 172, 200; their posi-
tion in human progress, ii, 386-
396; in relation to Christianity,
404-407

Growth, human, modes of, i, 7; ii,
377; divergent lines of, ii, 379

H

Hades, in Homer, i, 161, 162
Hadrian, ii, 30, 362

Hammurabi, Babylonian King, i,
33; ii, III, note

Heaven (God), Confucian concep-.
tion, i, 48, 53

Heaven, kingdom of, ii, 250
Hebrews, their developed individu-
ality, i. 7; their incapacity for
dialectic, ii, 214; see Israel and
Judaism

Hector, i, 174, 181
Helen, i, 187, 252

Heliogabalus, ii, 363

Helius, in Homer, i, 158 note, 166
Hellenism and the East, i, 347
Hellenism, term used by Julian, ii,
92, 95, 96

Helvidius Priscus, ii, 365
Hephaestus, i, 160

Hera, her character in Homer, i,
158, 161, 172
Heracles, i, 161, 163

Heraclitus, i, 218, 236, 262, 306,

339; his philosophy, i, 310, 315
Herodotus, references in, to Persian
character and customs, i, 120
notes, 124-126

Hesiod, i, 214, 220, 303
Hexateuch, credibility of patriarchal

narratives, ii, 99-101; early laws
in, ii, 118-121; see Decalogue,
Deuteronomy
Hezekiah, ii, 135
Hieroglyphic writing, borrowed by
Phoenicians, i, 137

Hindoos, see India
Hippocrates, i, 316
Hippolytus, the, i, 296
Hittites, i, 132

Holiness, the Hebrew conception,
ii, 218

Homer, portrayal of Phoenicians
by, i, 134; tradition of birth at
Smyrna, i, 147; origin of epics
and Mycenæan civilization, i, 147
et seq.; imagination of, i, 154;
the gods, i, 155 et seq.; future
life, i, 161; thoughts on life, i,
163; conception of fate and its
relation to the gods, i, 165 et seq.;
ethics, i, 176 et seq.; full humanity
disclosed by, i, 179; ii, 386;
conception of beauty, i, 184 et
seq.; realization of man's great-
ness, i, 188; Achilles, 188 et seq.;
Odysseus, 188, 194 et seq.;
thought of honor, i, 242, note I;
praises wisdom as well as virtue,
i, 320; statues of, i, 365
Homeric and Virgilian pathos, ii,
32-40

Homeric epics, relation to Myce-

næan civilization, i, 146, et seq.
Homeric Hymns, i, 220, 355, note
Honor, Greek conception of, i, 241
et seq.

Horace, ii, 10, 17; Carmen Sæcu-
lare, ii, 23, 24; deification of the
Emperor, ii, 27; character and
literary models, ii, 41-43; sense
of pathos, ii, 44, 45; turns to
Stoicism and preaches virtue and
mental calm, ii, 46–49

Hosea, ii, 136, 138, 139, 142, 150
Hymns, Babylonian, i, 37; Ho-
meric, i, 220, 355, note

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Iamblichus, and the philosophy of
superstition, ii, 88, 89

Ideals, human, their function in hu-
man development, i, 5-10; indis-
tinct with primitive races, i, 10
Ideas, the, of Plato, i, 328
Ideographs, the early form of writ-
ing, i, 138

Idolatry, forbidden in Israel, ii, 222
Imagination, the artistic, i, 266
"Imitation," in tragedy, i, 287
Immanuel, ii, 152, 164, 171
Immortality, no true thought of in
Egypt, i, 16, 17, 32; see Future
life

Incantations, character of, i, 27; i,
35

Incarnation, the, ii, 274, 280
India, ancient, i, 58 et seq., the
Vedic Aryans, i, 58 et seq.; Vedic
poetry, i, 60; the gods, i, 61;
sense of sin, i, 63; Rita, i, 64;
future life, i, 66; origin of the
world, i, 66; Soma and Agni, i,
67 et seq.; sacrifices, i, 67 et seq.;
symbolism and subjectivity, i, 67
et seq.; Yajur Veda, i, 70; Brah-
ma and prayer, i, 71; death and
transmigration, i, 72 et seq.;
Upanishads, i, 72 et seq., Brah-
ma, the absolute, i, 73 et seq.;
the Atma, i, 71 et seq.; popular
religion, i, 78; epics, i, 78;
Brahman ethics, i, 79; hermits
and ascetic penances, i, 80; law-
books, i, 79 et seq.; Karma, i, 82;
result of Indian thought, i, 102;
position in human development,
ii, 380, 402; see Buddhism
Individualism, in later Greek times,
i, 350; in Israel of the exile, ii,
161, note

Individuality, human, retained in
the Christian scheme, ii, 307
Individuality of races, i, 6; i, 127
Indo-Germanic, i, 59; see Aryans
Indra, Indian god, i, 61, 69, 71
Infinite, the Indian yearning for, i,
71-75, 102

Institutes, of Justinian, ii, 54
Intent, as determining guilt, i, 215
Ion, the, i, 296, 353

Ionians, migration of, i, 147

Iran, the Avesta land, its character,
i, 104; see Avesta

Iranians, resemblances to

Vedic

Aryans, i, 104-106; see Persians
Isaac, ii, 124

Isaiah, ii, 136, 137, 151, 152, 153,
154

Ishtar's Descent, i, 19, note; i, 37
Isocrates, extract from his Helen, i,
252

Israel, sphere of and characteristics,

ii, 97, 381-384; stories of the
patriarchs, ii, 99, 123; early
conception of Jehovah, ii, 99;
writing, ii, 100; Exodus and
resulting thought of God, ii,
IOI; Moses, ii, 102-105; deca-
logue, ii, 103; Canaanitish in-
fluences, ii, 106; the Judges, ii,
106, 107; Samuel and the ques-

tion of a king, ii, 107; Saul, ii,
108, 109; David, ii, 109-116;
the time of Solomon, ii, 117;
early laws and ethics of the Hexa-
teuch, i, 118-121, 123; the early
two-fold religious consciousness,
ii, 121; the covenant with Jeho-
vah, ii, 122; the consecration of
deliverance and its permitted self-
assertion, ii, 124-128; prophetic
lessons; Elijah, ii, 129, 130; the
prophetic character and function,
ii, 131; the completing of Israel's
religion, ii, 133; Jehovah's power
of righteousness, ii, 134; pro-
phetic monotheism, ii, 135; Jeho-
vah's love, ii, 137; Jehovah a
law of righteousness, ii, 140;
Deuteronomy, ii, 144, 217; Mes-
sianic prophecy, ii, 146 et seq. and
229-231; the Messiah-King, ii,
147-154; the servant of Jehovah,
ii, 154-165; the Last Judgment,
ii, 167, 229; restoration from exile
and the presence of Jehovah, ii,
168-171; artist qualities of as
compared with those of Greece,
ii, 172, 200; the Psalms, ii, 172–
201; wisdom-literature (Chokh-
mah), ii, 202; Proverbs, ii, 202-
208; Job, ii, 208-214; Ecclesias-
tes (Koheleth), ii, 214-216; the
Law, ii, 216-222; later Judaism,
ii, 223-231; relation to Christian-
ity, ii, 234-238

J

Jacob, ii, 99, 100, 124, 126
Jehovah, Israel's pattern and stand-
ard of right, ii, 97 et seq., and
chapters xvii-xxi, passim; the
early conception, ii, 99 ; influence
of the Exodus, ii, 101; his cove-
nant with Israel, ii, 122; pro-
phetic teachings as to his nature,
ii, 129-140; his love of Israel, ii,
137, 154; Jehovah a law of right-
eousness for Israel, ii, 140; the
servant of, ii, 154-165; presence
of, in Israel, ii, 169-171; the
thought of in the Psalter, ii, 175;
his love in the Psalter, ii, 178;
personality of, influence on Chris-
tianity, ii, 236, 400
Jeremiah, ii, 154

Jews, under the empire, ii, 31, 396;
Christians hated as and by, ii,

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