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whilst they are good, will necessitate others to buy them with much labour of other kinds. For if one man could raise corn enough for the whole better than any one man, then that man would have the natural monopoly of corn, and could exact more labour for it in exchange, than if ten others raised ten times as much corn as is necessary; which would make other labour so much the dearer, as men were less under the need of engaging upon it.

* 2. By this way we might recover our lost clothtrade, which by the same the Dutch got from us. By this way the East Indians furnish us, from the other end of the world, with linen cheaper than ourselves can make them with what grows at our own doors. By this means we might fetch flax from France, and yet furnish them with linen (that is) if we make no more than we can vend, but so much with the fewest hands and cheapest food, which will be also when food is raised by fewer hands than elsewhere.

• 3. I answer, generally, we should employ ourselves by raising such commodities, as would yield and fetch in money from abroad; for that would supply any wants of ours from the same, or any other place at all times : which stores of domestic commodities could not effect, whose value is to call a temporary (i. e.) which are of value but pro hìc et nunc. • •4. But · When should we rest from this great industry?' I answer, when we have certainly more money than any of our neighbour-states (though never so little) both in arithmetical and geometrical proportion, i. e., when we have more years' provision aforehand, and more present effects.

65. What then shall we busy ourselves about ?? I answer, in ratiocinations upon the works and will of God, to be supported not only by the indolency but also by the pleasure of the body, and not only by the tranquillity but serenity of the mind : -and this exercise is the natural end of man in this world, and that which best disposeth him for his spiritual happiness in that other which is to come. The motions of the mișd, being the quickest of all others, afford most variety, wherein is the very form and being of plea- . sure: and by how much the more we have of this pleasure, by so much the more we are capable of it even ad infinitum.'

297

GEORGE VILLIERS, THE YOUNGER, SECOND DUKE OF BUCKINGHAM OF THAT NAME.*

[1627–1688.]

THIS accomplished courtier, at once the ornament and the disgrace, the envy and the ridicule of his contemporaries, was the son and heir of the unfortunate statesman, the first Duke of Buckingham of the name, whose Life has already been recorded in these volumes. He was born at Wallingford House in Westminster, in 1627, and was little more than sixteen months old at the assassination of his father, “ from whom (says Fairfax) he inherited the greatest title, as he did from his mother f the greatest estate, of any subject in England; and from them both so graceful a body, as gave lustre to the ornaments of his mind.” He was educated for some years, under the direction of his mother, by private tutors at home, and at a proper age sent with his brother Lord Fran

* AUTHORITIES. Wood's Athene Oxonienses, Fairfax's Memoirs of the Life of G. Villiers, 1758; Burnet's History of his Own Times, and Biographia Britannica.

+ Lady Catharine Manners, sole daughter and heiress of Francis Earl of Rutland, through whom Helmsley passed from the male line of the Manners' family. The present Duke of Rutland is Baron Roos of Hamlake, or Helmsley,

cis Villiers to Trinity College, Cambridge. How long they remained at the University, before they proceeded under the care of a Mr. Salisbury upon their travels, is uncertain; but he did not return to England till after the commencement of the civil war, when he and his brother repaired to Charles I. at Oxford, and distinguished themselves soon afterward by their activity in the royal cause, particularly in storming the Close at Litchfield. For this, the Parliament seized upon their estates, but restored them in consideration of their youth. They were now committed to the care of the Earl of Northumberland, and travelled in France and Italy, where they lived in great state; principally at Florence and Rome, whence however they brought their religion home again, untainted by the doctrines of the Catholic church.*

In 1648, they appeared again in arms for their Sovereign, under the standard of the Earl of Holland, when he was engaged by Fairfax himself, near Kingston in Surrey. In this action Lord Francis, having had his horse slain under him, placed himself against an oak tree in the highway, and scorning to ask quarter, valiantly defended himself with his sword, till he received nine wounds in his beautiful face and body, thus gallantly falling a victim to his loyalty in the twentieth year of his age.f

* The preceding Lord Roos not only changed his religion at Rome, but also left his tutor in the Inquisition, for having translated King James' • Admonition to Princes,' into Latin, and Duplessis Mornay's "Book of the Mass' into English. < f A few days before his death, this noble youth had ordered his steward to bring him in a list of his debts, which he so secured upon his estate, that they were discharged on it's seizure by the parliament. His body was carried by water to York

The Duke, with great difficulty, escaped to St. Neot's in Huntingdonshire, as did also the Earl of Holland, who was there taken and beheaded. The next morning his Grace finding the house surrounded, and a troop of horse drawn up before the gate, mounted himself and his servants; and resolutely charging the enemy slew the commanding officer, fought his way through the corps, and subsequently joined the Prince of Wales, as he lay in the Downs with the ships which had deserted from the Earl of Warwick. The Parliament now required him to surrender within the space of forty days; and on his refusal confiscated his estate, amounting to 25,0001. per ann. Upon this he retired to Holland, and subsisted for some time on the sale of his pictures * at Antwerp; previously to which, Parliament proposed to him to compound for his forfeiture at 20,0001., but he declined the offer.

In 1651, Buckingham who had attended Charles II. on his expedition to Scotland, and fought by his side at Worcester with signal bravery, though his Majesty had refused before the battle to transfer to him the command from the Scottish General, had the good fortune once more to escape from the enemy (engaged in

House in the Strand, and being there embalmed, was deposited in his father's vault in Henry VII.'s Chapel.

* This costly collection, purchased by his father in Italy through the friendly assistance of Sir Henry Wotton and other English gentlemen, on the walls of York House had engrossed the admiration of connoisseurs ; and had thence been secretly conveyed to him by John Traylınan, a trusty old servant vho had the care of that mansion. The • Ecce Homoof Titian was singly valued at 50001., including portraits of all the great persons of his time. It was purchased by one of the Archdukes, and is now in the castle of Prague.

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