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lately introduced, has obtained a decided preference, and is now almost universally in use *.

Upon the wet grounds, the seed time is often retarded by rains. In the year 1795, many of the farmers had it not in their power to begin the sowing of oats till the month of ~ May; but this year, viz. 1796, some oats have been sown in the first week of March—the one the latest, and the other perhaps the earliest seed time that is remembered. In ordinary seasons, the sowing of oats is begun in the first week of . April, barley in the first week of May, and wheat about the middle of September. The improvement of the soil, and the praćtice of a more regular husbandry, have rendered our harvest season somewhat earlier than formerly. It is common to begin cutting wheat about the end of August; barley in the beginning of September ; and the other corn in course, without intermitting the harvest work. The average. crop of oats upon a Scotch acre is 5 bolls; of barley 7; of , wheat 9, all Linlithgow measure. About 1 boll and 2 pecks of oats produce a boll of meal. The average price of oat . meal, barley, and Pease, is 15 S. for the boll ; of wheat, one , guinea f. s Nearly all the farms are inclosed and subdivided with , ditches and hawthorn hedges, but all the inclosures of this kind are hitherto insufficient; and this, it is believed, must continue to be the case, till much more effectual means be employed for protećting and rearing the young hedges, and especially for saving their shoots from being croped by the

- farmer's

* The plough alluded to does not appear to have any distinguishing name that is generally known. It is not Small's plough. * t These may perhaps be accounted the average prices, without making allowance for the extraordinary prices of crops 1794 and 1795.


farmer's cattle. At present, the insufficiency of the inclo-
sures appears to be attended with less inconvenience, because
there is very little of the land in the state of pasturage; but
perhaps the want of sufficient, inclosures is one great reason
why the pasture fields are so few ; for wherever there is in-
tlosed ground in the neighbourhood, the proprietor finds it
in his power, by keeping it in pasture, and letting it annually
for the season, to draw such a high rent as is out of all due
proportion to the rent of corn land.
The valued rent of the parish is 49.21 1. Scotch money";
the real rent, about 3200 l. Sterling. The average rent of
the Scotch acre is about 15 s. Sterling.

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tages to the manufacturer in other departments; and accordingly a bleachfield, under the firm of Richardson and Co. whose buildings and machinery were erected here in the year 1775, has become a very large and important concern... The brown cloth to be bleached is brought chiefly from Perth. Dundee, Dunfermline, Edinburgh, and Glasgow; but such is the increasing character of the field, and the high reputation of the acting partner of the company, that, for some years past, a confiderable quantity of diapers in particular, have been regularly sent to him from Darlington in England. About 7o Scotch acres are commonly covered with cloth, and the work employs or maintains about 1oo men, women, and children. There are also some other fields in this parish, employed as bleaching ground, in connection with a work, whose buildings and machinery are in the parish of Perth". And it ought not, perhaps, here, to remain unobserved, that at present the quantity of cloth bleached in the neighbourhood of Perth, far exceeds the quantity that is woven or otherwise manufactured in the town and distrićt around. This would lead us to presume, either that there must be something in the situation peculiarly favourable to the operation of bleaching, or that nothing is wanted but equal enterprise in the other departments: And that the last supposition may be the just one, is rendered probable, by the uncommon success of some late attempts, of which a remarkable example naturally presents itself in the case of a printfield, under the firm of 2 oung, Ross, Richardson, and Cawt, which was established in this parish upon the same canal, so lately as the year 1792, and has already become an object of such importance, as to be entitled to a distinguished place - - - in - * Tulloch bleachfield, upon the same canal. + Ruthven printfield.

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gave way to this more important work on the fite of it; and

additional ground having been procured, as well as ad-
ditional houses, erected, the work, already employs about
250 men, women, and children. The spirit and success, with
which the business is. here condućted, may be judged of by
the following instance : In the year 1793, when the general
stagnation of credit, and the want of market for cotton goods
in particular, induced many of the principal manufacturers,
either to dismiss a part of their working people, or to restrićt
their employment to 3 or 4 days in the week, the managers
of this printfield, though then but an infant Company, re-
jećted such an expedient, and at the same time adopted
another well worthy of being imitated, if the same necessity
fhould again occur. Instead of dismissing any of their people,
or restrićting their days of working, they made a small re-
dućtion, for the time, in the rate of wages, which enabled
them more easily to keep the usual number of hands in con-
stant employment; and while, in this way, the earnings of
the working people were less impaired, the full benefit of
their industry was preserved to the public, and the vices that
arise from idleness happily prevented. This work derives
much advantage from the staple manufacture of the country
around being cloth of such kinds as are adapted to the pur-
pose of printing, and from a safe, regular, and expeditious
conveyance of goods to the London market, by means of the
small vessels that are employed in carrying salmon from the
port of Perth. Befides these things, the whole country
around Perth affords peculiar encouragement to manufactu-
rers of every description, from the average prices of corn and
butcher's meat being here confiderably lower than in the west
of Scotland, which is at present the principal seat of manu-
fačtures,—an advantage naturally derived from the superior

extent and fertility of the country, compared to the popula: tion of the town and its neighbouring villages. The high price of coals is perhaps the only peculiar disadvantage that attends the manufacturers of this distrićt ; and even this disadvantage has been confiderably lessened by the wisdom of the Legislature, in abolishing the duty upon sea-borne English coals, , Wages—The average yearly wages of a ploughman are 91, and of a maid servant 31, with board or maintenance to each; the average day wages of a callico printer are 3 s. of a bleacher 1 s." ; , of an ordinary labourer is and 2 d. all without board. , Ecclesiassical State.—The church, which is an ola building, has been lately repaired and rendered convenient... The gmanse was built in the year 1744, and has been repaired at different times, The stipend, in consequence of a late augmentation, confists of 8 chalders of meal and bear, and 35 l. sterling, together with Iool. Scots of communion elementmoney. The King is patron. The ministers, from the reformation downwards, have been Alexander Young +, Alexander Balneavis, sen. Alexander Balneavis, jun. #, David Meldrum,

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