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(PRESBy rer Y AND County of PERTH.—SYNon of

By the Rev. Mr John INGL1s, Minffer.


MONG strangers, and in the common almanacks of .

the country, the name of this parish is Tippermuir,

but the orthography adopted in the title, which is universally

in use among the inhabitants, is abundantly justified by ancient writings. and the probable etymology of the name., In a charter granted to the monastery of Scone, in the reign of William the Lion *, it is written with the Latin termination Tibbirmora, and in Fordun's History of Scotland, it

is Tybirmore : Conformably to this ancient orthography, the

name is understood to be compounded of two Gaelic words, tuber and more, which signify a large well, referring probably to a plentiful spring of water immediately adjoining to the church-yard.

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* Sea the chartulary of Scone in the Advocate's Library.

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4erer, Soil, Proprietors, and Cultivation.—The parish contains about 4670 Scotch acres; of these 18; are under wood ; 96 are part of an extensive moss, which furnishes the furrounding inhabitants with peats for fuel; 100 more are in the state of uncultivated heath; and the remainder,

about 4289, are all arable ground. The cultivated land contains several varieties of soil. Towards the east, upon the banks of the Almond, it is a sandy loam 3 near to the town of Perth, somewhat of a clayey consistence; and upon the higher grounds, more light and thin, with a gravelly bottom. Towards the west, the bottom is rather cold, and generally tilly, which occasions many of the fields to be wet ; but the surface soil is. notwithstanding, tolerably fertile ; and though, in some places, it partakes a - little

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little of the nature of moss, the greater part may be classed under one or other of the different kinds of loam.

The whole parish, excepting about 500 acres, is the property of the Duke of Athol and the Earl of Kinnoull; and the land is cultivated by about 60 farmers, great and small, in a thriving condition. In no place, perhaps, are the late rapid improvements in agriculture more remarkably examplified than in this particular parish. About 30 years ago, it was distinguished by its poverty; at present, its surface exhibits to the eye a rich and fertile prospect, and the increased wealth of the inhabitants very properly appears in their improved manner of living. It is also pleasant to remark, that the spirit for agricultural improvement still appears to keep pace with, if it does not even anticipate, the farmer's acquifition of wealth. In one particular view, indeed, the charaćter of the farmer's mind has undergone a most important and happy change: Formerly, he was so obstinately prejudiced in favour of the practice of his fathers. that he could not listen, without a sneer, to any suggestion relative to new improvements; now his prejudices are so completely removed, that he is eager to know and understand whatever improvements others are attempting, and even to adopt such as appear to be reasonable, though at first upon that small scale which prudence undoubtedly dićtates. What better subječt could the Agricultural Society desire to cultivate, than a farmer's mind in this particular state "I

Vol. XVII. 4 I. The

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The principal crops are oats, barley or bear, and clover with rye-grass. Wheat also, though not hitherto universally cultivated, is becoming every year more common. A prejudice was long entertained against sowing wheat upon fields that are naturally wet, from an idea that such a soil, when swelled with the winter rains, would be apt to cast out the roots of the young plants ; but experience has clearly shewn that this objećtion, however specious in theory, is not entitled to much pračtical regard;—where early sowing has been attended to, the wetness of the soil has seldom, if ever, proved fatal to the crop of wheat. Pease and beans having been found precarious crops, are rather less cultivated than they were some time ago. Turnips, though not altogether neglečted, are neither a general crop, nor raised in great quantities. Where the fields are wet, the farmer is afraid of poaching the soil, in carting them off during the winter; befides, the consumption of the butcher market of Perth is by no means equal to the supply of fat cattle which the wide and rich country around is capable of affording; and many farmers, who might otherwise have large fields of turnips, are thereby induced to content themselves with such a quantity as they find to be useful in rearing their young stock. The quantity of potatoes is inconfiderable, being cultivated chiefly for family use. Flax is by no means a crop high in the farmer's estimation; befides the trouble attending it, it has

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has the peculiar disadvantage of adding nothing to the dunghill, which must undoubtedly be an important objection with farmers who purchase dung in the town of Perth, at the rate

of 3 s, or 4 - for the cart load, and afterwards carry it in

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