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* They seem to have been construćled mostly with dry stones, dug from the quarries near them, because no other cement, excent ciay or mud, was known in this part of the world, at the time they were built. They were uniformly situated near a jpring of water, or a running brook, and commanded an extenfive prospect towards all points except the north, from which quarter, it is probable, no danger was apprehended.
f The land of hill. Bor and tor signify a hill; hence all the torreys are hilly.
l, I e groin. All the tars are at the bottom of hills.
** It appears highly probable, that this chain of forts was church of Lecropt, a hill, where the baron used to hold his court, during the prevalence of the feudal system. The Gallow Hill is near the Court Hill ".
Advantages and Ds, vantages —The advantages are, our vicinity to the ularket of Stirling, where the parishioners can purchase any connolitics they stand in need of, and get a good price and ready inoney, for whatever they can spare for sale. They are near pictity of coal, which contributes to their Gomestic comfort; and abundance of cheap lime enables them to improve their ground.—Bad roads are a great disadvantage. Another inconvenience, no less severely felt, is the want of good water in the Carse. There is but one small rivulet in the parish, which is employed in carrying away the moss. There are some springs immediately below the Ba::::, at at the head of the clay land; but in this, and all other large tracts of horizontal land, whatever be the nature of the soil, there can be no springs, for a very obvious reason. pans are erected into a burgh of barony, with the usual liberties and privileges. The West Barony is that of PrestonGrange. The writer of this account has not been able to learn in whose favour, or at what period, the charter ere&ting it was granted.—The soil is loam ; part heavy, on a clay bottom; part light, on a sandy or gravelly bottom. The climate is mild. There are no local distempers. The most prevalent are fevers, chiefly those of the putrid and nervous kind. The gravel is said to have been very common about 4o or 50 years ago.
built by the Caledonians, to watch the motions of the troops stationed on the Roman wall, betwixt Borrowstounness and Gii Kilpatrick, begun by A cricola after his irruption into the north in the year 79, and completed by AN ros is us Pius. The Caledonian line was about 3 or 4 hours march, in most places, from the Roman wall; and this chain of forts, whether it was construšted by Galo Acus, who was no less sagacious than rave, or by his successor, was planned with consuminate judge ment, not only for the reason already mentioned ; but because this is the narrowest tract of Scotland that the Romans ever vosited, and therefore the most easily defended, and a so, because there are few fords in the river, which runs in the slrath lying on the south ; and, if Moss Flanders then existed, it must have been an impassable morass, and a good barrier, as far as it extended, on the Caledonian frontier.
* According to the summary proceedings of those times, /**tence of death, execution, and interment, followed one another in such rapid succession, that graves, gallows hills, and ot, or court hilis, are sound contiguous, not only here, but every where else. The court hills are called mö's, or mot hills, from the Gaelic word mo, or mod, which, to this day, is the only word for a czart of judicature in that language.
Charaśler, Dres, &c.—The people are remarkable for their decency and sobriety. None have been banished, or have suffered the higher pains of law, in any other respect, for miscondućt, in the memory of man. Remote from the temptations and lurking places of great towns, where the profligate expect to elude the eye of the world, and to escape the lash of the law, in a crowded population, every man confiders himself as known to his neighbours, and that he has both his own reputation, and the credit of his ancestors, to support by his condućt. Habits of industry have become familiar to the people, whatever objećt they have in view. In literature they have not been deficient, when their genius led them to the pursuit of study, and the improvement of the mind. One minister, one preacher, and three students, now alive, drew their first breath in this parish.-A remarkable change has lately taken place in the article of dress. The love of show is natural; and imaginary wants are sometimes no less clamorous than those which are real. But, if the increase of their earnings do not furnish the labouring part of mankind with this increase of luxury, their savings, upon which they are to begin the world, must be less at present than when their
wages were more moderate, and their clothing less expenfive.
Agriculture.—The rotation of crops, most approved of at present, is a white and green crop alternately. Fallowing is little practised. The land is cleared of weeds, by sowing in drills, and horse-hoeing the interstices; and women are often employed to pick them out with the hand. The land designed for wheat is ploughed as soon as it is cleared of the preceding crop. If the land is heavy, the wheat is sown about the middle of Oétober; if light, about the beginning of Nov. The land defigned for oats, pease, and beans, is plowed in February. Oats are sown about the end of March and beginning of April. If the land is dry, pease and beans are fown in drills as early as possible in February ; when broadcast, they are sown early in March. When pease and beans are to be sown in drills, sometimes the land gets two plowings, the first after harvest, the second at the time of sowing, the seed being thrown into every third furrow. The land designed for barley is three times plowed. The first plowing takes place immediately after harvest; the second in the spring, as soon as the land is dry, commonly at the end of March or beginning of April. If the land be sufficiently dry, March is reckoned preferable. After this second
plowing it is harrowed. The third plowing takes place