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(County of W1G Tan.—Presby TERY of Wigton.— - AND SYNoD of Gallow AY.)
From communications obhgingly procured for this work, by the
Rev. DR Davidson of Whithorn, from Rober 1 Haw
THoRN Stew Art Esq; of Physgill, Matthew CAMPBELL, Esq; and other Gentlemen.
southern parts. The hills are rocky, and, for the most part, covered
continued: Snow seldom accumulates to a great depth, or lies long upon the ground. Some small streams, and many springs, serve to water the parish ; but it is neither bounded nor interse&ted by any great river. Upon the rock within the sea-mark, at a place called Monreith, there grows a confiderable abundance of those manure plants, which are frequently burnt for the sake of the kelp or alkali of their ashes; but little of that species which are employed in agriculture, as a rich manure, is to be seen on this part of the coast. Wild Animalt.—The fox, the weasel, the otter, the hare, the mouse, the mole, are almost the only species of wild four footed animals now remaining in this parish. The adder is
the only formidable reptile. The wild fowls are numerous,
Heritory.-Sir William Maxwell of Monreith, the heirs of the late Admiral Keith Stewart, the Earl of Galloway, Robert Hawthorn Stewart, Esq; of Physgill, and Stewart, Esq; of Castle Stewart, are the principal heritors. Mr Hawthorn Stewart of Physgill is the chief refident herir tor, -
Farmers.—The greater part of the inhabitants are usually employed in the labours of husbandry, as farmers, houseservants, cottagers hired by the year, or day-labourers. The farmers hold their poss.ffions, for the most part, by leases, varying in duration commonly from the term of three to 19, or 21 years. For the green low arable lands of the parish, the yearly rent varies, at an average, from 8s, to il. 10 s. an acre. The heath covered moors affording, at an average, not more than from 2 s. 6d. to 7 s. an acre of yearly rent. The farms differ in extent, and in the sum of the annual rent to the landlord, some yielding not more than 20 l. or 301, while others pay between 2001. and 3ool.
a-year. Black Cattle.—In the rural oeconomy of the farmers in the parish of Glasserton, the first objećt is, the breeding and feeding of black cattle. These are commonly of the well known Galloway race, not without some occasional intermixture
mixture of the Irish and English breeds. But the pure Gal. loway race is preferred to all others. The calves are as reared. For the first eight months of its life, the calf is usually left to suck its mother's milk. After attaining the full age of one year, it obtains the name of a stirk, and is sold to the cattle dealers at the average price of 2 l. los. or 31. At the age of three years, the bullocks and heifers of this parish, are sold often at the rate of 7 l. or 8 1. a-head. The common price for well grown and well fed oxen, at the age of four years, is from 9 l. to 1 1 1. each. Old cows, when it is no longer eligible to keep them for producing calves and giving milk, are sold at the price of 81. or lol. each, to be fattened for the butcher. The green or heathy pasture of the fields; cut grass while it is still green and unwithered; potatoes and turnips, straw and hay, are the several sorts of food with which these cattle are nourished. They are here and there wintered in sheds, and cow-houses, as well to preferve them from suffering by the inclemency of the season, as that the refuse of their forage and litter, mixed with their dung, may accumulate for manure to the ground under titlage. As much of the milk is consumed by the calves, the quantity of the butter and cheese annually made is smaller in proportion to the number of the milk-cows, than in the parishes of Ayrshire.
Agriculture.—Tillage for the produćtion of grains and bulbous rooted vegetables, is, in its importance, the second ob. jećt of attention, and source of profit, to the farmers of this parish. Lime imported from Whitehaven; marl dug from those pits which are now nearly exhausted; dung; and composts of dung, earth, and lime, are the manures employed to fertilize the soil. From one fifth to one third part of the arable ground of every farm is annually plowed; the re